Fulgentius the Mythographer: An Annotated Bibliography

Maintained by Gregory Hays, University of Virginia

INTRODUCTION. This bibliography is still in progress and was last updated on June 28, 2019 (see foot of page for information on recent updates). Note that some items to be found in the bibliography of J. Préaux are not listed below, either because the listing in Préaux is erroneous or because the mention of Fulgentius is not substantial enough to warrant inclusion. Click here for a (not yet complete) list of these excluded items. J-STOR links have been added for entries where available; note that these will only work if your institution subscribes to J-STOR. Google Books links have been added where a full-view copy is available.]

Fulgentius's works are abbreviated as follows: Mit. = Mitologiae; Cont. = Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae; Serm. = Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum; Aet. = De aetatibus mundi et hominis.

Additions and corrections to the bibliography are very welcome. Attention is drawn in particular to Section V below (Work in Progress).

The bibliography is organized as follows:

I. Text and Transmission

II. General Topics III. Individual Works IV. Reception

V. Work in Progress

I. Text and Transmission

Text, Commentaries etc.

Pio, G.B. Fulgentius. Enarrationes allegoricae fabularum (Milan, 1498). [Google Books]

Text of Mit. and Serm. (= editio princeps for both); Mit. has extensive commentary; no commentary for Serm. [See also Venuti]

Locher, Jacob. ("Philomusus"). Fulgentius Placiades [sic] in Mythologiis (Augsburg, 1521). [Google Books]

Text of Mit. with extensive commentary.

Muncker, Thomas., Mythographi Latini (1681) [Google Books]

Text (Mit., Cont. and Serm.) with commentary; the latter is silent on many points that require explication, but contains much useful material.
Staveren, A. van, ed. Auctores Mythographi Latini (1742). [Google Books]
Reprints Muncker's ed. with occasional additions (clearly differentiated).
Helm, Rudolf, ed. Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera (Leipzig, 1898, rpr. Stuttgart, 1970) [Google Books]
The 1970 reprint has an updated bibliography by  J. Préaux, but is otherwise unchanged.
       Reviews: Concordance.

Manca, Massimo. ed. Concordantia Fulgentiana , 2 vols. (Hildesheim, 2003).

Based on Helm's text, and keyed to his page and line numbers (with book numbers for Mit. and Aet.). Also includes a reverse word-index and statistics for recurring phrases.


Whitbread, L.G., tr., Fulgentius the Mythographer (Columbus, Ohio, 1971).

       The introduction and notes are unreliable but not wholly without value. The "translation" is all but worthless.


Cf. also under individual works below.

Manuscript tradition

Manuscripts digitized online. (Helm's sigla given where available; Hays's sigla correspond to Helm's except as noted).

[NB: this section does not include catalogue entries for individual manuscripts. A full handlist of manuscripts by G. Hays is in progress].

Albi, Veronica. "Tradizione manoscritta e ricezione delle Mythologiae di Fabio Planciade Fulgenzio tra i secc. IX-XIV," Eruditio Antiqua 10 (2018), 137-158.

Examines surviving manuscripts of Mit. from the 9th to the 14th century with the ultimate goal of establishing whether the work was available to Dante and his contemporaries (hence the exclusion of 15th-c. manuscripts). Provides a list of 41 manuscripts of Mit. that fall within these chronological limits, including several not known to Helm and Venuti (in her 2009 dissertation; nearly all are registered in her 2018 edition of the Mit. Prologue).* Mit. is not, as one might have expected, transmitted primarily with other mythographic works. If we exclude manuscripts containing only F. and purely heterogeneous compilations, two distinct groups emerge. One comprises "manoscritti filosofico-morali e teologici" (143); these suggest that medieval readers took seriously F.'s claim to purvey philosophic truths. The other group consists of "codici grammaticali" (148); this categorization is also reflected in the placement of Mit. in medieval library catalogues. In sum, "si tratta di un autore tutt'altro che marginale e tutt'altro che definibile a mezzo dell'angusta etichetta di mitografo" (152).

*Some corrections to Albi's numbered list: 7). Vatican Pal. lat. 1579 should be deleted; it contains Cont., but not Mit13). Trier, Bibliothek des Priesterseminars 100 is bolded as a new addition, but it is Helm's T.  19). Vat. Reg. lat. 1462 dates to the 9th c., not the 11th.  34). the 14th-c. MS listed as "Admont, Benediktinerstift, cod. 483" should be deleted; it is now Chicago, Newberry Library MS 31.1 and contains not Mit. but the De imaginibus deorum41). Vatican Vat. lat. 3110 should be deleted; it contains Cont., but not Mit. Some manuscripts that appear to meet Albi's criteria are not listed: Leiden, BPL 17 (s. XIII); Munich, BSB Clm 686 (s. XI); Munich BSB Clm 29980/78 + Bayerische Haputstaatsarchiv KL Ransh. 3 (s. XII); Paris, Arsenal 1225 (s. XII); Paris BnF lat. 4969 (s. XIV); Valenciennes, BM 397 (s. XIII); Vatican Urb. lat. 355 (s. XIV).

Delisle, Léopold. "Un ancien manuscrit des oeuvres de Fulgentius Planciades," Journal des Savants (1899), 126-9. [Google Books]

On fragments of a Fulgentian MS used as binding material in a manuscript from the abbey of Saint-Amand.
Ghisalberti, Fausto. "Mitografi latini e retori medievali in un codice cremonese del secolo XIV," Archivum Romanicum 7 (1923), 95-154.
Discusses Cremona, Biblioteca Governativa MS 129 which contains a text of Mit. along with Alberic, Giovanni del Virgilio on Ovid and commentaries on Vergil and Lucan by Folchino de Borfoni. The text of Mit. is discussed at 103-109. It belongs to Helm's [beta] group, and is close to G and E but apparently independent of both, and perhaps copied from a MS close to H and M. Includes partial collation.
Jungmann, Emil. "Quaestiones Fulgentianae," Act. Soc. Philol. Lips. 1 (1871) 43-74.
Two sections: 1. De Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii aetate et scriptis; 2. De artis criticae praesidiis. Lists MSS of Mitologiae and Continentia, and attempts a stemma for each. Concludes with a brief note on the ending of the Continentia (not unfinished as Zink believed). [A third installment promised 'in proximo fasciculo' seems never to have appeared].
Lehmann, Paul. "Fulgentiana," Rheinisches Museum 61 (1906) 107-116.
Describes Kassel Landsbibliothek theol. fol. 49, 120v-153r, a 10th c. Fulda MS not known to Helm and probably copied from the same exemplar as Helm's T.
Lehmann, Paul. Franciscus Modius als Handschriftenforscher (Munich, 1908). [Google Books]
Material relating to Fulgentian MSS at pp. 48; 83; 106; 121.
Lehmann, Paul. "Eine vermeintliche Entdeckung," Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift 34 (1914), 990.
The "lost work" Fulgentii de musica excerptum ex libro de ficticiis poetarum, identified by K. Sittl from a medieval library catalogue and mentioned in the 6th ed. of Teuffel's history of Roman literature is not, in fact lost, and turns out to be merely an excerpt from Book III of the Mitologiae. [This correction had already been made by R. Reitzenstein; see below].
Lindsay, W.M. "The (Early) Lorsch Scriptorium," Palaeographia Latina 3 (1924), 5-48.
Notes on various Fulgentian MSS, especially with regard to dating.
Modius, Franciscus. Novantiquae lectiones tributae in epistolas centum (Frankfurt, 1584). [Google Books]
Textual notes on various authors, framed as letters to patrons and friends. Emends the vulgate text of F. on the basis of a 13th c. MS then at Comburg (now Stuttgart, Würtemburgische Landesbibliothek, Theol. Phil. 4o 159 = Hays's S). Modius also had access to manuscripts at Gembloux and Cologne (the latter now London BL Harley 2685). Fulgentian material is distributed as follows:
Epist. 61 distinguishes between mythographer and bishop.
Oehler, F. “Collation der Gothaer Pergamenthandschrift nro. M. n. 50 Fol. (saec. 13) des Fulgentius De Continentia Virgiliana nach der Ausgabe von Staveren,” Archiv für Philologie und Pädagogik 15 (1849), 95-99. [Google Books]

As title suggests, a straightforward collation. The manuscript is now Gotha. Forschungs- und Landesbibliothek. Memb. I 55, and also contains a text of Mit. (not collated by Oehler).

Pennisi, Giuseppe, "Cod. Vat. Regin. Lat. 61, 93r-95r," Helikon 3 (1963), 500-504
Description and collation of a previously unknown MS of Serm.
Reitzenstein, R. "Des Fulgentius Schrift über die Musik," Hermes 28 (1898), 159-160.

Sittl's discovery in a catalogue of the Biblioteca Vallicelliana of a supposed Fulgentian work De musica in fact refers to excerpts from the Mitologiae (1.15; 3.9-10). The manuscript is now Florence, BML Ashburnham 1051.

Riese, Alexander. "Zu Fulgentius," Rheinisches Museum 19 (1864), 297-301.
Collation of a 10th c. Berlin MS of the Serm. (see further Wessner, 77). Refutes Lersch's theory of a double recension and argues that the dedication to Catus found in some MSS is a simple scribal error [Click here for text].
van Rooij, Marc. "Notes sur les MSS Wolfenbüttel, Herz. Aug. Bibl., 23-24 Gudiani Latini (= 4328-4329)," Scriptorium 41 (1987), 127-8.
On the history of a MS of the Serm.
Silvestre, Hubert. "Notices et extraits des manuscrits 5413-22, 10098-105 et 10127-44 de la Bibliothèque Royale de Bruxelles," Sacris Erudiri 5 (1953), 174-192.
The second of the MSS listed contains a condensed version of De Aetatibus on fol. 10r-15r.
Vernet, M.T. "Notes de Dom André Wilmart sur quelques manuscrits Latins anciens de la Bibliothèque National de Paris," Bulletin d'Information de l'Institut de Récherche et d'Histoire des Textes 6 (1958), 7-40.
Pp. 37-39 discuss Paris BN 6503, which contains Mit. on fol. 40-47.
Wölfflin, Eduard. "Aus St. Galler handschriften," Philologus 34 (1876), 178f.
Item 3 in this miscellany reports on St. Gall Stiftsbibliothek 397 [s.X], which includes a condensed version of the Serm. [see further Wessner 79].

[Cf. also Ellis , Pennisi (1963) below]

Textual Criticism

Bücheler, Franz. "De idiotismis quibusdam Latinis," Rheinisches Museum 59 (1904), 34-41 = his Kleine Schriften (Leipzig, 1915-30), iii. 310-316.

Three passages of F. (Serm. 12; 57; Mit. p. 10. 15) are discussed at p. 36f. = 311f.
Ellis, Robinson "Fulgentiana," Journal of Philology 29 (1904) 61-71. [Google Books]
Textual notes on Mitologiae. Also includes a partial collation of two Bodleian Mss of the Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum.
Eussner, Adam. "Zu Fulgentius," Philologus 46 (1888), 249. [Click here for text]
At Aet. p. 177. 11 read Augustis for the MSS' angustiis.
Fuchs, Harald. "Textbereinigungen," Rheinisches Museum 113 (1970), 95.
At Mit. p. 13. 21 read me iacentem reperiens marcentia languore somni [lepido] lumina rapido <quodam> atque admodum splendifico intermicanti<s> [quodam] sui voltus coruscamine perpulit.
Hays, Gregory. "Varia Fulgentiana," Illinois Classical Studies 23 (1998), 127-137. [Click here for text in PDF format.]
Notes on various passages from Mit. and Aet. and on the title of Cont.
Hays, Gregory. "Three Passages in Fulgentius," Eranos 99 (2001), 100-102.
Notes on Mit. p. 9. 15ff.; Cont. p. 94. 11ff.; Aet. p. 161. 13ff.
Hays, Gregory. "Further Notes on Fulgentius," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 103 (2007), 483-498.

Notes on various passages from Mit., Cont. and Aet.

Hertz, Martin. "Miscellen," Jahrbücher für classische Philologie 17 (1871) 273. [Click here for text]

Löfstedt, Einar. Coniectanea. Untersuchungen auf dem Gebiete der Antiken und Mittelalterlichen Latinität (Uppsala and Stockholm, 1950).

p. 115 n. 4 discusses Cont. p. 94. 13 iuvenalis aetas paterni vigoris respuit pondera. Emendation to rigoris is unnecessary; vigor in this sense is well-attested in Late Latin.
Meyer-Lübke, Wilhelm. "Gibt es lat. reptare, fragumen, pugumentum ?" Rheinisches Museum 71 (1916), 579-581.
Helm's explanation of reptarent at Mit. p. 9. 23 is unconvincing; read reportarent with the corrector of M. At Cont. p. 84. 18 [misprinted as 64. 15] fragumen is merely a scribal slip for fragmen.
Munzi, Luigi. "Noterelle testuali," AION: Annali del Seminario di studi del mondo classico, Sezione linguistica 15 (1993), 181-188.
Includes a note on Aet. p. 131. 7 at 184-186. Plasberg's Rom<an>ae is ruled out by lipogrammatic considerations. Rather, the corrupt reading in V, sed et roora, may conceal sedulo ore.
Relihan, Joel. "Fulgentius, Mitologiae I.20-21," American Journal of Philology 109 (1988) 229-230. [J-STOR]
At Mit. p. 11. 10 for (non) aricinam read Nonacrinam (i.e. Callisto). [This conjecture had been anticipated by Ellis].
Rohde, Erwin. "Zu Apuleius," Rheinisches Museum 43 (1888), 467-471.
Includes a note on Mit. p. 67. 8: read et ille for the MSS' et ut.

II. General Topics


Articles in Reference Works, et sim.

Bisanti, Armando."Fulgentius Mythographus" in Compendium Auctorum Latinorum Medii Aevi (500-1500) (CALMA) iii (Florence, 2011), 604-606.

Mainly bibliographical. F. is distinguished from the bishop. Includes among F.'s lost works the carmina supposedly alluded to in the prologue to Mit. the Physiologus mentioned in Cont., and the commentary on Martianus Capella 1-2 listed in the 1412 library catalogue of Amplonius Ratinck.
Gersh, S. "Fulgentius (Fabius Planciades)" in R. Goulet, ed. Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques iii (Paris, 2000), 431-433.
Brief discussion focusing on Mit., Cont. and Serm. Agnostic on identity and date: "la necessité d'identifier les deux personnages [sc. mythographer and bishop] n'est pas encore établie." F.'s originality "réside dans le caractère condensé de son exposé et dans l'élaboration d'une allégorie systématique de l'Éneide."
Gruber, Joachim. "Fulgentius 2." Lexikon des Mittelalters IV, 1023-4.
Brief descriptions of works and bibliography. No judgment on identification with bishop ("heute wieder erwogen"). Cont. is credited with "pädagog. Absicht."
Hays, Gregory/Jocelyn, H.D., "Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades," Oxford Classical Dictionary, 4th ed., edd. S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth with E. Eidinow (Oxford, 2012), 593.
Revision/updating of article by Jocelyn in 3d ed. (below).
Hiltbrunner, Otto. "Fulgentius," Der Kleine Pauly, ed. K. Ziegler and W. Sontheimer (Munich, 1979) v.2, col. 628.
Mythographer and bishop receive separate entries: "Gegen die Identität spricht die Torheit des Mythographen, die dem Bischof kaum zuzutrauen ist."
Jocelyn, H.D. "Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades" in Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., edd. S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (Oxford, 1996), 613f.
Identification of mythographer and bishop is doubted; Super Thebaiden is ascribed to 12th or 13th c. In bibliography correct "Whitehead" to "Whitbread."
Langlois, Pierre. "Fulgentius," RAC v. 8 (1972), coll. 632-661.

Opens with mention of mythographer/bishop problem. An initial section surveys mythographic works (633-638). Questions about date and authorship of ST are noted, but L. clearly leans toward accepting it as authentic. Common authorship of Mit., Cont., Serm., Aet. and ST is suggested by common manuscript tradition and/or similarities of content (638-9). Arguments for date and location briefly rehearsed (639-40): F.'s familiarity with Martianus and Orosius suggest an African locale (no mention of references to Libya in Aet. prologue). L. accepts Helm's arguments for dating: "Die Mitologiae kann man ... an den Beginn der Herrschaft des Gunthamund ... setzen. Die übrigen Schriften dürften in der Folgezeit entstanden sein." A second section covers the life and works of the bishop (640-653). A final section addresses the mythographer's possible identity with the bishop (653-659) from a unitarian perspective: possibility of misattribution in manuscripts (653); evidence of the bishop's biographers (653f.); medieval unitarians (654f.); manuscript tituli (655f.); differences of content and ethos (656-8); stylistic differences (658-9); knowledge of Greek (659). This section is essentially a recapitulation of L's 1964 article and adds no new evidence or arguments.

Martindale, J.R., ed. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. 2 (Cambridge, 1980).

The mythographer is Fulgentius 3."To judge by his names he was related to, if not identical with, the bishop of Ruspe, Fulgentius 2. ... perhaps flourished under Hilderic."
Moreschini, Claudio. and E. Norelli, Storia della letteratura cristiana antica greca et latina. II. Dal concilio di Nicea agli inizi del Medioevo (Brescia, 1996).
The entry for Fulgentius of Ruspe includes a brief appendix on the mythographer (p. 657), mentioning only Mit. and Cont. "Gli interessi che emergono dalle opere di Fulgenzio di Ruspe difficilmente possono essere posti in accordo con quelli del Fulgenzio neoplatonico [sic], nonostante che fossero entrambi cristiani; pertanto noi crediamo che sia opportuno mantenere distinte le due personalità."
Pfister, R., "Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades," Lexikon der Alten Welt (Zurich & Stuttgart, 1965), 1009.
Brief. Identification with bishop is "sehr unsicher."
Pollman, Karla. "Fulgentius [1]," Der Neue Pauly IV (Stuttgart, 1998), 699.
Identity with the bishop "diskutiert"; Super Thebaiden "stammt eventuell ebenfalls von F."; other works briefly described and characterized. "Insgesamt ist F. um die Fruchtbarmachung griech.-röm. Bildung für eine christl. Erziehung bemüht."
Raby, F.J.E. "Fulgentius" in Oxford Classical Dictionary , 2nd ed., edd. N.G.L. Hammond and H.H. Scullard (Oxford, 1970) 449.
Brief article offering nothing new. Identifies mythographer with bishop.
Schanz, Martin., Hosius, C. and Krüger, Gustav. "Fabius Planciades Fulgentius," Geschichte der Römischen Litteratur, IV.2 (Munich, 1920) 196-205.
Article is unsigned, but is probably by Krüger.
Skutsch, Franz. "Fulgentius 3" RE VII.1 (1910), 215-227.

       Substantial discussion including much original observation:

Souter, Alexander."Fulgentius, Fabius Planciades," Oxford Classical Dictionary , 1st ed. ed. M. Cary et al. (Oxford, 1949).

Brief descriptions of works (Super Thebaiden omitted), characterized as "silly" and "careless." Identification with bishop "is fairly widely held."
Treatments of two or more works.

Amsler, Mark. Etymology and Grammatical Discourse in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 1989).

F. is discussed at pp. 123-124 and pp. 128-131 in ch. 2 ("Technical and Exegetical Grammar before Isidore"). Mythographer and Bishop are distinguished, but Super Thebaiden is assumed to be authentic. "Fulgentius' interpretation is situated ambivalently on the threshold between Christian literacy and pagan paideia ... and his writings ... are motivated by the attempt to restore the intellectual ideal of the Empire through the discourse of grammar." (124). "By the fifth century, secular grammatical techniques were more props than threats to many intellectual Christians like Fulgentius living in a portion of the Roman empire conquered by the Vandals and other barbarians. The Aeneid is an opaque yet instructive text within a literacy program which perpetuates the old Roman virtues appropriated by upperclass Christians" (130f.).

André, Jacques and Jean Filliozat, L'Inde vue de Rome (Paris, 1986).

The passages in F. relating to India (Mit. p. 52. 20; 53. 9ff.; Aet. p. 165. 23ff.; 166. 16) are excerpted and translated on pp. 278-279.
Bertini, Ferruccio. Autori latini in Africa sotto la dominazione vandalica (Genova, 1974).
Chapter 7 (pp. 65-72) deals with F. A brief and inconclusive history of the identity question is followed by summaries of the works. pp. 124-145 offer Italian translations of sample passages (Cont. p. 90. 20-93. 19; Mit. p. 4. 7-6. 6; Mit. p. 36. 1-40. 24).
Chadwick, Henry. Boethius. The Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology, and Philosophy. (Oxford, 1981).
F typifies a "Christian love of the past, even when associated with some of the external forms of pagan ceremony." Mistakenly credits F. with "an exposition of the first two books of Martianus Capella" (15).
Chance, Jane. Medieval Mythography. From Roman North Africa to the School of Chartres A.D. 433-1177 (Gainesville etc., 1994).
F. is discussed in Chapter 3, "The Virgilian Hero in North Africa: Fulgentius the Grammarian and Calliope, Muse of Epic Poetry" (95-128), and mentioned passim. Inane discussion with careless documentation (note misrepresentation of the views of Helm and Skutsch at 524 n. 8). A reference on p. 116 to the "thirty chapters" of Cont. reveals that the author's analysis is based on Whitbread's translation rather than the original.
Comerci, Giovanni. Forme sociali e mediazione intellettuale nel mondo antico e medievale (Rome, 1982).
Includes self-contained discussions of: 1) the Tacitus citation at Serm. 54 (125. 7ff.) (pp. 41-64);  and 2) "Cristianesimo neoplatonismo [sic] nel IV secolo: Fulgenzio e la Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae" (pp. 64-120). The author is a student of G. Pennisi and endorses the 4th c. dating proposed by the latter.
Courcelle, Pierre. Les Lettres Grecques en Occident de Macrobe à Cassiodore (Paris, 1948).
Discussion of F (identified with the bishop) on pp. 206-9. F is a pretentious fraud whose works point to a "sclérose de la culture" in late antiquity.
Edwards, Robert. "Fulgentius and the Collapse of Meaning," Helios n.s. 3 (1976) 17-35.
A post-structuralist reading. Fulgentius "separates language from its intended meaning ... his description of Minerva's iconography shows that any ... understanding must be fragmentary and incomplete. As a result, the structure of philosophical truth collapses, and a technique of association takes over the allegories. Fulgentius' treatment of the Aeneid marks the final stage in the collapse of meaning. By separating Virgil's explanation of the poem from his own, Fulgentius explores the wider consequences of an interpretive system that permits varieties of meaning" (32f.).
Maurilio Felici. Ius e nova saeculi aetas in un mitografo tardoantico (Rome, 2018).
Not yet seen. TOC on Google Books lists three chapters: 1) Fabio Planciade Fulgenzio nel suo tempo; 2) Testi (e contesti) giuridici nell' Expositio sermonum antiquorum; 3) Un'altra storia del mondo (on Aet.)
Häussler, Reinhard. "Grundzüge antiker Mythographie," in W. Killy, ed. Mythographie der frühen Neuzeit. Ihre Anwendung in den Künsten (Wiesbaden, 1984), 1-23.
F is discussed briefly on pp. 8-9; p. 18 n. 22 offers supplementary material and bibliography, p. 19 n. 23 rejects the identification with the bishop. No novelties except the mystifying statement that "In [Cont.] läßt Fulgentius Vergil den versammelten neun Musen [sic] die Aeneis erläutern."
Hays, Bradford Gregory, "Fulgentius the Mythographer" (Diss. Cornell, 1996). Click here for abstract.

       General study of author and works. Includes chapters on:

Hays, Gregory."Tales out of School: Grammatical Culture in Fulgentius the Mythographer," in Carol Dana Lanham, ed. Latin Grammar and Rhetoric. From Classical Theory to Medieval Practice (London, Continuum 2002), 22-47.
Discusses F.'s works as a product of the late antique educational system, with a brief survey of their later reception. An appendix questions the popular identification of F. as a professional grammaticus.
Hays, Gregory. "Romuleis Libicisque litteris: Fulgentius and the 'Vandal Renaissance' in A. Merrills, ed. Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa (Aldershot, 2004), 101-132.

Examines F.'s corpus against the background of other Vandal- and Byzantine-era African writers (including Dracontius, the Anthology poets and Corippus).

Hernández Lobato, Jesús. "To Speak or Not to Speak. The Birth of a 'Poetics of Silence' in Late Antique Literature," in J. Elsner and J. Hernández Lobato, ed. The Poetics of Late Antique Literature (New York, 2017), 278-310.

Pp. 287-302 discuss the role of silence in the prologues to Mit. Cont. and Aet. (F. is sandwiched between discussions of Sidonius and of Rutilius Namatianus and the Pervigilium Veneris.) "The motif of silence clearly dominates Fulgentius's prologues, where it is consistently related to all sorts of metaliterary issues" (298). On the one hand, F. posits a post-literary world where silence is safer than speech. At the same time, the prologue to Mit. establishes silence as "the very space where creativity is made possible, far from the confusing noise of so-called civilization" (295). At a more fundamental level, silence is "the unattainable goal that every page of Fulgentius's works ultimately pursues: the deep, unexpressed, and inexpressible meaning underlying—and surpassing—human language" (295). The prologue to Mit. owes a debt to Sidonius's Carm. 9 that "has thus far gone unnoticed" (296). "Fulgentius, acting as a lay mystic of literature, embraces the wordless mystery of reality by deliberately dismantling the intrinsically dualistic notion of sign, the cornerstone of the very idea of representation" (300). "[T]he author's idea of true knowledge consists fundamentally of being aware of the vast ocean of 'unknowing,' ignorance and silence, concealed under the apparent knowledge provided by words" (302).

MacCoull, Leslie S.B. "Notes on Fulgentius," Mediterranean Studies 8 (1999), 31-38.

Suggests that the reference to "Dionisius in grecis articulationibus" (Cont. p. 97. 4) refers to Dionysius Exiguus's translation of Gregory of Nyssa De opificio hominis. Two other passages (the etymology of "Anchises" and reference to the descent of souls at p. 102.10ff. and the reference to aural conception at Aet. p. 170.22) have links to contemporary theological controversies in which Dionysius also had an interest. F's awareness of such issues may lend support to his identification with the Bishop.
Manca, Massimo. "Da Caino a Dioniso: il tema del bere come Leitmotiv fulgenziano," Quaderni del dipartimento di filologia, linguistica e tradizione classica, (Università degli Studi. Torino) 14 (2000), 241-255.
Discusses various episodes in the De aetatibus in which drinking plays a thematic or metaphorical role: Cain and Abel (Aet. p. 136. 12); Crassus drinking molten gold (Aet. p. 169. 22ff.); Pharaoh's "drinking" of the Red Sea (Aet. p. 149, 11; p. 156, 5); the drunkenness of Noah (Aet. p. 137, 20ff.); Hannah's supposed drunkenness in the temple (Aet. p. 151. 20ff.). These episodes are further connected with the Metennia anecdote (Serm. 58; Aet. p. 168. 18ff.), the discussion of Dionysus in the Mitologiae (II. 12 p. 52, 16ff.), and Alexander's visit to Meroe (Aet. p. 166, 10) in an attempt to construct "una teoria dell' ebrietas in Fulgenzio." The negative associations of drinking in these passages are mutually reinforcing, while the greater complexity of the imagery in the De Aetatibus may suggest that it is a later work. In addition to its main argument, the article contains many valuable notes on individual passages and other useful material (e.g. the collection of Fulgentian references to the deadly sins at 241 n. 3).
Manca, Massimo. "Una lettura sinottica dei prologhi fulgenziani," Quaderni del Dipartimento di filologia, linguistica e tradizione classica (Università degli Studi. Torino) 16 (2002).
[Summary coming soon].
Mattiacci, Silvia. "Le origini della versificazione ritmica nella tarda antichità latina," in F. Stella, ed. Poesia dell' alto medioevo Europeo: Manoscritti, lingua e musica dei ritmi latini. Atti delle euroconferenze per il Corpus dei ritmi latini (IV-IX sec.), Arezzo 6-7 novembre 1998 e Ravello 9-12 settembre 1999 (Florence, 2000), 5-23.

[Summary coming soon]

Mattiacci, Silvia. "Divertissements' poetici  tardo-antichi : i versi di Fulgenzio grammatico," Paideia 57 (2002), 252-280.
Studies the three inset poems in Mitologiae and Continentia, giving a short commentary on each. Stresses that F.'s verse passages have to be read in the larger context in which they appear; their frivolous and self-consciously literary character is of a piece with F.'s project as a whole.
Pabst, Bernhard. Prosimetrum. Tradition und Wandel einer Literaturform zwischen Spätantike und Spätmittelalter. = Ordo. Studien zur Literatur und Gesellschaft des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit, 4.1 (Köln etc., 1994).
The Mitologiae prologue is discussed on pp. 134-147, opening of Cont. more briefly on pp. 147-9. "Es kann ... durchaus sein" (134) that the mythographer is identical with the bishop. Pabst reads the Mitologiae as a work in the tradition of the De Nuptiis, but with a Christian agenda. Primary focus is on F as an imitator of Martianus, with excellent analysis passim of structural and verbal echoes. Disagreement with Relihan sometimes verges on invective (e.g. 142 n. 245).
Polara, Giovanni. Letteratura latina tardoantica e altomedievale (Rome, 1987).
Brief treatment of F. at pp. 86-88 with summaries of four authentic works (no mention of Theb.). Possibility of identification with the Bishop left open.
Thieling, W. Der Hellenismus in Kleinafrika (Leipzig and Berlin, 1911; rpt. Hildesheim, 1984).
Brief coverage of F. at p. 164f., among other late antique N. African authors.
Whitman, Jon. Allegory. The Dynamics of an Ancient and Medieval Technique (Oxford and Cambridge Mass., 1987).
Mit. and Cont. are discussed on pp. 104-112.
Wolff, Étienne. "Fulgentiana" in F. Chausson and É. Wolff, ed. Consuetudinis amor. Fragments d'histoire romaine (IIe-VIe siècles) offerts à Jean-Pierre Callu (Rome, 2003), 431-443.

Two unrelated notes:
I. "L'Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae et les intentions de Fulgence" (431-440). Allegorical interpretation of the Aeneid has precedents in Macrobius and Servius, but F.'s is the first global interpretation. F. is to be situated in Vandal Africa. Cont. is closely linked to Mit. The dialogue between Vergil and F. has some unexpected aspects: "Virgile finit par se confondre avec Fulgence" (435), yet there is also tension between the the haughty pagan Vergil and the Christian F.: "le dialogue entre eux demeure un peu un dialogue des sourds" (436). The books of the Aeneid receive uneven coverage; F.'s interpretation is sometimes metaphorical (as for Book 1 and the opening of Book 6), but rests mainly on Greek etymologies; at this period Greek "passait pour la langue du secret, de l'arcane, ou était une preuve de culture" (438). F.'s attribution of greater mysteries to the Eclogues and Georgics than to the Aeneid is unusual. Various of F.'s works display "une tendance ludique" (439). Are F.'s intentions in Cont. serious or is it meant as a parody of allegorical excesses? Or does F. play on both registers, in the tradition of the spoudogéloion? "L'Expositio Virgilianae continentiae nous semble ... pouvoir se lire à deux niveaux" (440).
II. "Fulgence et Petrone" (440-443). The Satyricon seems to have experienced a resurgence starting in the fourth century, but not all those citing it knew it directly. F.'s citations from the novel reflect his interests as a grammaticus. "Il n'y a aucune raison de mettre a priori en doute l'authenticité des fragments de Pétrone qu'il donne" (443), though they may derive from an intermediate source. Wolff notes (441 n. 18) that he was unable to consult Ciaffi's Fulgenzio e Petronio.

Zink, Michael. Der Mytholog Fulgentius (Würzburg, 1867). [Google Books]

       A general treatment.

Ziolkowski, Jan. "The Prosimetrum in the Classical Tradition," in J. Harris and K. Reichl, ed. Prosimetrum. Crosscultural Perspectives on Narrative in Prose and Verse (Cambridge, 1997), 45-65.
Brief characterization of Mit. and Cont. at p. 53.

Date and Identity.

Friebel, Otto. Fulgentius, der Mythograph und Bischof (Paderborn, 1911).

The introduction offers various grounds for identifying the mythographer with the bishop; the latter wrote Mit., Cont. and Serm. as a young man, and Aet. after entering monastic life. The bulk of the book assembles grammatical and stylistic features common to the two authors (as well as some confined to one or the other), with copious parallels from later Latin authors.


Hays, Gregory. "The Date and Identity of the Mythographer Fulgentius," Journal of Medieval Latin 13 (2003), 163-252.
Surveys the history of the problem and the arguments (biographical and linguistic) on both sides of the question. Concludes that the mythographer is familiar with Corippus's Johannis (written c. 550, well after the bishop's death). It follows that the two cannot be the same person. Appendices discuss the phrase mauricatos ... gressus (Mit. p. 6.1) and the name "Planciades" and offer a provisional list of hapax legomena in the mythographer.
Helm, Rudolf. "Der Bischof Fulgentius und der Mythograph," Rheinisches Museum 54 (1899) 111-134.
Argues that the mythographer's works were written by the bishop as a young man. The mythographer's corpus is clearly the work of a brash young "Prahlhans" (111-115). Echoes of Orosius (116f.) and Dracontius (117-119) give a terminus post quem in the late 5th century. Boethius might provide a terminus ante quem if the Mitologiae prologue served as a model for the Consolation of Philosophy, but this is uncertain (119-121). The bishop fits all the criteria (126ff.)
Isola, Antonino. "Sul problema dei due Fulgenzi: un contributo della Vita Fulgentii," Auctores Nostri 1 (2004), 103-117 [reprinted in Antonio Piras, ed. Lingua et ingenium. Studi su Fulgenzio di Ruspe e il suo contesto (Cagliari, 2010), 147-164].

[Summary coming soon]

Jungmann, Emil. "Die Zeit des Fulgentius," Rheinisches Museum 32 (1877) 564-577.

[Summary coming soon]

Krüger, Gustav. "Ferrandus und Fulgentius," Harnack-Ehrung (Leipzig, 1921) 219-231.

The last of the article's three sections (pp. 226-231) is devoted to "Der Mythograph und der Bischof". The author vigorously criticizes the arguments for the identification put forward by Skutsch and Friebel and expresses doubt that the mythographer's works could have been written by an author in his early twenties (as they must on Helm's dating).
Langlois, Pierre. "Les Oeuvres de Fulgence le Mythographe et le Problème des Deux Fulgence," Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum 7 (1964) 94-105.
Makes no claim to put forward no new evidence, but offers merely a "changement d'optique ... susceptible de contribuer à une révision de ce problème particulier, en faveur de l'identité des deux Fulgence" (94). Surveys the works attributed to the mythographer (94-98), and shows that they are the work of the same author, probably writing under Gunthamund (98-100). Evidence in favor of the identification is then put forward. The mythographer's works are attributed to the bishop in some manuscripts and the latter is more prone to have his works misattributed to others than vice versa (100). The silence of the bishop's earliest biographers (the Vita Fulgentii and Isidore) can be explained by their focus on the bishop's ecclesiastical career (101). Prudentius of Troyes and Sigebert of Gembloux attest to the identification and there is a "curieux témoignage de l'assimilation des deux Fulgence" in Paschasius Radbertus (101-103). The divergence in names can be explained by dismissing "Planciades" as corrupt (103). The difference in the character of the two writers' oeuvres is paralleled in other late antique literary figures (e.g. Boethius and Ennodius) (103-104); the differences in style can be explained away (104-105); both bishop and mythographer have the same (limited) familiarity with Greek (105). In sum, "il semble qu'il n'y a pas d'obstacle à admettre l'identité des deux Fulgence" (105).
Lapeyre, G.-G. Saint Fulgence de Ruspe (Paris, 1929).
The opening chapter contains a chronological survey of the debate over identification of the mythographer and bishop (3-22), which the author dismisses, with especially harsh words for Friebel (23-31).
Riedlberger, Peter. Philologischer, historischer und liturgischer Kommentar zum 8. Buch der Johannis des Goripp [sic] nebst kritischer Edition und Übersetzung (Groningen, 2010).

Note on Ioh. 8. 279 (p. 280) discusses the relationship of this line to Mit. p. 13. 9 Helm, dismissing [and misrepresenting] Hays's argument for Corippus's priority and consequent redating of F.

Shanzer, Danuta. A Philosophical and Literary Commentary on Martianus Capella's De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, Book I. University of California Publications in Classical Philology vol. 32 (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1986).
Pp. 12-13 discuss F. as a pointer to Martianus's date. S. follows Helm in seeing in F. a contemporary and reader of Dracontius. Since F. cites Martianus, the latter can be no later than the 480s.
Vössing, Konrad. Schule und Bildung in Afrikanischen Städten. Collection Latomus 238 (Brussels, 1997).
Identification of mythographer and bishop is firmly rejected at 179ff.

[Both Zink and Hays include chapters on date and identity]

Language and Style

Helm, Rudolf. "Einige sprachliche Eigentümlichkeiten des Mythographen Fulgentius," Archiv für lateinischen Lexikographie und Grammatik 11 (1898) 71-79.

Discusses various peculiar formations and semantic shifts in F.: incursio and incursus "error" (71-73); sedulitas < sedere (74f.); vagina < vagari (74f.); bractamentum < Gk. brekhein (75); robigare < rubigo (76f.); tempestivus "stormy" (76); flagitare "hin- und herwehen" (76f.); plusquam = plerumque (77-79)
Nestler, J. "Die Latinität des Fulgentius," Jahresbericht des Kais. königl. Staats-Obergymnasiums in Böhm.-Leipa (1905) 1-27 and (1906), 1-27.
General remarks on F.'s style (i. 1-5), followed by a catalogue of noteworthy lexical items (i. 6-27; ii. 1-14) and sections on nominal syntax (ii. 14-21) and prepositions (ii. 21-27). The Fortsetzung promised at ii. 27 would presumably have continued the discussion of syntax, but seems never to have appeared.
Polheim, Karl. Die Lateinische Reimprosa (Berlin, 1925).

A short section (pp. 287-290) is devoted to F. Accepts the identity of mythographer and bishop; differences in use of rhyme are not a bar to the identification. Rhyme is employed less often and less regularly in Mit. and Cont., more frequently in the bishop's works, especially the sermons; Aet. occupies a middle ground. In Mit., the rhyme often takes the form of a longer phrase followed by a shorter one ("lang A, kurz B"), e.g. 3. 7 (p. 63. 7) et dum ad illud solum notat quod diligit | numquam uidet quod expedit. Various examples of other types are listed and categorized.

Sittl, Karl. Die lokalen Verschiedenheiten der lateinischen Sprache mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des afrikanischen Lateins. (Erlangen, 1882; rpt. Hildesheim, 1972).

F is among the authors dealt with in the chapter on "Das afrikanische Latein" (pp. 77-143); his style is briefly characterized at p. 89.

[Much material on language in Zink and Friebel (in catalogue form). Hays contains a chapter on style].

Sources and Citations

[Items listed in this section are general discussions or deal with multiple citations from a single author. See also under Individual Works below]

Baldwin, Barry. "Fulgentius and his Sources," Traditio 44 (1988) 37-57.

Collects the references to other authorities in Fulgentius and attempts to decide which are real, which fake. Discussion is handicapped by implicit petitio principii on the central issue and by unfamiliarity with the secondary literature.
Bisanti, Armando. "Le citazioni omeriche di Fulgenzio," Studi di Filologia Classica in onore di Giusto Monaco (Palermo, 1991) IV: 1483-1490.

Surveys the citations from Homer in Mit. and Cont. In general, "Fulgenzio cerca ... di avvalorare il suo discorso con l'auctoritas indiscussa che gli deriva dal modello omerico ... appoggiandosi sul testo iliadico per maggiore ricerca ed ostentazione di cultura. ... Omero infatti serve soltanto per corroborare una etimologia, serve solo come auctor greco per antonomasia e definizione, cui appoggiarsi nel tentativo, spesso fallito e talvolta ridicolo, di spiegare nomi della mitologia pagana. ... La citazione omerica ... viene dal nostro autore svuotata del suo valore e ridotta il più delle volte al semplice rango di glossa" (1485). (A partial exception is the discussion of the opening line of the Iliad at Cont. p. 88. 19ff.) It is noteworthy that all of F.'s Homeric citations come from the Iliad: "una prova in più ... della maggiore penetrazione e della più vasta fortuna del poema guerresco su quello avventuroso nella cultura e nella letteratura romana" (1489).

Boys-Stones, George. "A Fragment of Carneades the Cynic?" Mnemosyne 53 (2000), 528-536. [J-STOR]

Suggests that both the quotation from "Carneades in libro Telesiaco" at Cont. p. 88. 5 and the reference to Carneadis ... elleborum at Mit. p. 15. 2ff. may refer not to the well-known Academic philosopher, but to a Cynic philosopher of the same name mentioned by Eunapius (Vit. Soph. 2. 1. 5). Also addresses the alleged title of Carneades's work, suggesting that "Telesiacus" is most likely derived from the place-name Telesia, a town near Benevento.
Cameron, Alan "The Pervigilium Veneris," La Poesia Tardoantica: tra Retorica, Teologia e Politica (Messina, 1984) 209-234.
Tiberianus the missing, prosimetrical Menippean link between Varro & Martianus, F. and Boethius. F. "was something of a fraud; many of the learned titles he quotes he had certainly never read, many never even existed ... It was only a rather small and eccentric selection of books he knew first hand, and one of them was certainly Tiberianus." (226). The extant Tiberianus poem 2 ('on gold') comes from the 'book on Socrates' quoted by F. at Cont. p. 97. 9 (221).
Cameron, Alan. Greek Mythography in the Roman World (New York, 2004).
Brief discussion of F.'s citations at pp. 308-9.
Ciaffi, Vincenzo. Fulgenzio e Petronio (Turin, 1963).

Costanza, Salvatore. "Tre Frammenti di Nevio in Fulgenzio," Emerita 24 (1956) 302-310.

[Summary to come.]

Costanza, Salvatore. "Le citazioni Plautine di Fulgenzio," Messana 4 (1955), 159-178.

F.'s quotations show features characteristic of those in grammarians and lexicographers, including mistaken play titles and mis-glossed words. Citations in Serm. are examined individually and divided into three groups: 1) Citations from Vidularia (15; 53) and the citation without title in 38. The former are accepted by editors and the last should be as well. 2) Citations which closely match the text as transmitted by Plautine manuscripts (3; 13; 18-21; 24). Small divergences in such cases may point to variants in F.'s text of Plautus rather than carelessness. 3) Citations which do not directly match an extant passage, but show strong similarities in situation and/or wording (22; 26-27; 29; 33; 46; 50). In one or two cases (27; 50) these may belong to lost portions of a known play. Examined separately are 4) citations or close imitations in Mit. (p. 17. 19; 38. 2) and Cont. (p. 86. 18; 103. 15); these all fall into one of the categories above. F.'s text is sometimes superior to that transmitted in the Ambrosian palimpsest and/or the Palatini (which can differ considerably from one another). This suggests that F.'s citations derive from a recension independent of either, probably through intermediate sources. While F.'s Plautine text is sometimes inferior or corrupt, there is no reason to accord him less authority than, e.g., Nonius.
Courtney, Edward. The Poems of Petronius (Atlanta, 1991).
Includes the verse fragments of Petronius quoted by F.; general remarks on p. 5. F. "in all probability identical with the ... Bishop Fulgentius." Doubt about many of F.'s quotations does not extend to the Petronius citations.
Ferguson, Thomas. "Misquoting Plautus: the 'Classical Curriculum' of Fulgentius the Mythographer," Studia Patristica 43 (2006), 359-365.

Surveys F.'s Plautine quotations and the influence of Plautus on F.'s style, form and persona. F.'s use of Plautus reflects his attempt to reconcile Classical and Christian culture, but also influences his self-portrayal, particularly in relation to his patron. In his prologues F. adopts the role of cheeky slave or comic parasite, attempting simultaneously to entertain and enlighten his dominus.

Gudeman, Alfred, "Literary Frauds among the Romans," Transactions of the American Philological Association 25 (1894), 140-164. [J-STOR]
F. is "the only Roman writer, so far as we know, who deliberately manufactured his evidence by inventing mythical authors." (149). Comparison is made to Aethicus Ister, the Anonymous Ravennas and Virgilius Maro Grammaticus.
Jürgens, Heiko. Pompa Diaboli. Die lateinischen Kirchenväter und das antike Theater (Stuttgart, etc., 1972).
Catalogues citations and allusions to ancient drama in Latin patristic literature, including those in F. Discussions of individual quotations add little to previous work (but cf. the Addenda for a significant note on Serm. 46); no reference is made to Pizzani's ed. of the Sermones.
Kleberg, Tönnes. "Sutrius comediarum scriptor," Eranos 29 (1931), 74-79.
Argues against Ritschl and Lersch that the two Sutrius fragments (Mit. 3. 8; Serm. 47) are authentic fragments of ancient Roman comedy. Ritschl's linguistic objections to the fragments are countered. His view that Sutrius was a late antique or early medieval writer is not impossible, but the burden of proof lies on those who accept it; nothing in the fragments excludes an early date. Lersch's arguments that the fragments were concocted by Fulgentius on the basis of Plautine citations "prove everything and nothing at the same time"; the similarities are vague, while the name Sutrius is a legitimate formation and the title (comedia) Piscatoria has parallels in other known comic titles.

Mead, G.R.S. Thrice-Greatest Hermes. Studies in Hellenistic Theosophy and Gnosis, vol. III (London and Benares, 1906)

P. 305 discusses F.'s citations from the Hermetic corpus.
Reitzenstein, Richard. Poimandres. Studien zur Griechisch-Ägyptischen und frühchristlichen Literatur (Leipzig, 1904).
F.'s citations from the Hermetic corpus are discussed at p. 210f.
Romano, D. Studi Draconziani (Palermo, 1959).
Brief discussion of F. at p. 47 n. 122, accepting the identification of bishop and mythographer. pp. 85-87 discuss echoes of Dracontius in the De aetatibus.
Romano, D. "La strofe storica del Pervigilium Veneris," Pan 4 (1976), 69-86.
F's imitation of the Pervigilium provides support for placing the composition of the latter in late 5th century North Africa.
Setaioli, Aldo. "Cinque poesie Petroniane (Sat. 82.5, 83.10, 108.14, 126.18, 132.15)," Prometheus 24 (1998), 217-242.

The first item discussed (pp. 217-221) is the epigram on Tantalus preserved independently by F. (Mit. 2. 15), by the manuscript tradition of Petronius, and by the florilegia. S. defends the manuscript reading "omnia cernens qui timet" against F.'s "omnia late qui tenet" (also found in Bonn Universitätsbibliothek S. 218). At p. 220 n. 22 S. also discusses the fragment on Cerberus preserved at Cont. p. 99. 2, which should be rendered "Cerbero era un avvocato penalista" (Cesareo-Terzaghi) and not "the barrister was a Cerberus of courts" (Heseltine).

Smith, C.J. "The Origo Gentis Romanae: Facts and Fictions," BICS 48 (2005), 97-136.
Attempts to rehabilitate the citations in the Origo Gentis by comparison with other works containing suspicious quotation (Ptolemaeus Chennus, Ps. Plutarch Parallela Minora, and F.), along with Macrobius's Saturnalia. F. is discussed at pp. 109-110. "Since Baldwin has done much of the work," discussion is based only on Serm. Ant. 1-12 and Mit. 1. Appendices 5-6 list citations from these portions with brief comments. Both works show the same pattern of citations: "some spot-on, some plausible, some muddled, some wrong." Concludes that "there is a spirit of invention in Fulgentius, and some of [the citations] may well be his own doing. At the same time, we know nothing of this man's resources at the time of writing ... How much came from a faulty memory? Finally, we must allow that if Fulgentius sets out to deceive, he also sometimes tells the truth."
Vinchesi, M.A. "La fortuna di Lucano fra tarda antichità e medioevo," Cultura e scuola 77 (1981), 62-72
Surveys the use of Lucan by Augustine, Orosius and later African authors. F.'s citations from Lucan are discussed on p. 66.
[Zink and Hays both contain chapters on citations]

III. Individual Works



Helm, Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera pp. 1-80.

For the prologue see also Venuti (below).


[Cf. Bertini (excerpts); Relihan, Ancient Menippean Satire (prologue); Venuti (below: prologue)]

Wolff, Étienne and Philippe Dain, Fulgence. Mythologies. (Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2013).

Latin text based on Helm with facing French translation, introduction and notes.

Relihan, J.C. Apuleius. The Tale of Cupid and Psyche (Indianapolis, 2009).

Includes translation of Mit. 3. 6 at pp. 62-67.


Venuti, Martina. Il prologo delle Mythologiae di Fulgenzio. (Naples, 2018).

Revised version of her dissertation (Università degli studi di Parma, 2009). Includes extensive introduction (especially important on the manuscript tradition), a newly established text, facing Italian translation and detailed commentary.

Secondary Literature


Cazzaniga, Ignazio. "Del nuovo Ennio nella Ioannide di Corippo?" Rivista di filologia e d'istruzione classica 99 (1971), 276-287.

Discusses echoes of archaic Latin in the phrase bullatum ... aethera (Mit. p. 13. 14) at pp. 284ff. F.'s clumsy handling of such borrowings is contrasted with more subtle adaptations of Ennian phrasing in Corippus.
Cherniss, M.D. Boethian Apocalypse. Studies in Middle English Vision Poetry (Norman, OK, 1987).
Brief discussion of the Mit. preface as foil to Boethius at p. 37f. "Fulgentius appropriates the same sort of apocalypse [sc. as Boethius] as his form for the Mythologiae and does virtually nothing wih it. ... Fulgentius fails to use his visionary framework for any organic literary purpose. ... Fulgentius is familiar enough with the conventions of earlier apocalypses to copy the behavior or their visionary narrators and guides as a decoration for his treatise but either cannot or does not care to justify in fictional terms the use of the machinery of apocalypse in his work."
Courcelle, Pierre. "La Posterité Chrétienne du Songe de Scipion," REL 36 (1958), 205-34.
F's reference to the Somnium Scipionis at Mit. p. 4. 4 is discussed briefly at p. 213. Courcelle casts doubt on Helm's suggestion that F. drew on Favonius Eulogius's commentary, and sees Macrobian influence as more likely.
Graverini, L. "An Old Wife's Tale," in W.H. Keulen, et al., ed. Lectiones Scrupulosae. Essays on the Text and Interpretation of Apuleius' 'Metamorphoses' in Honour of Maaike Zimmerman (Groningen, 2006, 86-110.
Discussion of Mit. p. 3. 13 (rugosa sulcis anilibus fabula) at p. 98f. "[W]hile Macrobius rejects Apuleius' novel and all similar fabulae, confining them in nutricum cunas, Fulgentius can exploit a wider tradition of myths and tales and bend them to his philosophical purposes. His attitude is less stern than Macrobius', and he can even indulge in some self-irony about his own work."
Grüber, Joachim. "Die Erscheinung der Philosophie in der Consolatio Philosophiae des Boethius," Rheinisches Museum 112 (1969), 166-186.
Studies the opening of the Consolation in light of the tradition of the literary epiphany. Grüber argues that (pace Helm) Boethian dependence on the epiphanies at Mit. p. 8. 6ff.; 13. 17ff.is unlikely: "Eine Abhängigkeit des einen vom anderen muß nicht angenommen werden, wenn man die Fülle der möglichen Vorbilder in der Beschreibung von Epiphanien berücksichtigt" (167 n. 6).
Gusejnov, G.C. ["L'interpretation de la mythologie à la limite entre l'Antiquité et le Moyen Age"] in [L'antiquité en tant que type de culture] (Moscow, 1988), 235-333.
(Text in Russian). According to APh 59 (1988) #2011 (whence the French titles above) this includes translation w/ comments of part of Mit. prologue.
Herren, Michael. "Comedy, Irony, and Philosophy in Late Late [sic] Antique Prosimetra: Menippean Satire from the Fifth to the Eighth Century," Journal of Medieval Latin 28 (2018), 241-275.
Argues that a set of late antique and early medieval works (Martianus, Ennodius's Paraenesis Didascalica, Fulgentius's Mit., Virgilius Maro Grammaticus and the Cosmography of Aethicus Ister) "can be classified as Menippean satire, and ... form a coherent branch of the genre that is different from its representatives in classical antiquity" (241). These works maintain the seriocomic tone and prosimetrical form found in earlier Menippea, but emphasize encyclopedic and/or philosophical content. Discussion of Mit. prologue at 262-265. The prologue embodies a "tension between the ridiculous and the sublime" (264) but "when [F.] turns to describing and interpreting the content of the myths he is all seriousness."
Mattiacci, Silvia. "Castos docet et pios amores, lusus, delicias facetiasque, ovvero la poesia d'amore secondo l' 'altra' Sulpicia," Invigilata Lucernis 21 (1999), 215-241.
F.'s allusions to Sulpicia (Mit. p. 4. 1; 13. 3) are discussed at 226-228 in the context of other late antique references (Ausonius and Sidonius).
Nicolau, Mathieu. "Les Deux Sources de la Versification Latine Accentuelle," Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi 9 (1934), 55-87.
The poem at p. 7. 5ff. ("Thespiades ...") is discussed at p. 85f. The author sees in it "le plus ancien exemple de versification accentuelle que nous connaissions" (87)
Relihan, Joel. "Ovid Metamorphoses I.1-4 and Fulgentius' Mitologiae" AJP 105 (1984) 87-90. [J-STOR]
The prologue to the Mitologiae at several points parodically inverts the opening of Ovid's epic as "the narrator establishes himself as an anti-Ovid." The appearance of Calliope and her colleagues, however, restores the balance: "Ovid ultimately reasserts himself."
Relihan, Joel. "Satyra in the Prologue of Fulgentius' Mythologies," Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History IV, ed. C. Deroux = Collection Latomus 196 (1986) 537-548.

Relihan, Joel. Ancient Menippean Satire (Baltimore and London, 1993).

Discussion of the prologue to the Mitologiae pp. 152-163; Appendix B (pp. 203-210) provides a translation.
Venuti, Martina. "Allusioni ovidiane nel prologo delle Mythologiae di Fulgenzio," in L. Cristante and S. Ravalico, ed. Il calamo della memoria. Riuso di testi e mestiere letterario nella tarda antichità. IV (Trieste, 2011), 51-64. [For PDF click here.]
[Summary to come.]
Weinreich, Otto. "Phoebus, Aurora, Kalender und Uhr," Schriften und Vorträge der Württembergischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Geisteswissenschaftliche Abteilung 4 (Stuttgart, 1937). [Reprinted in his Ausgewählte Schriften III (1937-1970) ed. G. Wille with U. Klein (Amsterdam, 1979), 3-35.]
Traces the history of a parodic formula (elaborate poetical description of time of day followed by prosaic gloss) from Seneca to Robert Musil. The inset poem at Mit. p. 13. 6ff. is discussed at p. 14f. of the reprint.

Wolff, Étienne. "La préface du Livre I des Mitologiae de Fulgence et Martianus Capella," Revue des études tardo-antiques 1 (2011-12), 111-118.

An initial section offers textual and interpretative notes on four passages of the prologue. At p. 9. 15-17, si collegio non donetur should be rendered "si le collège ne lui fait pas grâce" (contra Hays and Venuti). At p. 11. 7 garrulantes agrees with the implied subject of inquirimus, not with lignides puellas (contra Relihan and Venuti). At p. 13. 11 mundum should be taken as the subject of pigrescere, not with circumlita (contra Whitbread, Mattiacci and Venuti); c(a)erula is fem. sing., not neuter plural (contra Venuti). At p. 10. 5-8 perhaps read litterae suos <familiares quo> quicquid ... catus extendunt. The second half of the article collects examples of Martianean phrasing and vocabulary in F.'s works. Martianus, like his African compatriot Apuleius, provided F. with a model for stylistic extravagance and allegory; both authors share a rather amorphous generic conception of satura which should not, however, be confused with prosimetrum: "il est exclu de qualifier les Mitologiae de prosimètre simplement à cause des deux poèmes qu'on trouve dans la préface du livre I" (117).

Main Body and Individual Fables.

Allen, Don Cameron. Image and Meaning. Metaphoric Traditions in Renaissance Poetry. Revised ed. (Baltimore, 1968).

Brief discussion and partial translation of the Cupid and Pysche chapter (Mit. 3. 6) on p. 27, as "influencing Renaissance interpretations and thence Spenser's "Muiopotmos." Text is wrongly ascribed to the Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum and its author rather confusingly identified as "[t]he pseudo-Fulgentius (thought by the Renaissance to be a contemporary of Martianus)."
d'Alverny, M-Th. "Les Muses et les sphères celestes," Classical, Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies in Honor of B.L. Ullman (Rome, 1964), 7-19.
Discusses F.'s chapter on the Muses (Mit. 1. 15 p. 25. 1ff.) at p. 8f. and prints two brief medieval texts that draw on it.
Bernhard, Michael. "Überlieferung und Fortleben der antiken lateinischen Musiktheorie im Mittelalter," in F. Zaminer, ed. Geschichte der Musiktheorie. Bd. 3. Rezeption des antiken Fachs im Mittelalter (Darmstadt, 1990), 7-35.

F. is discussed at pp. 22-24. Excerpts from Mit. (1. 15; 3. 9-10) are found with other works on music theory in Florence Laur. Ashburnh. 1051 and Vatican Reg. lat. 1315; the whole work is bound together with a musical collection in Rome Bibl. Vall. B 81. (A "musica Fulgentina" in the library catalogue of Amplonius Ratinck is unrelated to F). The musical chapters were also used in the Musica enchiriadis, Regino of Prüm, John Scottus, Remigius, and Walter Odington. "Mit den eigentlichen musiktheoretischen Ausführungen des Fulgentius hat sich das Mittelalter nicht auseinandergesezt." Brief discussion of a 10th c. gloss on Boethius's Institutio musica (Paris B.N. lat. 7297 and Milan Ambr. C 128 inf.) that mentions F. [NB: Index entry for "Fulgentius" conflates F. with Bp. Fulgentius of Affligem, d. 1121].

Bettini, Maurizio. The Portrait of the Lover (Berkeley, 1999).

Brief discussion of Mit. 1. 1 at p. 42.

Bright, David. The Miniature Epic in Vandal Africa (Norman and London, 1987).
F.'s version of the Perdiccas story (Mit. 3. 2 p. 61. 16ff.) is briefly dealt with on pp. 227-8 in connection with the Aegritudo Perdiccae.
Brisson, Luc. Le mythe de Tirésias (Leiden, 1976).
Includes a discussion of Mit. 2. 5 p. 43. 21ff..
Brugnoli, Giorgio. "Coniectanea XIV" Rivista di cultura classica e medievale 5 (1963), 259f.
Argues that the Petronius citation at Mit. p. 73. 5ff. cannot be from the Satyricon since Petronius does not appear in the novel in his own person. Instead it may be a garbled reminscence of Pliny NH 37. 20 (or another, unknown source). "Accettando questa proposta, il luogo di Fulgenzio si puo agevolmente emendare: unde et Petronius Arbiter ad libidinis concitamentum myrrhinum [se] poculum bibisse refert<ur>.
Canellis, Aline. "Fulgence le Mythographe: Remarques sur une relecture et une réécriture du Conte d'Amour et Psyché (Apulée, Met. 4, 28-6, 24)," Studii Clasice 40-41 (2004-05), 35-44.

Chines, Loredana. "La ricezione petrarchesca del mito di Atteone," in G.M. Anselmi and M. Guerra, ed. Le Metamorfosi di Ovidio nella letteratura tra Medioevo e Rinascimento (Bologna, 2006), 41-54.

Suggests (p. 53) that the quotation from "Anaximenes" in Mit. 3. 3 influenced Petrarch's use of the Actaeon story in Canzone 23.147ff.

Courcelle, Pierre. "L'interpretation evhémériste des Sirènes-courtisanes jusqu'au XIIe siècle," in Gesellschaft-Kultur-Literatur. Rezeption und Originalität im Wachsen einer Europäischen Literatur und Geistigkeit. Beiträge Luitpold Wallach Gewidmet (Stuttgart, 1975), 33-48.
F.'s chapter on the Sirens (Mit. 2. 8) is discussed on p. 41.
Daniélou, Jean. "Die Hochzeit von Thetis und Peleus im hellenistischen Allegorismus," Antaios 3 (1961), 244-257.
Discusses Mit. 3. 7 p. 70. 3ff. in the context of similar allegorical interpretations in the Pseudo-Clementines, Sallustius and Tzetzes.
Demats, Paule. Fabula. Trois études de mythographie antique et médiévale. Publications Romanes et Françaises 122 (Geneva, 1973).
Discussion of Mit. on pp. 55-60.
Di Piro, Annamaria.“Le Metamorfosi di Apuleio nella tradizione indiretta. 1. I testi,” Invigilata Lucernis 17 (1995), 55-76 = O. Pecere and A. Stramaglia, ed. Studi Apuleiani (Cassino, 2003), 161-179.

Text and translation of Mit. 3. 6 (65ff. = 167-173); also includes Apuleian entries (17; 36; 40) from Serm.

Dronke, Peter. Imagination in the Late Pagan and Early Christian World (Florence, 2003).

Brief summary/discussion of Mit. 3. 6 at pp. 109-110. F. offers "the only explicit Christian allegorisation of [the tale] ... reducing the story to a moral equivalent 'of man's first disobedience' (or in this case, of woman's)."

Ehrhart, Margaret J. The Judgment of the Trojan Prince Paris in Medieval Literature (Philadelphia, 1987).
Mit. 2. 1 is discussed at 23ff., and referred to passim (see index entries s.v. Fulgentian interpretation ...)
Ferguson, Thomas. "Calliope's Playful Touch: An Educational Paradigm in the Mitologiae of Planciades Fulgentius," Vigiliae Christianae 73 (2019), 16-37.
[Summary to come.]
Förster, Richard."Zu Apuleius und Fulgentius De Psyche et Cupidine," Hermes 14 (1879) 472-474. [Click here for text]

Friedman, John Block. Orpheus in the Middle Ages (Cambridge Mass. 1970).

The Orpheus chapter (Mit. 3. 10 p. 77. 9ff.) is discussed on p. 89 and its influence on medieval commentators on pp. 86-145 passim.
Gaeta, F. "L'avventura di Ercole," Rinascimento 5 (1954), 227-260.
Surveys allegorical treatments of the figure of Hercules from antiquity to Vico. Mit. II. 2-4 are briefly discussed at 236-238.
Garstad, Benjamin. "The Interpretation of Ganymede," in H.J. Westra and T. Kupke, ed. The Berlin Commentary on Martianus Capella's De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii Book II (Leiden, 1998), 161-168.

Studies the tradition of historical rationalization of Ganymede with a view to discerning the source of the mention in the Berlin commentary (on De nupt. 1. 90, p. 335f. Westra). F.'s chapter (Mit. 1. 20) appears to go back to the Germanicus scholia, like the similar passage in Lactantius (Inst. 1. 11). "Neither Fulgentius nor Lactantius ... can be the source for all of the elements of the story in the Berlin commentary."

Galinsky, G. Karl. The Herakles Theme (Oxford, 1972).

Brief discussion of the Heracles chapters (Mit. 2. 2-4) at p. 190; F.'s portrayal of Heracles as an exemplar virtutis is in line with other ancient treatments.
Gersh, Stephen. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism: The Latin Tradition (Notre Dame, 1986), 2 vols.
Cf. Excursus H (vol. 2, 757-765): "Fulgentius' Mitologiae and Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae." (Title notwithstanding, only the former is dealt with in any detail). F.'s works "enjoyed a remarkably sustained popularity throughout medieval times, and ... contain a certain amount of popular Platonism" (758). G. discusses references to Hermes Trismegistus, Orpheus, Plato et al. and briefly surveys four types of allegorical interpretation in F. (metaphysical, physical, astronomical and moral).
González Delgado, "Interpretaciones alegóricas del mito de Orfeo y Eurídice por Fulgencio y Boecio y su pervivencia en la Patrologia Latina," Faventia 25. 2 (2003), 7-35.

[Summary coming soon]

Gusejnov, G.C. ["Les Sources antiques et chrétiennes des Mythologies de Fulgence"], [La Dixième conférence des auteurs et lecteurs du 'Vestnik Drevnej Istorii' de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS] (Moscow, 1987), 116-118.

(Text in Russian). Not seen; reference drawn from APh 59 (1988) #2010 (whence the French titles above)
Hermann, K.F. "Anacreon de natura deorum" Philologus 10 (1855), 322-324.
Notes that the "Anacreon" of Mit. p. 31. 12 is also cited as a source by the medieval chronicler Henry of Herford ("Creon vel Anacreon de natura deorum").
Heuten, G. "'Primus in Orbe Deos Fecit Timor,'" Latomus 1 (1937), 3-8.
Discusses the history of this sentiment in Latin literature. Fulgentius's citation of the phrase (Statius Theb. 3. 661, but attributed to Petronius at Mit. p. 17. 3) is discussed on p. 5: "il n'entend pas la pensée de Stace comme nous, ni comme les autre anciens. Il nous transporte en plein évhémérisme". H. assumes that all the Petronius citations in the Mitologiae come from the same poem; no argument is offered for this intriguing suggestion.
Ibañez Chacon, Alvaro. "Fulgencio: Mito de Faetonte," Elvira 2 (2002) 83-113.
Offers a short introduction to Fulgentius, then surveys the literary background of the Phaethon and Heliades stories and their interpretations in F. Some attention is also paid to later interpretations, especially those in the Philosophia Secreta of Juan Pérez de Moya (1513-1592).
King, Katherine Callen. Achilles. Paradigms of the War Hero from Homer to the Middle Ages (Berkeley, 1987).
F.'s interpretation of Achilles (Mit. 3. 7) is summarized and briefly discussed at p. 201f. (cf. also p. 229). F's treatment is typical of medieval misogyny.
Könsgen, Ewald. "Beispiele für die Allegorese antiker Mythen in lateinischen Texten des Hochmittelalters," in H.-J. Horn and H. Walter, ed. Die Allegorese des antiken Mythos (Wiesbaden, 1997), 215-228.
Surveys medieval allegorizations of the Actaeon story, including Mit. 3. 3 (p. 220).
Kupke, Tanja. "Ou sont les muses d'antan? Notes for a Study of the Muses in the Middle Ages," in H.J. Westra, ed. From Athens to Chartres. Neoplatonism and Medieval Thought. Studies in Honour of Edouard Jeauneau (Leiden, 1992), 421-436.
Mit. 1. 15 p. 25. 1ff. is discussed on pp. 428-430.
Lamberton, Robert. Homer the Theologian (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1986).
Fulgentius's use of Homer as source and authority is discussed briefly on pp. 279-82; a translation of the Sirens fable (Mit. 2. 8 p. 48. 8ff.) is included.
Le Maitre, H. Essai sur le mythe de Psyché dans la littérature française des origines à 1890 (Paris, 1947).
F.'s treatment is discussed at pp. 27-30 and mentioned passim (see index s.v. Fulgence).
Lev Kenaan, V. "Fabula anilis: the Literal as a Feminine Sense," in C. Deroux, ed. Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 10 (2000), 370-391.
The author argues that Macrobius was influential in establishing a model in which stories that admit interpretation only on a literal level are figured as feminine (fabula anilis, nutricum etc.) in opposition to narratives that can be read allegorically. Apuleius's Cupid and Psyche (a fabula anilis that admits of hidden meaning) implicitly undermines such a model. F.'s treatment is discussed at 384-387. By emphasizing allegory over narrative, F. emphasizes one side of the dichotomy to the exclusion of the other. "Fulgentius's interpretation of the tale not only undermines Apuleius' authority, but completely disregards the story's female oral narrator and female audience. ... he exchanges the rich narrative of the Apuleian Cupid and Psyche for his own paraphrase ... The Mythologiae attempts to sever allegory from the literal sense, and thus, strip the Cupid and Psyche symbolism of its feminine qualities." By contrast, Boccaccio shows more appreciation of the story's two levels, while still privileging the allegorical over the literal.
Mattiacci, Silvia. "Apuleio in Fulgenzio," Studi italiani di filologia classica ser. 4. 1 (2003), 229-256.
Studies F.'s use of Apuleius in various contexts: 1) verbal echoes (esp. of the prologue to the Metamorphoses and the lead-in to Cupid and Psyche, but also, e.g. the Thelyphron episode) in the Mitologiae prologue and elsewhere; 2) the paraphrase of Cupid and Psyche in Mit. 3. 6 (which shows close and direct use of the Apuleian original); 3) the citations from Apuleius in the Sermones (which M. suggests are consciously manipulated by F. in order to create excerpts suitable for lexicographical citation).
Moreschini, Claudio. Il mito di Amore e Psiche in Apuleio (Naples, 1994).
F.'s treatment of Cupid and Psyche is discussed on pp. 27-30.
Ostheimer, Andreas. "Orpheus und die Entstehung einer Musiktheorie im 9. Jahrhundert," Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 33 (1998), 19-35.
Discusses the Orpheus chapter (Mit. 3. 10) and its reception in Carolingian music theorists.
Purser, L.C., ed. Apuleius. The Story of Cupid and Psyche (London, 1910 and later rpts.).
Appendix 2 (pp. 128ff.) prints the Latin text of F.'s summary of the Cupid and Psyche story and a translation of F.'s analysis.
Stramaglia, Antonio. "Apuleio come auctor: premesse tardoantiche di un uso umanistico," Studi Umanistici Piceni 16 (1996), 137-161; revised version in O. Pecere and A. Stramaglia, ed. Studi Apuleiani (Cassino, 2003), 119-152.
The Cupid and Psyche fable is discussed at pp. 142-144 [= Studi Apuleiani 135-141]. "Fulgenzio riverbera ... una più vasta attività erudita sulle Metamorfosi --o quanto meno, sulla 'bella fabella' di Amore e Psiche."
Tadic, Nicole. "Une étymologie fulgentienne: celle d'Antée," Latomus 28 (1969) 685-690.
Discusses F.'s derivation of Antaeus (p. 43. 2) and Anteia (p. 59. 17) from Greek antaios and his interpretation of both figures as allegories of libido. The author suggests that a Christianizing interpretation of the Heracles/Antaeus myth underlies F.'s treatment.
Tinkle, Theresa. Medieval Venuses and Cupids. Sexuality, Hermeneutics and English Poetry (Stanford, 1996).

Short discussion of F. at pp. 54-57, focusing on the theme of lust as embodied by Venus and other figures. F. "employs iconographic, historical, etymological, natural, and allegorical hermenutics ... The multiple hermeneutics do not, however, seek a single, coherent truth for any mythic figure" (55) and are often incompatible with one another. Thus by explicating figures like Venus in both moral and physical terms F. "represents sexuality in such a way as to preclude individual moral action even while requiring it."

Tochtermann, Sibylle. Der allegorisch gedeutete Kirke-Mythos. Studien zur Entwicklungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichte (Frankfurt etc., 1992)
A brief section (pp. 195-200) is devoted to F's treatment of Circe.
Venuti, Martina. "La materia mitica nelle 'Mythologiae' di Fulgenzio. La Fabula Bellerofontis (Fulg. myth. 59.2)," in M. Gioseffi, ed. Uso, riuso, e abuso dei testi classici. Colloquium (Milan, 2010), 71-90. [For PDF click here.]
[Summary to come.]
Walsh, P.G. The Roman Novel (Cambridge, 1970).
F's version of the Cupid & Psyche story (Mit. 3. 6) is summarized with brief discussion at pp. 218f.
Wille, Günther. Musica Romana (Amsterdam, 1967).
The fables of Marsyas and Orpheus are discussed briefly on pp. 654f. F's exposition of music theory is eccentric and confused. "Fulgentius kann selbst als Beweis dafür gelten, daß es mit dem Musikwissen nicht mehr gut bestellt war ... er hatte einmal musiktheoretischen Unterricht genossen, wußte aber nichts Genaues mehr."

Wolff, Étienne. "Allegorical interpretations of Hera-Juno at the end of Antiquity: The Example of Fulgentius," Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 57 (2017), 297-304.

[Summary to come.]

[Hays contains chapters on allegory and sources]

Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae


Helm , Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera, pp. 81-107

Translations, Commentaries etc.

Agozzino, Tullio, and F. Zanlucchi, edd. Fabio Planciade Fulgenzio. Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae (Padova, 1972).

Text with facing Italian translation, introduction and commentary. The text is Helm's, though this is nowhere acknowledged and the only numbering given is Muncker's.
       Reviews: Hardison, O.B., Jr., Classical and Medieval Literary Criticism, edd. A. Preminger et al. (New York, 1974), 324-340.
English translation with brief introduction.
Hays, G. "Fabius Planciades Fulgentius," in J. Ziolkowski and M. Putnam, ed. The Virgilian Tradition. The First Fifteen Hundred Years (New Haven and London, 2008), 660-672.

Text and abridged English translation.

McVeigh, T.A
. [see below]

Rosa, Fabio. Fulgenzio. Commento all' Eneide (Milan, 1997).

Introduction, Helm's text ("con pocche eccezioni"), Italian translation and notes.
Stokes, Lynn C. "Fulgentius and the 'Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae," (Diss. Tufts, 1969).
Contains Helm's text with facing English translation, introduction and brief commentary. Translation is unreliable but an honest attempt. Introduction and commentary are purely derivative.
Stokes, Lynn C. "The Exposition of the Contents of Virgil," Classical Folia 26 (1972) 27-63.
Latin text with facing English tr., derived from author's dissertation.
Wolff, Étienne. Fulgence. Virgile dévoilé. (Villeneuve d’Ascq, 2009).

French translation of Cont. with introduction and notes, accompanied by supplementary material (Ps. Fulgentius Super Thebaiden, excerpts from Isidore, Bernardus Silvestris, Boccaccio).


[Cf. also Bertini (excerpt)]

Secondary Literature

Agozzino, Tullio."Secretum Quaerere Veritatis. Virgilio, Vates Ignarus nella Continentia Vergiliana," Studi classici in honore di Quintino Cataudella (Catania, 1972) 3: 615-630.

Discusses the Continentia as a deeply serious example of apocalyptic epiphany. Vergil is presented as having been inspired (albeit unknowingly) by Christian veritas. "Cristianesimo (Fulgenzio) e Paganesimo (Virgilio) s'incontrano, come fratelli che tornano da lontano".
Albu, Emily. "Disarming Aeneas: Fulgentius on Arms and the Man," in A. Cain and N. Lenski, ed. The Power of Religion in Late Antiquity (Aldershot and Burlington, 2009), 21-30.

Albu, Emily. "Fulgentius the Mythoclast: Cooling Pagan Passions in Christian Late Antiquity," Electronic Antiquity 14 (2010/2011), 83-96. [Click for pdf | html]

Ranks F. with "Christian mythographers working to undo the web of ancient tales about gods and heroes and nurture a fundamentally different way of thinking and being" (84). After some introductory comments on Mit., the article offers a sequential reading of Cont. Interesting remarks on the end of the work. "[T]he Aeneid's famous conclusion posed a problem even for this mythoclast" (92); F.'s moralizing allegory forces him to ignore the killing of Turnus and concentrate instead on Juturna. But while the work "pos[es] as a guide for the path to a manliness controlled by enlightened self-restraint," it undermines its own superficially optimistic message. "Virgil's humanity and depth of emotion have shifted ... to a fundamental distaste for the human condition ... [Cont.'s] conclusion reinforces this pervasive sense of disquiet. ... Fulgentius has perhaps not attained the sanctuary, the serene wisdom that his work proclaims" (95).

Battaglia, S. "Introduzione alla teoria del poeta teologo," Cultura e scuola 13/14 (1965), 72-86
The Continentia is summarized and discussed at pp. 80-82, mainly as a precedent for Dante. "S'intende che il Virgilio di Dante non sarà più quello di Macrobio o di Fulgenzio; ma è anche vero che i suoi tratti fondamentali, si direbbe istituzionali, derivano dal loro impianto" (85).
Benko, S. "Virgil's Fourth Eclogue in Christian Interpretation," Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.31.1 (1980), 646-705.
F.'s allusions to Eclogue 4 are briefly discussed at p. 678.
Bertini, Ferruccio. "Interpreti medievali di Virgilio: Fulgenzio e Bernardo Silvestre," Sandalion 6/7 (1983/4), 151-164.

Bertini, Ferruccio. "Fulgenzio," Enciclopedia Virgiliana (Rome, 1985), II: 603-5.

"Il problema dell' identificazione dei due Fulgenzi è ancora lontano da una soluzione definitiva" (603), though F is elsewhere identified as a grammaticus (604). A brief reference to the history of allegorization is followed by a summary of the treatise. F's reputation now seems to be recovering from the damning verdict of Comparetti: "invece di irridere F. per l'ingenuità e la stranezza delle sue etimologie, bisogna rendersi conto che questo tipo di esegesi ... era già stato applicato da stoici, pitagorici e neoplatonici a Omero e dai Padri della Chiesa ai testi sacri ed episodicamente a Virgilio." The work is important as the first attempt at a comprehensive allegorical reading of the poem. Brief remarks on medieval reception; relatively full bibliography.
Binder, Gerhard. "Der brauchbare Held: Aeneas. Stationen der Funktionalisierung eines Ursprungsmythos," in H.-J. Horn and H. Walter, ed. Die Allegorese des antiken Mythos (Wiesbaden, 1997), 311-330.
Surveys the uses made of the Aeneas myth in ancient, medieval and modern sources. Brief discussion of Cont., especially F's habere/ regere/ornare distinction (pp. 324-326).
Brok, M.F.A. "De Aeneis als Speigel van het menselijk Leven," Hermeneus 24 (1952/3) 210-214.
Brief introduction comparable to Caballero, Coffin (below).
Burkard, T. "Die Deutung der Vergilischen Schiffbruchszene (Aeneis 1) durch Fabius Planciades Fulgentius. Ein Beitrag zur allegorischen Methode in der Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae," Rheinisches Museum n.s. 149 (2006), 386-397.

Discusses the vexed passage at p. 91. 17 (previously examined by Huber-Rebenich), concluding that perfectioni should be emended to perfunctioni. Translate: "Für die Bestehung dieser Gefahr verspricht die Göttin der Geburt (scil. den Menschen) die puplica uisio" (393). This latter phrase means "ordinary vision," "das Sehen allgemein" (396).

Caballero de del Sastre, Elisabeth. "Fabius Planciades Fulgentius, De Continentia Vergiliana, Alegoria y Retorica," Actas del VII simpósio nacional de estúdios clásicos. Buenos Aires 1982 (Buenos Aires, 1986), 121-131.
Brief treatment comparable to Brok (above), Coffin (below), discussing F's relationship to the rhetorical tradition and his role in the formation of medieval allegory.
Coffin, H.C. "Allegorical Interpretation of Vergil with Special Reference to Fulgentius," Classical Weekly 15 (1921) 33-35.
Little more than a summary of the work. Fulgentius's Vergil is the logical development of the polymath Vergil we see in Macrobius.
Comparetti, Domenico. Virgilio nel medio evo , 2d ed., ed. G. Pasquali, 2 vols. (Florence, 1943). [Google Books: English version]
Unsympathetic discussion of Cont., pp. 132-143.
Courcelle, Pierre. "Les pères de l'église devant les enfers virgiliens," AHDLMA 22 (1956), 5-74.

Courcelle, Pierre. Lecteurs païens et lecteurs chrétiens de l'Énéide.Vol. 1: Les témoignages littéraires (Paris, 1984).

Follows the order of the poem; F. is mentioned passim (see index) and there is a general discussion of Cont. at pp. 501-504.
Damon, Philip. "Allegory and Invention: Levels of Meaning in Ancient and Medieval Rhetoric," The Classics in the Middle Ages , ed. A.S. Bernardo and S. Levin. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 69 (Binghamton, 1990) 113-127.
[Summary to come.]

Desbordes, Françoise, "Virgile s'explique," Europe no. 765-766 (Jan. 1993), 81-92 =  her Scripta Varia. Rhétorique antique et Littérature latine, ed. G. Clerico and J. Soubiran (Louvain, 2006), 277-289. [Page references below to the latter.]

An introduction to Cont., viewed as a climactic stage in ancient grammatical engagement with Vergil. Surveys and summarizes grammarians' approaches to the poet (278-283), before turning to F. Offers a condensed translation/paraphrase of the Aeneid explication (through book 6). F.'s habere/regere/ornare triad is reminiscent of other triads that cluster around Vergil in vitae and accessus: " Virgile est l'auteur de trois oeuvres, son épitaphe mentionne trois lieux ..., il a trois protecteurs à ses débuts ... et trois grands patrons ..., trois amis ..., trois amours, ... etc." (284). D. notes also the triadic mnemonic/stylistic schema known as the rota Virgilii found in John of Garland's Parisiana Poetria. F.'s interpretation includes some grains of truth: "On se dit que la disparition d'Anchise avant l'épisode amoureux est en effet une coïncidence frappante, ... que l'orage qui pousse Didon et Énée vers la grotte fatale a quelque chose à voir avec la surprise des sens, ... qu'Énée, c'est aussi, entre autres choses, l'Homme" (287). A brief conclusion sees the Epistolae and Epitomae of Virgilius Maro Grammaticus as a further step in this tradition: "les grammairiens se sont assez incorporé Virgile pour qu'il se réincarne en l'un d'eux" (289).

Desmond, Marilynn. Reading Dido. Gender, Textuality and the Medieval Aeneid (Minneapolis, 1994).

The Continentia is briefly discussed at 84f.: "Aeneas ... represents the normative masculine biography of everyman; female characters, especially Dido, are thereby seen in relation to such an androcentric reading of Virgil's text."
Ferguson, Thomas S. "Golden Bough, Golden Tongue, Golden Jewel: Aeneid 6 in the Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae of Fulgentius," Studia Patristica 38 (2001), 394-399.
F's Aeneas is not only a paradigm of Stoic virtue but also an exemplar of humility; F. thus "offers a counterargument to Augustine's first critical attack on Virgil in De civitate Dei" and enables a Christian audience to read Vergil with a clear conscience.
Gasquy, Armand. "De Fabio Planciade Fulgentio, Virgilii Interprete," Berliner Studien für Classische Philologie und Archaeologie 6 (1889) 1-43.
[Click here for text (in progress)]
Gsell, Stéphane. "Virgile et les Africains," in his Etudes sur l'Afrique antique (Lille, 1981), 273-310 [Originally published in Cinquantaire de la Faculté des Lettres d'Alger (Algiers, 1932), 5-42. NB: The 1981 version is a photographic reprint with the preceding information in the header, but the reproduced pages are in fact numbered 1-38.]
The Continentia is summarized and briefly discussed in the closing pages (307-310 of 1981 edition). The work "mérite ... quelque attention par le ròle qu'il assigne au grand poète païen, maître de science et de sagesse, dont les leçons s'imposent mîeme aux fidèles du Christ."
Gualandri, I. "L'Aurea lingua dei letterati: Ambrogio, Fulgenzio, Diogene Cinico (e Platone?)," Paideia 60 (2005), 115-133.

Examines the image of the aurea lingua as a symbol of false eloquence in Ambrose Epist. 73 Zelzer and Off. 2. 26. 129 (pp. 115-125) and Fulg. Cont. p. 97. 5ff. (pp. 125-133). The Platonis sententia mentioned by F. must refer to a comment made by (or attributed to) Plato about his own legacy, "in cui egli dicesse, ad esempio, che non lasciava ricchezze materiali, bensì la sua opera, e cioè l'oro della sapienza o forse dell'eloquenza" (130). This comment was then attacked by Diogenes; invadere does not mean "usurp" (as most translators suppose) but "criticare con asprezza"; hereditas may refer not to a real legacy but to Plato's students and successors.

Hardison, O.B. Jr. The Enduring Monument. A Study of the Idea of Praise in Renaissance Literary Theory and Practice (Chapel Hill, NC 1962 and later reprints).
Pp. 33-5 discuss the Continentia's treatment of the Aeneid as a poem of praise, and place it in the context of epideictic readings of literature from antiquity to the Renaissance. Further discussion on pp. 77ff.: "Incapable of responding to the narrative appeal of the Aeneid, Fulgentius made it over in the image of the panegyrical biography." Analyzes "Fulgentian" elements in Spenser, though without quite making it clear whether direct influence is envisaged.
Huber-Rebenich, Gerlinde. "Die Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae des Fulgentius," in H.-J. Horn and H. Walter, edd. Die Allegorie des antiken Mythos. = Wolfenbütteler Forschungen 75 (Wiesbaden, 1997), 85-95.
Discusses the problematic passage at Cont. p. 91. 17 cui quidem perfectioni<s> puplica a dea partus promittitur visio as an example of the interpretive difficulties confronting F's readers. Published translations are shown to either misrepresent the Latin or produce gibberish (or both). The author offers no alternative rendering, but suggests that the difficulty is due in part to the eclecticism and ad hoc nature of F's allegoresis; when the Latin is ambiguous, logic will not necessarily be of any help.
Irvine, Martin. The Making of Textual Culture (Cambridge, 1994).
Pp. 155-160 discuss the Continentia in the context of ancient and medieval grammatical culture: "[t]hrough this commentary, Vergil's authority was re-instituted: the Aeneid was made to speak the language of medieval textual communities" (160).
Jones, J.W., Jr. "An Analysis of the Allegorical Interpretations in the Servian Commentary on the Aeneid" (Ph.D Diss., Univ. North Carolina, 1959).
Fulgentius is discussed briefly on pp. 174-6.
Jones, J.W., Jr. "Vergil as Magister in Fulgentius," Classical Mediaeval and Renaissance Studies in Honor of Berthold Louis Ullman , ed. C. Henderson, Jr. vol. 1 (Rome, 1964) 273-5.
Vergil in the Continentia plays the role of a contemporary schoolmaster; this explains his disdainful manner toward Fulgentius, who is cast as the pupil.
Kallendorf, Craig. In Praise of Aeneas. Virgil and Epidectic Rhetoric in the Early Italian Renaissance (Hanover, NH, 1989).
Brief discussion/summary of the Continentia at 5f. with 175 n. 14; incidental references passim (see index s.v. Fulgentius).
Kaufmann, Helen. "Virgil's Underworld in the Mind of Roman Late Antiquity," Latomus 69 (2010), 150-160.

Discusses various approaches to the Vergilian text (literal interpretation vs. allegory; text vs. imagery, quotation vs. paraphrase), which can be found in various combinations in Servius, Macrobius, Augustine, Ambrose, Lactantius and F. (158-160). "Fulgentius offers a reception of Virgil's underworld significantly different from [the other authors discussed], but at the same time resembling those in both Servius and Macrobius' Saturnalia" (158).

Laird, Andrew. "The Poetics and Afterlife of Virgil's Descent to the Underworld: Servius, Dante, Fulgentius and the Culex," Proceedings of the Virgil Society 24 (2001), 49-80.
The discussion of Cont. (pp. 60-67) stresses the disproportionate space accorded Book 6 in F's exposition. The Continentia is "an amusing literary creation, ... as much a parodic variant of Virgil's katabasis as a commentary on it" (64).
Lerer, Seth. Boethius and Dialogue. Literary Method in the Consolation of Philosophy (Princeton, 1985).
The Continentia is discussed on pp. 56-69.
Luman, Richard."Journeys and Gardens: Narrative Patterns in the Confessiones of St. Augustine," in J.C. Schnaubelt and F. van Fleteren, ed. Collectanea Augustiniana. Augustine: "Second Founder of the Faith." (New York etc., 1990), 141-157.
A long note (154 n. 18) discusses the Continentia; allegorical readings of the Aeneid such as F's (which "seems effectively to summarize much more ancient lore") must have influenced Augustine's own use of the epic in the Confessions.
McGowan, Matthew. "On the Etymology and Inflection of 'Dares' in Vergil's Boxing Match, Aeneid 5.362484," Classical Philology 97 (2002), 80-88.
"This paper examines Vergil's application of an etymology for the name 'Dares' that is found in both the ancient commentary on Homeric words and the late antique mythographer Fulgentius [= Cont. p. 95. 5ff.]. It then considers Fulgentius' interpretation of Vergil's boxing match on its own and also in the light of an epistolary exchange between St. Jerome and St. Augustine."
McVeigh, Terence A. "The Allegory of the Poets: A Study of Classical Tradition in Medieval Interpretation of Virgil," (Ph.D. Diss. Fordham, 1964).
Fulgentius is discussed on pp. 85-113. The Continentia is translated in an appendix.
McVeigh, Terence A. "Fulgentius the Mythographer: Some Observations," Classical Folia 28 (1974) 103-105.
Helm on Cont. p. 97. 18ff sees a reference to Joshua 7.21. Whitbread (149) corrects to Ezek. 7.20. Helm is right, but read dextraria and furatum. F. is recalling Origen's exegesis of the Joshua passage (via Rufinus).
Olson, Paul A. The Journey to Wisdom. Self-Education in Patristic and Medieval Literature (Lincoln, Neb., 1995).
Chapter 5 ("The Heroic Educational Journey") deals with allegorical readings of the Aeneid from late antiquity through Petrarch. The Continentia is discussed at pp. 90-99; F's interpretation adapts Neoplatonic allegorization of the Odyssey to a Latin context.
Ossa-Richardson, Anthony. "From Servius to Frazer: The Golden Bough and its Transformations," International Journal of the Classical Tradition 15 (2008), 339-368.
Surveys interpretations of this Virgilian motif. F.'s interpretation is discussed at 346-348; there is also some discussion of its reception in the Bernardus commentary and Renaissance interpreters.
Rauner-Hafner, Gabriele. "Die Vergilinterpretation des Fulgentius. Bemerkungen zu Gliederung und Absicht der Expositio Virgilianae continentiae."Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 13 (1978) 7-49.
Revised extract from author's dissertation (Saarbrücken, 1976).
Renard, Marcel. "Ulysse et Polyphème. A propos d'une mosaïque de Piazza Armerina," in Hommages à Léon Herrmann. Collection Latomus 44 (Brussels, 1960), 655-668.
Discusses moral allegorizations of the Cyclops story in art and literature. Cont. p. 94. 2ff. is discussed at p. 666f.
Vitale-Brovarone, A. "Le modèle du développement  psychologique de l'enfant chez Fulgence le Mythographe", in L'Enfant au  Moyen Age. Littérature et civilisation = Senefiance 9 (Aix-en-Provence, 1980), 161-171.

Whitbread, L.G. "Fulgentius on Dangerous Doctrine," Latomus 30 (1971), 1157-1161.

Analyzes the list of authorities at 85, 17 - 86, 6. Parallels in Tertullian are cited, and F's use of Tertullian as model and authority is discussed.
Wolff, Étienne. "Quelques difficultés de texte et de sens dans l'Expositio Virgilianae continentiae de Fulgence", Revue de Philologie 76 (2002) 101-108.

Notes preparatory to Wolff's translation of 2009.
  1. (p. 83. 4-6) dominatui must be dative; novo caritatis dominatui refers to the advent of the rex mentioned in the preface to Mit. and is not a writing-at-friend's-behest topos (as Hays would have it); however, the friend's-behest motif is present in the next clause.
  2. (p. 85. 19-86. 2) in quibus is equivalent to in quae; inuerso means "appliquer à, rapporter à," not "saepe tractare" as TLL would have it. Translate "je ne cherche pas ce à quoi Pythagore rapporte les mesures musicales (etc.)"
  3. (p. 86. 7-10) onerosiores sarcinulas designates the Eclogues and Georgics. The phrase glabro solidior is glossed asperitate durior in several manuscripts; this has misled TLL s.v. glabrum. In reality, "la formule désigne simplement la surface de la terre dans ce qu'elle a, globalement, de plat." ruptuas is a graphic variant for ructuas.
  4. (p. 91. 21-92. 3) The redundant haec can stand; Cont. has a number of similar shifts in construction (e.g. p. 98. 7ff. or p. 105. 5f.).
  5. (p. 94. 13f.) sepelire with an inanimate subject is rare but not unattested; the reading portu in later manuscripts should be rejected.
  6. (p. 95. 21-96) peruenitur is an impersonal passive; consultatur is a deponent (with Aeneas as unexpressed subject).
  7. (p. 96. 22-97. 1) the shift in construction in non antea ... nisi ... is a late phenomenon. The inconcinnity between decerpserit and discatur is partially paralleled at p. 94. 3-5 quia ... portat et ... erigatur.
  8. (p. 97. 13-15) The nominatives intellectus, memoria and facundia are influenced by the opening of the sentence. The inclusion of Medusa among the Hesperides probably goes back to a misunderstanding of Hesiod Theogony 275-276.
  9. (p. 98. 18-22) For in temporales read intemporales. [This is actually the reading of the manuscripts. -GH]
  10. (p. 101.10-12) dicimus (supplied from the following dicitur) must be understood after domantem; several of the later manuscripts (DG) actually insert it. [But Helm's report to this effect is in fact false. -GH]
  11. (p. 101. 15-19) Read perfectionem omisso iam labore discendi <scientiae consecutus eris>, memoriae quae in cerebro est sicut in postibus perpetue infigenda<m>.
  12. (p. 101.21-102.3) "elisis est un mixte gréco-latin, participe de forme latine du verbe grec ekluô, et non l'ablatif-locatif de Elysii." In the next sentence either ramulum must be neuter or dedicatur deponent.
  13. (p. 104. 10-11) Cauni should be emended to Fauni (with Rosa). This also requires a change at p. 104. 14-15 below. Rosa would read Faunus uero <quasi Caunus> id est camnonus; id should also be deleted. But "[p]eut-être n'y a-t-il pas lieu de corriger du tout, et Fulgence déforme-t-il le nom propre pour le plier à l'étymologie."
Wolff, Étienne. "Vergil and Fulgentius," Vergilius 54 (2008), 59-69.

Brief introduction to Cont. (partly overlapping the introduction to Wolff's translation and his "Fulgentiana" of 2003). Vergil's central cultural role is evident in F., as in other authors. F. was probably a grammaticus; at any rate, his work reflects educational traditions. However, his global allegory represents a departure from the fragmented line-by-line readings of scholars like Priscian and Servius. F. is also the first Christian commentator on Vergil, suggesting that "beyond the deceptions and the occasionally outrageous appearances lies a [corpus] of outstanding moral values" (61). Cont. is written in epistolary form, as shown by the final Vale, but also looks to the tradition of philosophical and other dialogue. However, "there is no real dialogue between the two protagonists: Fulgentius seldom intervenes and never disputes Vergil's explanations" (62). At certain points (notably p. 98. 23f.) the two voices merge. The portrayal of Vergil as a "cold and haughty figure" (against the evidence of ancient biographers) may surprise the reader, but the comic features of the depiction may derive from the tradition of the spoudogeloion. In the course of the dialogue, F. acts as a representative of Christianity; "however, Vergil refuses ... to be assimilated as a Christian" (65). The religious element results in a "progressive reversal ... in the [teacher/student] relationship between Fulgentius and Vergil" (65). F.'s claim that the Eclogues and Georgics hold deeper mysteries than the Aeneid goes against the grain of ancient criticism. F. also downplays the Dido episode and passages relating to the future mission of Rome. F.'s ultimate attitude to Vergil is paradoxical; he displays great respect for the poet yet "seems to stay at a distance from [him]" (68).

Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum

Editions, Translations etc.

Gerlach, F.D. and Roth, C.L., Nonii Marcelli ... De compendiosa doctrina ... et Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii, Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum (Basel, 1842), 386-398 [Google Books]

Lersch, Laurenz. Fabius Planciades Fulgentius de abstrusis sermonibus (Bonn, 1844). [Google Books]


            Klotz, R. Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Paedagogik 43 (1845) 71-96.

Wessner, Paul. "Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum" Commentationes Philologae
Ienenses, vol. 6 (1899) 63-143.


Helm , Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera, pp. 109-126.

Pizzani, Ubaldo. Fabio Planciade Fulgenzio. Definizione di Parole Antiche (Rome, 1968).

Includes introduction, Italian translation, and very full commentary.


Secondary Literature

Baldwin, Barry. An Anthology of Later Latin Literature (Amsterdam, 1987).

Fulgentius is represented exclusively by Serm. 54 ('Tacitus in libro facetiarum'). A brief commentary lists possible sources from which F. might have fabricated the citation.
Becker, J. "Beiträge zur Kritik des Fulgentius," Rh. Mus. n.s. 5 (1847), 33-44.
Discusses two entries in Serm. relating to Lucilius. Pace Lersch, the citation in Serm. 23 is consonant in style and subject matter with Lucilius and surely authentic (34-36). In Serm. 62, "Lucretius" should be emended to "Lucilius": the comic Nummolaria formed part of Lucilius book 29 (36-43). A brief note (43f.) attributed to "D[er] Red[aktor]" (presumably = F. Ritschl) takes issue with B.'s metrical analysis of the second fragment and offers two alternatives.
Bertini, Ferruccio. "Nonio e Fulgenzio," Studi Noniani II = Pubblicazioni dell' Istituto di Filologia Classica dell' Università di Genova 32 (1972) 33-60.
Argues (against Strzelecki) that F. used Nonius.
Bertini, Ferruccio. "La fortuna di Nonio dal Medioevo al Perotti - I Parte: da Fulgenzio a Lupo di Ferrières," in F. Bertini, ed. Prolegomena Noniana II = Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di Archeologia, Filologia classica e loro tradizioni n.s. 211 (Genova, 2003), 131-148.

Brief summary of B.'s earlier treatment (above) at p. 136f.; bibliography in n. 21. No new material.

Brandt, Samuel. "gerrae gerro congerro," Jahrbücher für classische Philologie 24 (1878), 365-389.
A study of these words as they appear in comedy and other sources. Discusses Serm. 49 at pp. 380-384, arguing inter alia that the reference to gerrones Brutiani should be emended to congerrones Bruttates and that it may derive from Lucilius.
Calderan, Roberto. Tito Maccio Plauto. Vidularia, 2d ed. (Urbino, 2004).

Includes commentary on F.'s two citations from this play (Serm. 53 = frg. 15 Calderan; Serm. 15 = frg. 14 Calderan) at pp. 162-3. The introduction (pp. 21-26) discusses the two citations in the context of F.'s other Plautine quotations, concluding that they reflect direct knowledge of Plautus rather than an intermediate grammatical source such as Nonius or Verrius Flaccus.

Champlin, Edward. Fronto and Antonine Rome (Cambridge, Mass. 1980).
The citation from Fronto at Serm. 35 (p. 121. 7ff.) is discussed on p. 67. In spite of F's unreliability, Fronto's Campanian connections make a speech on behalf of the Campanian town of Nuceria plausible.
D'Onofrio, Giulio. "Materiale didattico per le discipline del trivium in un manoscritto altomedievale (Reg. Lat. 1461)," in Le Chiavi della memoria. Miscellanea in occasione del I centenario della Scuola Vaticana di Paleografia Diplomatica e Archivistica (Vatican City, 1984), 347-383.
The second section of this manuscript (s. X) includes excerpts from Serm. on f. 44r-v; these are transcribed at pp. 369-370.
Götz, Georg. Corpus Glossariorum Latinorum (Leipzig and Berlin, 1923), vol. 1.
Discussion of Fulgentius at pp. 73-75.
Harnack, Adolf von. "Tertullian in der Litteratur der alten Kirche," Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin (1895), 545-579.
F's citation of Tertullian's De fato (116, 18) is discussed briefly at p. 577. Its authenticity is "schwerlich zu bezweifeln."
Haupt, M. "Über einen vermeintlichen Vers des Rabirius bei Fulgentius," Rheinisches Museum 3 (1845) 307-310.
Identifies Serm. 58 (125, 18ff.) as dealing with the story of Metennius's wife recorded in Pliny, Valerius Maximus, and elsewhere. The reference to the wife as "Metennia" reveals that the quotation is fabricated.

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Helm, Rudolf. "De Hecales Callimacheae in Latinum conversae fragmento," Philologus 58 (1899) 473-475.

Huxley, George. "Fulgentius on the Cretan Hecatomphonia," Classical Philology 68 (1973) 124-127. [J-STOR]

Deals with Serm. 5; the entry is rewritten wholesale to bring it into line with ethnographic parallels, on the dangerous assumption "that the principal errors are due, not to Fulgentius, but to his copyists." (126).
Jahn, Otto. Auli Persii Flacci Satirarum Liber (Leipzig, 1843), xxiii-xxv.

Dismisses the "Cornutus" citation in Serm. 20 as a fraud. A lengthy footnote argues that falsification is widespread in Serm., noting in particular the citation of (presumably) Greek authors as evidence for Latin usage. Some confusions can be attributed to poor memory or corrupt sources, but as a rule F. should not be trusted unless bolstered by independent evidence.

Koch, H. "Tertullianisches I. Zur verloren gegangen Schrift De Fato," Theologische Studien und Kritiken 101 (1929), 458-462.
Tertullian's treatise, alluded to at De anima 20 and cited by F. at Serm. 16, may also underlie Ps. Augustine Quaestiones 115.
Leo, Friedrich. "De Plauti Vidularia" (Progr. Göttingen, 1895).
Discusses F's quotations from Vidularia (Serm. 10 and 53) at pp. 15ff. in light of Plautine citations generally. While accepting that many of F's quotations are bogus, L. sees the Plautine citations as genuine, though sometimes garbled and/or misremembered. This includes the two citations of Vidularia; these may come from the same passage, with that at Serm. 10 following directly on (and responding to) that at Serm. 53.
Lersch, Laurenz. "Zur Kritik des Fulgentius," Rheinisches Museum 4 (1846), 155-157.

Notes on Serm. 2-3 in response to review of L's edition by Klotz. [Click here for text].

Lersch, Laurenz. "Fulgentiana," Rheinisches Museum n.s. 5 (1847), 309-313.
Response to a review by Roth of Lersch's edition of Serm. Contains notes on Serm. 28 (Herakleia); 25 (Memmius/Memor); 8 (Silicernius).
Mastandrea, Paolo. Un Neoplatonico Latino: Cornelio Labeone (Leiden, 1979).
pp. 88-95 discuss the Labeo citation at Serm. 4 p. 112. 11, arguing that it is substantially reliable.
Magno, Pietro. "Su alcune citazioni di Fulgenzio riguardanti Ennio e Pacuvio," Rivista di Studi Classici 26 (1978), 451-458.
Discusses the citations from Ennius (Serm. 19) and Pacuvius (Serm. 12 and 57). All three are actual fragments of archaic drama. The citation from Ennius should be accepted; of those from Pacuvius, the first should be attributed to an unknown author, while the second is Pacuvian, but the title Tiestes probably incorrect.
Mariotti, Italo. Introduzione a Pacuvio (Urbino, 1960).
Brief discussion at p. 47 rejects as inauthentic the citations from Pacuvius's Pseudon (Serm. 12) and Thyestes (Serm. 57): "Fulgenzio è noto per l'inesattezza di molte sue informazioni e citazioni."
Mazzarino, A. La Milesia e Apuleio (Turin, 1950).
pp. 22-42 study the variations between F.'s citations of Apuleius and the received text of the Metamorphoses. The author argues unconvincingly for the circulation in late antique North Africa of a separate redaction of the novel, quite different both in style and plot from that which has survived.
Merkelbach, Reinhold. "La nuova pagina di Sisenna ed Apuleio," Maia 5 (1952), 234-241.
Argues on pp. 236f. against Mazzarino's theory that divergences between F's Apuleius citations and the transmitted text point to use of a different redaction.
Müller, L. "Sammelsurien," Jahrbücher für classische Philologie 95 (1867) 791-6.

Pasoli, E. "Dividias Mentis Conficit Omnis Amor," Giornale italiano di filologia 24 (1972), 363-371.

Pennisi, Giuseppe. Fulgenzio e la Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum (Florence, 1963).

Divided into three self-contained sections:

Pennisi, Giuseppe. Poeti e intellettuali nella Roma antica e tardoantica. Catullo, Fulgenzio (Reggio Calabria, 1979).

The second half of the book (pp. 151-291) is devoted to an excruciatingly detailed study of Serm. 5, including a new text and apparatus.

Ramorinus [i.e. Ramorino], F. "De duobus Persii codicibus," Studi italiani di filologia classica 12 (1904), 229-260.
Pp. 230f. discuss a vita of Persius prefixed to one of the MSS, in which mention is made of Cornutus as a satirist--cf. Serm. 20 p. 117. 16 "Marcus Cornutus in satyra".
Romano, Domenico. Il primo Lucrezio (Palermo, 1995).
A study arguing that most fragments of "Lucretius" quoted by ancient authors but not found in the DRN derive from an earlier lost poem on nature. Two exceptions are Serm. 62 and the comic-sounding citation at Probus GL iv. 212. 10, both discussed at pp. 55-59. These come from lost comedies written in Lucretius's youth "nel mezzo della sua lettura appassionata del teatro di Plauto" (59). The author attributes to F. "molte e sempre puntuali citazioni dal De rerum natura (tratte soprattutto dai libri II, III, IV e V)," a claim that appears to rest on a hasty misreading of Ciaffi 15f. (or perhaps merely his index locorum).
Scarcia, R. Latina Siren. Note di critica semantica. (Rome, 1964).
The Apuleius citation at Serm. 17 (p. 116. 21) is discussed on pp. 113-115.
Schaefer, A. "Fulgentius und die kretische hekatomphonie," Philologus 23 (1866), 562-4.

Scheid, J. Romulus et ses frères (Paris, 1990).

Serm. 9 (on the origins of the Arval Brethren) is discussed at 19-24.
Stowasser, J. "Satura," Wiener Studien 6 (1884), 206-215.
Item 14 (p. 213) deals with Serm. 47 (p. 123, 15ff.). The citation is a genuine fragment of comedy (whether or not it comes from Sutrius's Piscatoria), and ganei is to be interpreted as = luxuriosi , a sense attested in glossaries.
Strzelecki, W. von. "Zu Nonius und Fulgentius," Hermes 68 (1933), 349-352.
Studies entries 13 and 19; the author disputes L. Müller's claim that F. drew on Nonius for these entries; similarities are rather to be explained by F's use of other sources that probably go back to Verrius Flaccus and/or Festus.
Strzelecki, L. "Quaestiones Tragicae," Eos 46 (1952), 107-119.
The second half of the article (114ff.) deals with the citation from "Memos" at Serm. 25 (p. 119, 5), arguing that its attribution to the late 1st c. tragedian Scaevus Memor is plausible both on general and metrical grounds.
Timpanaro, Sebastiano."Per una nuova edizione critica di Ennio," Studi italiani di filologia classica n.s. 22 (1947) 179-207.
Pages 199ff. discuss Ennius quotation in SA p. 117H.
Traglia, Antonio, ed. Poeti latini arcaici (Turin, 1986), i. 246-249.
F.'s three citations from Naevius (Serm. 21; 37; 43) are classed as "Fragmenta dubia et pseudonaeviana," inasmuch as "seri dubbi rimangono ... sull' esattezza delle citazioni fulgenziane, anche senza pensare che fosse un falsario di proposito." Substantive notes on all three fragments.
Todini, Umberto. "A proposito del lemma fulgenziano sui Neferendi Sues (Exp. serm. ant. 5)," Rivista di cultura classica e medievale 12 (1970), 31-37.
Adds nothing to previous discussions of this entry.
Wolff, Étienne. "Fulgence et l'Expositio sermonum antiquorum," in Autour de Lactance. Hommages à Pierre Monat (Besançon, 2003), 197-203.
Surveys the nature, organization and possible sources of the treatise. W. notes that he was unable to consult Pizzani's edition, but he shares Pizzani's moderate position on the forgery question: "Les citations ... sont à prendre au sérieux, et lui-même n'est ni un fantaisiste ni un faussaire." Errors and inaccuracies reflect F's use of intermediate sources, which included Nonius (W. accepts Bertini's arguments on this point) and a commented edition of Plautus (or a monograph on the playwright). The apparently random order of the entries conceals smaller groups of related citations, some thematic, others connected to a particular author (notably Plautus and Apuleius).

De Aetatibus Mundi et Hominis


Reifferscheid, August. "Mittheilungen aus Handschriften," Rheinisches Museum 23 (1868), 127-146.

Text of Aet. X-XI with brief introduction.
Reifferscheid, August. "Anecdotum Fulgentianum," Index Scholarum in Universitate Litterarum Vratislaviensi (Breslau,1883-1884), 3-10.
Text of Aet. XIV with brief notes.
Helm , Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera, pp. 127-179.


Manca, Massimo. Fulgenzio. Le età del mondo e dell' uomo (Alessandria, 2003).

Text (based on Helm) with facing-page Italian translation and notes. An extensive introduction deals with questions of date, authorship, genre and style.
Secondary Literature

Archambault, Paul. "The Ages of Man and the Ages of the World. A Study of Two Traditions," Révue des Études Augustiniennes 12 (1966) 193-228.

F is briefly mentioned on p. 206: "Although [F] left his work unfinished after the fourteenth age it is clear to see that his division of the ages of the world are simply the Augustinian divisions cut into finer subdivisions. The same can be said for his divisions of the ages of man."
Ferguson, Thomas. "Grace and Kingship in De aetatibus mundi et hominis of Planciades Fulgentius," Studia Patristica 69 (2013), 205-212.
A reading of Aet. through an Augustinian/Orosian lens. Implicit in the work is "the Pauline division of history, as understood by Augustine, into the periods Under Sin, Under the Law, Under Grace and In Peace" (206). F. is critical of both Israelite and pagan rulers, since "only the grace of Christ can ensure justice and peace in the political realm." In closing with Valentinian's rejection of military service, F. indicates"an end to the rapacious lust for conquest that had characterized kingship in the previous eras" (211). "Submission to God ... by the Christian Roman emperors signals the end of the cycle of envy and jealousy that began with Cain" (ibid.).
Garstad, Benjamin. "The Diction of the Fragmentum Fuldense," Glotta 78 (2002), 102-109.
Argues that the controversial inserted passage (known only from a now-lost manuscript) at Tertullian Apol. 19. 1 represents part of Tertullian's rough draft. G. notes an apparent echo of the Fragmentum (as well as of Ov. Met. 3. 190) in the application of ultrix to the Flood at Aet. 2 p. 135. 5-7. This would suggest that the Fragmentum was found in North African manuscripts of the Apologeticum in F.'s day and provides additional evidence for F.'s familiarity with Tertullian.
Garstad, Benjamin, "Alexander the Great's Liberation of Rome and an Idiosyncratic Model of World History in the Chronicle of John Malalas, the Excerpta Latina Barbari, and Fulgentius' De aetatibus," Wiener Studien 131 (2018), 179-206.
Independent passages in Malalas and the Excerpta Barbari point to the existence of a version of world history (ascribed by Malalas to an otherwise unknown Bottios or Bouttios) in which Nebuchadnezzar conquered the entire world (as far as the pillars of Hercules), which was then liberated by Alexander. This account may underlie the otherwise puzzling passage at Aet. 11 p. 165.1-4: "Illuc (sc. to Persia) ... et Israhelitica confluxerat gloria et Aegyptiaca olim famosa conmigrarat potentia, illuc Spartana, illuc Athenaica atque insuperabilis uirtus deuoluta cesserat Scytica." It might also account for p. 166.20 "nulla Oceani semotior insula Atlantei marginis aestu roriflua, quae non Alexandrum ... dominum timuit." Main discussion of Aet. at 193-198.
Hays, Gregory, "A Second Look at Fulgentius's Alexander," Vigiliae Christianae 54 (2000), 204-207. [J-STOR]
Textual notes supplementing and correcting Stöcker (below).
Helm, Rudolf. "Fulgentius, de aetatibus mundi," Philologus 56 (1897) 253-289.
We have three sets of works ascribed to Fulgentii: those of the bishop, the mythographer and the author of the De aetatibus. Reitzenstein and Jungmann identified the second and third as the same person, but did not present "einen strengen Beweis ... für die Identität" (254), as H. now aims to do. I. Summary of prologue and individual books, with special attention to features common to the other works (254-265). Are the last nine books lost, or did Fulgentius never write them? Probably the latter "weil ihm der Plan lästig wurde." (267). II. A detailed stylistic comparison of Aet. with the other works shows that they are by the same author (271-287). The difference in names is no bar to the identification: "Vermuthlich stehen dem Fulgentius alle Namen zu, und er heisst Fabius Claudius Gordianus Fulgentius Planciades" (288). The style of the work shows greater clarity compared to Mit. and Cont., suggesting that it is later than those works. Its chronological relationship to Serm. is unclear: the two references to the story of Metennia (Serm. 58; Aet. L p. 168.18) give no ground for decision (288). There is no firm internal evidence to establish either the age of the author or the date of writing (288-289).
Inglebert, Hervé. Interpretatio Christiana. Les mutations des savoirs (cosmographie, géographie, ethnographie, histoire) dans l'Antiquité chrétienne 30-630 après J.-C. (Paris, 2001).

Brief mention of De Aetatibus p. 521.

Kelly, Stuart. The Book of Lost Books (New York, 2005).

Popularizing work, subtitled "An Incomplete History of All the Great Books You'll Never Read." Includes a two-page chapter on Fulgentius, concentrating primarily on the De Aetatibus.

Manca, Massimo. "Un prologo di troppo nel De aetatibus mundi et hominis di Fulgenzio," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Filologia, Linguistica e Tradizione Classica. Università degli Studi. Torino 11 (1998), 243-246.

Restates at greater length the observations of the anonymous reviewer of Helm and of Morelli (below) that the preface is also lipogrammatic (M. is aware of Morelli's note but not the earlier review). M. argues from this that the preface is in fact part of Book 1 and should be printed as such.
Manca, Massimo. "Nabuzardan princeps coquorum. Una lezione vulgata oltre la Vulgata," Quaderni del dipartimento di filologia, linguistica e tradizione classica (Università degli Studi. Torino) 13 (1999), 491-498.
Surveys the later history of a mistranslation (Nabuzardan as princeps coquorum instead of militum or exercitus) in the Septuagint and Vetus Latina. Includes a brief discussion of Aet. p. 160. 22 at 494.
Manca, Massimo. "La Bibbia del De aetatibus mundi et hominis. Allusioni, oralità, contraintes," in Antonio Piras, ed. Lingua et ingenium. Studi su Fulgenzio di Ruspe e il suo contesto (Cagliari, 2010), 165-188.

Examines various scriptural or scripture-adjacent figures and episodes in Aet.: Ninus and Semiramus (p. 138.14); Job as 'athlete of virtue' (p. 142.12); the martyrdom of Isaiah (p. 160.17); the Seven [sic] Maccabees (p. 161.7); the blinding of Zedekiah (p. 160.26); reactions to Christ's birth (p. 170.13) the woman with an issue of blood (p. 171.23); the glossolalia at Pentecost (p. 175.20); the Ethiopian eunuch (p. 174.7); the resurrection of Dorcas (p. 174.14); Ananias and Sapphira (p. 174.17); Abgar (p. 175.13). "L'approccio fulgenziano alla Bibbia è ... piuttosto complesso. ... Al testo-base Fulgenzio accosta una serie di fonti collaterali, di topoi tradizionali, di espressioni divenute formulari, di spin-off apocrifi, di conflazioni e anche di notizie profane" (187). The approach to biblical material seen in these passages is very different from that found in the bishop's works, and speaks against the identification of the two.

Morelli, Camillo. "Frustula," Studi italiani di filologia classica 21 (1915), 82-90.
A brief note on p. 89 observes that the preface of the work shares the same restrictions as Book I (an observation anticipated in the anonymous review of Helm's edition in ALL).
Schreckenberg, Heinz and K. Schubert, Jewish Historiography and Iconography in Early and Medieval Christianity (Assen/Maastricht and Minneapolis, 1992).

Brief discussion of the cannibalism episode in Aet. 14 on p. 82 (in section on "Josephus in Early Christian Texts"). "The author uses Josephus' War without citing him ... It is unclear what else Fulgentius knows from the work of Josephus and whether he had access to the original text."

Stöcker, Christoph, "Alexander der Grosse bei Fulgentius und die Historia Alexandri Macedonis des Antidamas," Vigiliae Christianae 33 (1979), 55-75.
Excellent discussion of De Aetatibus X, though the author's conclusions about the use of "Antidamas" as a source may not carry conviction. Includes German translation of the chapter (not free of errors, but a quantum leap over Whitbread ).
von den Brincken, Anna Dorothee. Studien zur lateinischen Weltchronistik bis in das Zeitalter Ottos von Freising (Düsseldorf, 1957).

The De Aetatibus is discussed at pp. 76-79. A generally accurate but unsympathetic description of the work, largely following Helm (above), and accepting Helm's identification of mythographer and bishop. "Historischen Gehalt muss man dieser Schrift völlig absprechen ... sie ist lediglich ein Beleg für literarische Spielerei" (76).

Zecchini, Giuseppe. Ricerche di storiografia latina tardoantica (Rome, 1993).
The De Aetatibus is discussed on pp. 220-226. Z. follows Langlois in identifying mythographer and bishop and sees Aet. as a transitional work between the two corpora. The work evidences "un ... scenario di precarietà politico-religiosa, in cui si mescolano l'acuto timore del presente e la tenue speranza di un imminente riscatto" (220). "Fulgenzio si pone sempre da un punto di vista giudaico-cristiano, non romano-cristiano, come invece Orosio" (224); indeed, his work represents "il rifiuto della prospettiva storica orosiana" (225). F.'s negative view of Rome reflects a North African Catholic's sense of abandonment by the Byzantine regime: 'l'impero è per lui sinonimo di delusione e tradimento" (226). The closing sentence, with its optimistic portrayal of Valentinian, suggests higher hopes of Theodoric, but does not erase "l'impressione di amaro isolamento e di sfiducia nel potere terrestre" that emerges from the work as a whole.
Zecchini, Giuseppe. "Latin Historiography: Jerome, Orosius and the Western Chronicles," in Gabriele Marasco, ed. Greek and Roman Historiography in Late Antiquity (Leiden, 2003), 317-345.
The De Aetatibus is discussed on pp. 331-333; basically a shorter version of the item above, with no new observations.
[Super Thebaiden]


Helm, Rudolf "Anecdoton Fulgentianum," Rheinisches Museum 52 (1897) 177-186.

Editio princeps (based solely on Paris BN Lat. 3012) with brief discussion. "Ein streng zwingender Beweis für die Autorschaft des Mythographen Fulgentius lässt sich natürlich bei der Kürze der Schrift super Thebaiden und dem Mangel jeder persönlichen Beziehung nicht erbringen; aber ein gewisser Grad der Wahrscheinlichkeit spricht ohne Zweifel dafür." (186).
Helm Fabii Planciadis Fulgentii V.C. Opera, pp. 180-186.
Re-edition with much improved readings.
Sweeney, R.D., ed., Lactantius Placidus in Statii Thebaida Commentum vol. 1 (Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1997), pp. 697-704.
New edition replacing Helm and reporting the readings of both Paris BN Lat. 3012 and Bern, Burgerbibliothek 141,323; the latter is acknowledged to be an apograph of the former. Attribution to Fulgentius is denied and the 12th century dating proposed by various scholars is approved.

[French translation as appendix to É. Wolff, Virgil dévoilé.]

Secondary Literature

Anderson, Harald. "Note sur les Manuscrits du commentaire de Fulgence sur la Thébaïde," Revue d'histoire des textes 28 (1998), 235-238 and plates I-III.

Pierre Daniel's copy of the treatise (Bern, Burgerbibliothek 141,323) was copied directly from Paris BN lat. 3012, not from a common ancestor. (This conclusion is accepted by Sweeney in his recent edition of the treatise). The plates reproduce pages from both MSS.
Barredo I Edo, Pere-Enric. "Un commentari al-legòric a la Tebaida d'Estaci atribuit a Fulgenci el Mitògraf, Homenatge a J. Alsina II ed. E. Artigas (Tarragona, 1992), 157-161.
(In Catalan). Description and summary of the work. Notes non-Fulgentian elements but takes no firm stand on authenticity or date. The author's reading of the Thebaid can be seen as a mirror image of Prudentius's Psychomachia (characters become abstractions, rather than vice versa). The Super Thebaiden offers a Christian reading of the epic, and is solely responsible for the image of a Christian Statius found in Dante.
Battles, Dominique. The Medieval Tradition of Thebes. History and Narrative in the OF Roman de Thèbes, Boccaccio, Chaucer, and Lydgate (New York and London, 2004).

The Super Thebaiden is briefly summarized at pp. 10-12; the author accepts the arguments for a 12th c. date. The allegory's "happy ending, ... whereby conflict and suffering result in salvation for the soul, reflects a distinctly medieval Christian vantage on the Thebaid."

Bischoff, Bernhard. "Das Griechische Element in der Abendländischen Bildung des Mittelalters," Byzantinische Zeitschrift 44 (1951) 27-55 [Reprinted in his Mittelalterliche Studien. Ausgewählte Aufsätze zur Schriftkunde und Literaturgeschichte. II (Stuttgart, 1966) 246-275].
A brief but important note on p. 51 argues that the work borrows from Martin of Laon's Scolica Graecarum Glossarum (9th c.) and belongs to the 12th or 13th c. "Es weist auf die Spätzeit, dass er fast alle seine 'griechischen' Wörter auf -os ausgehen lässt ... und dass er nicht flektiert."
Clogan, Paul."The Latin Commentaries to Statius: A Bibliographic Project," in J. Ijsewijn and E. Kessler, ed., Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Lovaniensis (Leuven, 1973), 149-157.

Brief description of the Super Thebaiden ("a truly fascinating commentary") at pp. 152-153.

Clogan, Paul. "Neoplatonic Streak in the Statian Commentary of Fulgentius Planciades," in L. Benakis, ed. Néoplatonisme et Philosophie Médiévale. Actes du Colloque international de Corfou , 6-8 octobre 1995 (Turnhout, 1997), 339-350.
Overview and summary, with comments on authenticity issue (text assumed to be Fulgentian) and cultural context. "The Super Thebaiden appropriately expresses the Neoplatonic view of the human soul in the body, and this Neoplatonic view is a streak or long thin mark running thoughout the work and designates Fulgentius's contribution to mythography."
Hays, Gregory. "The Pseudo-Fulgentian Super Thebaiden" in Vertis in Usum: Studies in Honor of Edward Courtney (Munich and Leipzig, 2002), 200-219.
Argues that the treatise is not by Fulgentius the Mythographer and is probably a 12th century product; summarizes the arguments of Bischoff and Stock and adds new evidence, primarily stylistic.
Manca, Massimo. "Frangenda est littera: l'allegoria dei Sette a Tebe nello Pseudo Fulgenzio" in A. Aloni, et al. ed. I Sette a Tebe. Dal mito alla letteratura. Atti del Seminario Internazionale, Torino 21-22 Febbraio 2001.   (Bologna, 2002), 219-232.
An introductory section briefly describes the nature and transmission of the work. Fulgentian authorship is rejected on grounds of both form and language. The Thebaid the author allegorizes is largely his own creation; his summary omits major episodes, as well as the gods and major human characters (e.g. five of the Seven against Thebes), and includes back-story not found in the epic. These and other features call into question whether the author even knew Statius's poem directly. The Greek etymologies (unlike the real Fulgentius's) do not suggest a working knowledge of the language, and are better viewed as a kind of artificial exercise. The article is accompanied by two charts: 1) a break-down of the text, showing how the capsule summary at the beginning of the work dictates the interpretation that follows; 2) a list of the characters subjected to allegorization, with etymology and interpretation for each.
Rosa, Fabio. "'La doppia trestizia di Giocasta.' La ricezione di Stazio nel Super Thebaiden," in P. Gatti and L. de Finis, ed. Dalla tarda latinità agli albori dell'Umanesimo: alla radice della storia europea (Trento, 1998), 185-197.

The Super Thebaiden has sometimes been cited as a source for Dante's notion of a Christian Statius. However, a number of features tell against Fulgentian authorship: separate manuscript tradition; poor Greek; exegetical imagery ("nut/shell"; integumentum); appeal to the authority of Ovid; an attitude to Statius and pagan poetry generally quite different from F's view of Vergil. "Tutto ... farebbe pensare a un commento tardo-medievale." The Super Thebaiden need not underlie Dante's reading of Statius; he certainly knew the Thebaid directly. However, allusions to Statius in the Commedia suggest that Dante read the poem in allegorical terms, and the Super Thebaiden bears witness to the currency of such (mis)readings.

Stabile, F. "Questione Critica ed Ermeneutica," Rivista di filologia e d'istruzione classica 40 (1912) 438-440.

Stock, Brian "A Note on Thebaid Commentaries: Paris, B.N., lat. 3012," Traditio 27 (1971) 468-471.

Certain linguistic features (notably the use of the word tegumentum ) and similarities to other commentaries suggest that the Super Thebaiden belongs to the 12th century rather than the sixth.
Sweeney, R.D. Prolegomena to an Edition of the Scholia to Statius. Mnemosyne Suppl. 8 (Leiden, 1969).
Discusses ST at pp. 90-93. Sweeney adds a second MS (Bern, Burgerbibliothek 141,323), written by Pierre Daniel, to Paris BN Lat. 3012 (Helm's MS). He concludes that the Bern MS does not descend from the Parisinus, but may be a second generation copy of the Parisinus's exemplar. He notes also that the reading of the Parisinus at p. 184. 13 filito, corrected in the same hand to filiam, seems to represent a misreading of a so-called "co" A, and suggests that the exemplar was written in very early Carolingian minuscule. If correct, this would scotch Bischoff's diagnosis of a 12th c. date for the work. (Sweeney has, however, retracted this claim in his later edition).
Winterfeld, P. de [sc. von] "Fulgentianum," Philologus 57 (1898) 509. [Click here for text].

IV. Later Reception

General (or dealing with more than one work).

Bisanti, A. "Un medaglione su Fulgenzio," Pan 14 (1995), 203-212.

[Summary coming soon]

Bolton, Diane K. "Remigian Commentaries on the 'Consolation of Philosophy' and their Sources," Traditio 33 (1977), 381-394.

Borrowings from Mit. and Cont. are noted at 389 n. 42; 393 nn. 63-64.
Dronke, Peter. "Integumenta Virgilii," in Lectures Médiévales de Virgile. Actes du colloque organisé par l'École française de Rome (25-28 octobre, 1982). Collection de l'École Française de Rome 80. (Rome, 1985), 313-329.
Cont. is mentioned in passing; the explanation of Erichthonius at Mit. p. 52. 10ff. is discussed on p. 318 with reference to a different allegorization in William of Conches' commentary on the Timaeus.
Hays, Gregory. "Fulgentius the Mythographer?" in R.S. Smith and S.M. Trzaskoma, ed. Writing Myth: Mythography in the Ancient World (Leuven, 2013) 309-333.
Explores F.'s relationship to mythography as it emerges within the work itself and in its later reception, including the evidence of manuscripts and early printed editions. F. has many possible identities (allegorist, baroque stylist, prosimetrist); over time it is his persona as mythographer that becomes primary, but that development is a notably gradual one. F.'s relationship to mythography in the strict sense was always uneasy and equivocal.
Hillkowitz, Kurt. Zur Kosmographie des Aethicus. II (Frankfurt a.M., 1972).
Possible Fulgentian echoes (from Aet., Mit. and Serm.) are listed on pp. 137-9.
Hortis, Attilio. Studj [sic] sulle opere latine del Boccaccio (Trieste, 1879).
F.'s influence on the De Genealogia Deorum is discussed at pp. 461-3. Boccaccio's exploitation of F's works did not prevent him from viewing aspects of F.'s practice sceptically. Cf. also pp. 464f. for the theory that Boccaccio's notorious "Theodontius" goes back to the "Theocnidus" found at Mit. p. 32. 7.
Huglo, M. "Les arts libéraux dans le 'Liber Glossarum', Scriptorium 55 (2001), 3-33.

Glosses from Serm. Ant. "ne semblent pas avoir été directement englobées dans le LG" (8). The LG scribes' attribution of five items to "Fulgencius" "soulève à nouveau le problème des deux Fulgence." Five such items are cited: Aestimatio, Dialoge uel dialexis; Duleusis; Idolatria; Ministrare et subministrare. [None of these are derived from the mythographer except perhaps "Idolatria," which might come from Mit. 1. 1. But neither Huglo nor Lindsay gives any details on the content of the article, so no certainty is possible. Huglo is puzzled by Lindsay's attribution of two of the glosses to "Fulg. Fab(ian). fr." They are drawn from Fulgentius of Ruspe, Contra Fabianum.] Huglo adds that "A propos des citations bibliques de Fulgence, il convient de rappeler qu'au sujet des cordes de la cithare, Fulgence le Mythographe (Mythol. I xv, p. 25,5) fait nette allusion au Psaume 32,2." [The relevance of this is unclear to me.]

Laistner, M.L.W. "Fulgentius in the Ninth Century" Mélanges Hrouchevsky (Kiev, 1928) 445-456 = "Fulgentius in the Carolingian Age," The Intellectual Heritage of the Early Middle Ages (Ithaca, 1957) 202-215 [page references below are to the latter].
Surveys echoes of F. (especially Mit.) in Martianus commentaries, Sedulius Scotus, Paschasius Radbertus, Ermenrich of Ellwangen, Gunzo of Novara, the "Letter of A to E" (MGH Epist. VI 182ff.), and the scholia to the Gesta Berengarii, inter alia. The early manuscripts are discussed (210f.). The reception of the Bishop's works is discussed separately on pp. 211-215; the two authors are not identical, and were not identified by most Carolingian writers. An important digression on p. 205f. notes that a Greek phrase quoted in the Super Thebaiden also appears in the Scholica of Martin of Laon; if Martin is the borrower, the Super Thebaiden cannot be a twelfth century product [Laistner subsequently withdrew this point].
Lehmann, Paul. Pseudo-Antike Literatur des Mittelalters. Studien der Bibliothek Warburg, 13 (Leipzig, 1927).
Pseudo-Fulgentiana are discussed on pp. 20-23. A text labelled "Fulgentius de naturis rerum" in Munich Clm 8979 (dated to 1387) is not the Physiologus referred to at Cont. p. 91. 21f., but a medieval compilation. Fulgentius's name was carelessly applied to a number of works of mythographical or allegorical nature. A commentary on Martianus attributed to F. in the 1412 library catalogue of Amplonius Ratinck seems to be a phantom. Arnold of Rotterdam describes F as a historian on the basis of a vague reference by Robert Holkot to "Fulgentius in libro quodam de gestis Romanorum," probably the Mitologiae. A work on music "discovered" by Sittl is in fact merely an excerpt from the same work. Another 11/12th c. musical work (MS Erfurt Ampl. 8o 93 and 94 and elsewhere) is wrongly ascribed to F. (the work is in fact dedicated to a Fulgentius, though it is uncertain who this might be).
Manitius, Max. "Bemerkungen zur römischen Literaturgeschichte," Philologische Wochenschrift 52 (1932) 1099-1102.
Notes on the medieval survival of ancient literature. Fulgentius is mentioned only briefly: "Die Virgiliana continentia und die Mitologiae werden stark benutzt im Aeneis-kommentar des Bernhardus Silvestris, vgl. die Ausgabe von Guil. Riedel, Gryphisw. 1924." (157)
Mazal, Otto. Die Überlieferung der antiken Literatur im Buchdruck des 15. Jahrhunderts, 4 vols. (Stuttgart, 2003).

Fulgentius is covered at iii. 629f. A brief (and inaccurate) account of the corpus plus a short description of Pio's editio princeps.

Pepin, Ronald E. "Fulgentius--the Enigmatic Furvus in John of Salisbury's 'Entheticus,'" Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 23 (1988), 119-125.
Argues that the mysterious "Furvus" coupled with "Capella" at lines 199ff. must be an allegorist, and that Fulgentius (an author well-known to the 'school of Chartres') is the most likely candidate. The alias Furvus ("dark") hints at fulgens ("bright").
Pizzani, Ubaldo. "Fulgenzio, Fabio Planciade," Enciclopedia Dantesca III (Rome, 1971), 71-72.
Direct use of Fulgentius by Dante cannot be demonstrated, but D. was heavily influenced by the allegorical tradition F. represents. The Super Thebaiden (accepted as Fulgentian) is perhaps echoed at Convivio 2. 1. 8f. (though the resemblance may be more general). The allegorical interpretation of the Aeneid in the Convivio (4. 26. 8ff.) is in the tradition of the Cont., albeit with considerable differences in detail. The interpretation of the sun's horses at Mit. 1. 12 p. 23. 11ff. may underlie the similar passage at Convivio 4. 23. 14 (but perhaps via the Third Vatican Mythographer). In other respects, D. is worlds away from F.; Virgil in the Commedia bears no resemblance to F's grumpy pedant. Includes brief bibliography.
Viarre, Simone. "L'interprétation de l'Enéide a propos d'un commentaire du douzième siècle," in R. Chevallier, ed. Présence de Virgile. Actes du Colloque des 9, 11 et 12 Décembre 1976 (Paris E.N.S., Tours) (Paris, 1978), 223-232.
The commentator's use of Fulgentius is discussed briefly on p. 226f., with a list of borrowings from Mit. and Cont.

Allen, D.C. "Milton's Alpheus," Modern Language Notes 71 (1956), 172-173.

Argues that the references to the Arethusa story in "Lycidas" were inspired by Mit. 3. 12. Milton intends "to remind the good priest of the virtues of the river and the fount, and also to suggest to them [sic] that they, too, could flow through an ocean of evil and corruption without being tainted."
Atwood, E.B. "Some Minor Sources of Lydgate's Troy Book,"  Studies in Philology 35 (1938), 25-42.

Discusses the use of Mit. 1. 18 and 2. 1 in Lydgate's description of the Judgment of Paris (p. 34f.). "That Lydgate modelled his passage on Fulgentius can hardly be doubted; yet in allegorizing the individual details he allowed himself freedom to interpret and moralize as he chose."

Besson, G. "Un compilateur au travail: les dossiers préparatoires au traité du Troisième Mythographe du Vatican," in M. Goullet, ed. Parva pro magnis munera. Études de littérature tardo-antique et médiévale offertes à François Dolbeau par ses élèves (Turnhout, 2009), 139-158.

Studies two manuscripts of the Third Vatican Mythographer which appear to descend from a preliminary draft of the work. Analysis of Myth. Vat. III 12 (Dionysus) sheds light on the Mythographer's method of working with his sources, including Fulgentius.

Bisanti, A. "Galateo, Fulgenzio e il Giudizio di Paride," Filologia e critica 26 (2001), 252-254.

The interpretation of the Judgement story in Galateo's De dignitate disciplinarum (1491) is probably based on Mit. II.1.

Bischoff, Bernhard. "Theodulf und der Ire Cadac-Andreas," Historisches Jahrbuch 74 (1955), 92-98 = his Mittelalterliche Studien ii. 19-25.

Publishes a short poem by a student of Theodulf's preserved in Paris BN lat. 7490 (f. 8v). Lines 20 and 22 appear to allude to Mit. I. 18 (Mercury's rooster) and I. 17 (Apollo's beardlessness) respectively.

Boynton, Susan. "The Sources and Significance of the Orpheus Myth in 'Musica Enchiriadis' and Regino of Prum's 'Epistola de harmonica institutione'" Early Music History 18 (1999), 47-74. [J-STOR]

Studies the Orpheus story of Mit. 3. 10 and its reception in Carolingian sources (the Musica Enchiriadis, Regino, and the commentaries on Martianus by Remigius and John the Scot). "The presentations of Orpheus and Eurydice [in the Musica Enchiriadis and Regino] ... are not unreflective restatements of Fulgentius" (55), but reflect contemporary concerns about the relationship between music theory and practice. While both texts make use of the Fulgentian interpretation, the message drawn from it differs. "The author of Chapter 19 of the Musica Enchiriadis expresses pessimism about the possibility of understanding the metaphysical aspect of music .... Regino, however, exhorts students to reconcile experience with understanding by studying the theory of music" (71).

Branca, Vittore. "L'Atteone del Boccaccio fra allegoria cristiana, euemerismo trasfigurante, narrativa esemplare, visualizzazione rinascimentale," Studi su Boccaccio 24 (1996), 193-208.

Studies various allusions to the Actaeon myth in Boccaccio's corpus, including an alleged rewriting (with genders reversed) in Decameron V. 8. Argues in particular (pp. 196-201) that F.'s rationalization of Actaeon in Mit. 3. 3 (incorporated at Genealogie 5. 14) inspired Boccaccio's use of the story as a Christian allegory at Eclogue 11. 192-199. "Fulgenzio era per il Boccaccio un autore prezioso e decisivo per le interpretazioni mitologiche" (p. 201).

Chatillon, F. "Sur quelques citations de Fulgence le Mythographe, de Boèce et de Maximien dans le Florilège d'Oxford," Revue du Moyen Age Latin 12 (1956) 5-26.
On MS Bodl. 633. Two quotations unidentified by the first editors are Fulgentian (Mit. p. 50. 24 'avarus tam stultus est ut non sibi prodesse novit'; Mit. p. 16. 15 'sola est medicina miseriarum oblivio'); the second also appears in Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum Doctrinale.
Dietl, Cora. Die Dramen Jacob Lochers und die frühe Humanistenbühne im süddeutschen Raum (Berlin and New York, 2005).

"Lochers Fulgentius-Lektüre" are discussed at pp. 246-252 with reference to his Iudicium Paridis (1502).

Dronke, Peter. "The Beginnings of the Sequence," Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 87 (1965), 43-73 = his The Medieval Poet and his World (Rome, 1984), 115-144.

An appendix ("The Musica Enchiriadis, Fulgentius and Scotius Eriugena") argues that the author of the Musica Enchiriadis draws his knowledge of the Fulgentian interpretation of Orpheus directly from Mit. 3. 10, and not via Johannes Scotus and/or Remigius, as some previous scholars have suggested.

Emmerling-Skala, Andreas. Bacchus in der Renaissance, 2 vols. (Hildesheim, 1994).

Vol. 2, pp. 898-901 give the text of the Bacchus chapter (Mit. 2. 12) along with information on the commentaries by Pio and Locher and extracts on this chapter from each.

Earle, T.F. Theme and Image in the Poetry of Sá de Miranda (Oxford, 1980).

Pp. 15-20 discuss the influence of Mit. 3. 6 (Cupid and Psyche) on the "Encantamento" of the Portuguese poet Francisco de Sá de Miranda (?1481-1558) and on the "Psyche" of Juan de Mal Lara (?1524-1571). Sá de Miranda's version breaks off at the same point as F.'s, and shares certain omissions with it.

Elliott, Kathleen, "Text, Authorship and Use of the First Vatican Mythographer" (Diss. Radcliffe, 1942).
Not seen, but cf. the article by Elliott and Elder below.
Elliott, Kathleen O. and Elder, J.P. "A Critical Edition of the Vatican Mythographers," Transactions of the American Philological Association 78 (1947) 189-207. [J-STOR]

Frey-Sallmann, Alma. Aus dem Nachleben antiker Göttergestalten (Leipzig, 1931).

A survey of ancient ecphrasis and its influence on medieval and early Renaissance literature and art. The Mitologiae is discussed briefly on p. 26 and mentioned elsewhere, especially as a possible influence on Book III of Petrarch's Africa (59) and on visual descriptions of the three Graces (78-80).
Fritz, Jean Marie. "Du dieu émasculateur au roi émasculé: métamorphoses de Saturne au moyen âge," in L. Harf-Lancner and D. Boutet, ed. Pour une mythologie du moyen âge (Paris, 1988), 43-60.

Surveys the Saturn legend in the middle ages (through Ridewall and Bersuire) as background to the portrayal of the god by Jean de Meun in the Roman de la Rose. Mit. 1. 2 represents a crucial development in the tradition by making Saturn the victim of castration rather than its perpetrator. "A la structure binaire du mythe hésiodique (Ouranos - Cronos) et ternaire du mythe orphique (Ouranos - Cronos - Zeus), Fulgence substitue une figure solitaire et stylisée" (45). F. is thus indirectly responsible for the medieval representation of Saturn as a "roi triste et mélancolique" (46); his historical and physical interpretation opens the door to later moralizations.

Gaisser, J.H. "Allegorizing Apuleius: Fulgentius, Boccaccio, Beroaldo, and the Chain of Reception," in R. Schnur et al., ed. Acta Conventus Neo-Latini Cantabrigiensis (Tempe, AZ, 2003), 23-41.

Surveys the reception of the Cupid and Psyche story through the Renaissance. Description and summary of F's interpretation. "The result of Fulgentius's omissions is a darker and more pessimistic story than that in Apuleius, one that is focused far more on the girl's error than on her subsequent sufferings and final redemption. It is this story, subtly but surely different from Apuleius's 'Cupid and Psyche,' that [F.] explains in his allegory. We might allegorize Apuleius's tale as the story of the union of the Soul with Love. Fulgentius's allegory is about the sins of the flesh and the evils of sexual desire" (26). Boccaccio's allegorization of the story in the Genealogiae "which avoids all mention of Fulgentius ... was intended to refute or correct"it. (30). "Fulgentius had suppressed Psyche's happy ending. Boccaccio restores it ... Boccaccio, like Apuleius, tells of Redemption, while Fulgentius presents only the Fall" (31). Yet F's interpretation persisted, in later vernacular poetry (e.g. Shakerly Marmion's mid-17th c. English version of the story) and especially in Beroaldo, by whom it is "co-opted or subsumed" (40).

Gaisser, J.H. The Fortunes of Apuleius and the Golden Ass (Princeton, 2008).

Discusses Mit. 3. 6 (pp. 53-59) and the reception of F.'s interpretation by Boccaccio (112-115), and Beroaldo and Pio (229-232); the discussion recapitulates G's 2003 article (above).

Guillaumin, J.-Y., "Cybèle, le cube, la gloire. Une 'étymologie' corrompue dans les gloses sur Martianus Capella," Archivum Latinitatis Medii Aevi 67 (2009), 229-234.
Mit. 3.5 underlies the etymology of Cybele's name found in 9th-century commentaries on Martianus Capella 7. 740. The possibility is raised that the etymology derives from the commentary on De Nuptiis 1-2 ascribed to F. in the 1412 library catalogue of Amplonius Ratinck.
Hammond, Eleanor Prescott. "Chaucer and Lydgate Notes," Modern Language Notes 27 (1912), 91-92.
Draws attention to a parallel between the description of nightfall at Mit. p. 13. 17 and a passage in Chaucer's "Franklin's Tale."
Hardman, Phillipa. "Chaucer's Muses and his "Art Poetical,'" Review of English Studies n.s. 37 (1986), 478-494.

Argues that Chaucer's references to Clio, Polymnia and Calliope in various works "draw intellectual energy from the mythographic tradition of Fulgentius" (484), i.e. the interpretation in Mit. 1. 15. Whether Chaucer knew Fulgentius directly is left open.

Heitmann, Klaus. "Orpheus im Mittelalter," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 45 (1963), 253-294.
Remarks on the medieval reception of the Orpheus fable (Mit. 3. 10) at 270f.
de Jong, Jan L. "Renaissance Representations of Cupid and Psyche: Apuleius versus Fulgentius," Groningen Colloquia on the Novel II (1989), 75-86.
The story of Cupid and Psyche achieved considerable currency following Zanobi da Strada's rediscovery of Apuleius' novel around 1350. Though familiar with F's high-flown philosophical allegorization, Renaissance interpreters generally preferred to view the story as "an amusing and humorous tale, which illustrates a moral lesson" (77). They were followed by Renaissance artists, including Giorgione and Raphael. However, the anonymous fresco cycle in the Palazzo Capodiferro-Spada (c. 1550) inaugurates a return to Fulgentius: "from the middle of the sixteenth century on, ... the Fulgentian explanation took the leading role again, and finally became so influential that even the depictions by Giorgione and Raphael were interpreted in terms of Fulgentius, even though they were clearly based on Apuleius" (84).
Kay, S. "The Birth of Venus in the Roman de la Rose," Exemplaria 9 (1997), 7-37.

Brief mention of Mit. I. 2 and II. 1. Bulk of article not relevant, but appendix of mythographic texts at pp. 29ff. includes F. (in Latin and Whitbread's translation).

Keseling, F. De mythographi Vaticani secundi fontibus (Halle, 1908).

Borrowings from F. are listed at pp. 67-83.

Kolve, V.A."From Cleopatra to Alceste: An Iconographic Study of The Legend of Good Women," in J.P. Hermann and J.J. Burke, Jr. ed., Signs and Symbols in Chaucer's Poetry (University, Alabama, 1981), 130-178.
Mit. I. 22 (Alcestis) is briefly discussed on p. 172. Chaucer would have known F's allegorization, but does not follow it.
Laistner, M.L.W. "Notes on Greek from the Lectures of a Ninth Century Monastery Teacher," Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library 7 (1922/3), 421-456.
The etymology of Aello at Mit. p. 21. 20 appears in this quasi-glossary (p. 427), while Mit. p. 27. 3 may be the source of the etymology of Calliope (p. 438). An apparent echo of the Super Thebaiden on p. 438 [but Bischoff has since shown that the relationship goes in the other direction]. Direct use of Fulgentius is doubted (p. 424).
Liebeschütz, Hans. Fulgentius Metaforalis. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der antiken Mythologie im Mittelalter. Studien der Bibliothek Warburg 4 (Leipzig and Berlin, 1926).

McKinley, K. Reading the Ovidian Heroine. 'Metamorphoses' Commentaries 1100-1618 (Leiden, 2001).

Brief discussion of Mit. 3.10 (Orpheus & Eurydice) at pp. 61-63. See also index s.v. "Fulgentius"

Schulz, R. De Mythographi Vaticani Primi Fontibus (Diss., Halle 1905). [Google Books]

Silverstein, Theodore. "Two Notes on Dante's Convivio, IV, 23," Speculum 7 (1932), 547-551. [J-STOR]

The second note traces Dante's reference to the horses of the sun through intermediaries back to Mit. I. 12 (p. 23. 11ff. Helm).
Smalley, Beryl. English Friars and Antiquity in the Early Fourteenth Century (New York, 1960).
Deals with Ridewall's Fulgentius Metaforalis on pp. 110-115. Also discusses quotations from a pseudo-Fulgentius in John Lathbury (pp. 230-232 and appendix).
Stearns, Marshall W. "Robert Henryson and the Fulgentian Horse," Modern Language Notes 54 (1939), 239-245.
Henryson's list of the sun's horses in his Testament of Cresseid (ll. 211-217) derives from Mit. I. 12, probably by way of Ps. Bede's De Mundi Caelestis Terrestrisque Constitutione. This 'Fulgentian tradition' appears also in the Vatican Mythographers and Gower.
Tilliette, Jean-Yves. "Le Retour du grand Pan. Remarques sur une adaptation en vers des 'Mitologiae' de Fulgence à la fin du Xe siècle (Baudri de Bourgueil, c. 154)," Studi Medievali 37 (1996), 65-93.
A study of Baudri's verse redaction of the Mitologiae, showing how the poet's relationship to his Fulgentian original varies from direct paraphrase to practically free composition (the latter most apparent in the Hero and Leander episode).
Toynbee, Paget. "'Sorenus et Deonigdus' in Boccaccio's De Genealogiis deorum (X, 10)," Bulletin italien 13 (1913), 1-3.

Boccaccio's 'Deonigdus' is F's Theocnidus (Mit. I. 21).

Twycross, Meg. The Medieval Anadyomene. A Study in Chaucer's Mythography. Medium Aevum Monographs n.s. 1 (Oxford, 1972).
References to F. passim, with particular attention to the portrayal of Venus' attributes at Mit. II. 1 (p. 40. 5ff. Helm).
Venuti, Martina. "L'editio princeps delle Mythologiae di Fulgenzio. Ioannes Baptista Pius, Enarrationes allegoricae fabularum fulgentii placiadis, Mediolani 1498." Paideia 63 (2008), 407-426.
[Summary to come.]
Wolff, Étienne. "Le Premier Mythographe du Vatican et Fulgence le Mythographe," Eruditio Antiqua 10 (2018), 129-136.
[Summary to come.]
Wright, Dorena Allen. "Henryson's Orpheus and Eurydice and the Tradition of the Muses," Medium Aevum 40 (1971), 41-47.

Henryson's explanation of the Muses at "Orpheus and Eurydice" 36-60 derives ultimately from F., but his direct source is Eberhard of Béthune's Graecismus.

Expositio Virgilianae Continentiae

Edwards, Robert. "The Heritage of Fulgentius," in The Classics in the Middle Ages, ed. A.S. Bernardo and S. Levin. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 69 (Binghamton, 1990), 141-151.

After a brief survey of medieval authors familiar with F., the author devotes most of the article to discussion of the Bernardus commentary, which he sees as departing in important respects from the hermeneutical presuppositions that govern F's project. The article draws on E's earlier discussion (see above ) and shares its heavy reliance on the discourse of literary theory.
Gardner, John. "Fulgentius's Expositio Vergiliana Continentia [sic] and the Plan of Beowulf: Another Approach to the Poem's Style and Structure," Papers on Language and Literature 6 (1970), 227-262.
Sees a possible model for "[t]he Beowulf-poet's concern with the themes valor, wisdom, and glory" (260) in F's threefold division habere-regere-ornare (Cont. p. 89. 18ff.). This does not necessarily mean that the poet knew F. directly. "Fulgentius ... is merely a likely source for the scheme dramatized in the poem ... When I speak of Fulgentius, I mean, in effect, someone who had read Fulgentius or someone whom Fulgentius had read" (227).
Gossman, A. "Maia's Son: Milton and the Renaissance Virgil" in Studies in Medieval/Renaissance/American Literature. A Festschrift (Fort Worth, 1971), 109-119.

Argues that Milton's portrayal of Raphael in Paradise Lost is modelled on Vergil's Mercury as read through the interpretative lens of Fulgentius and/or Landino, even though "it is impossible to prove the direct influence on Milton of such commentaries" (118). Much of the article consists of summary of the Continentia and of Landino's Disputationes Camaldulenses 3-4.

Huppé, Bernard. "Aeneas' Journey to the New Troy," in The Classics in the Middle Ages, ed. A.S. Bernardo and S. Levin. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 69 (Binghamton, 1990), 175-187.
Proposes that Aeneas's moral journey (as explicated by F.) functions as a narrative archetype underlying such major medieval works as Beowulf (cf. Gardner, above), Abelard's Historia Calamitatum, Chrétien de Troyes's Erec, the Roman de la Rose, the Vita Nuova , Piers Plowman and Troilus and Criseyde; F's allegorical reading of the Aeneid stands in the same relation to these works as the Odyssey does to Joyce's Ulysses.
Maresca, Thomas. "Dante's Virgil: An Antecedent," Neophilologus 65 (1981), 548-551.
Argues that "Fulgentius's Virgil very precisely anticipates Dante's Virgil in at least his ideological dimensions, as well as in his narrative function as guide and expositor."
Padoan, Giorgio. "Tradizione e fortuna del commento all' 'Eneide' di Bernardo Silvestre," Italia medioevale e umanistica 3 (1960), 227-240; revised in his Il Pio Enea, l'empio Ulisse (Ravenna, 1977), 207-222.
The author of the Bernardus commentary "è un fulgenziano convinto e segue il maestro in tutti i punti fondamentali," (219), but refines and expands on F's approach.
Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum

Hays, Gregory. [review of P. Gatti, ed. Un glossario bernense (Bern, Burgerbibliothek, A. 91 [18])], Journal of Medieval Latin 13 (2003), 262-264.

Notes that the editor identifies some glosses drawn from Serm., but misses others.

Jakobi, Rainer. "Zum Berner Glossar," Philologus 153 (2009), 187-189.

Lists glosses from Serm. in the earlier of the Bern glossaries edited by Gatti, some of which went unrecognized by the editor. [This had already been pointed out in the review of Gatti by Hays.]

De Aetatibus

Cary, George. The Medieval Alexander, ed. D.J.A. Ross (Cambridge, 1956).

De Aetatibus X is discussed briefly on pp. 135f. and the text reprinted as an appendix (369f.). "In placing Alexander in relation to Jewish history and chronology, and stressing the Orosian attack upon his vices, Fulgentius is typical of the orthodox Christian approach to Alexander ... in his adaptation of legendary material to the purpose of condemnation, he anticipated the later development of the German accusation of Alexander." (136).

[Super Thebaiden]

Caviglia, Franco. Appunti sulla presenza di Stazio nella Commedia," Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale 16 (1974), 267-279.

Suggests that Dante's portrayal of a crypto-Christian Statius was partly inspired (directly or indirectly) by the Super Thebaiden. In particular, the positive allegorization of the uxores ... regum in the latter may explain why Dante places Deiphile and Argia in limbo rather than hell. C. also proposes (p. 273f.) that Statius's comment at Purg. 21. 94ff. ("al mio ardor fuor seme le faville | che mi scaldar della divina fiamma | onde sono allumati più di mille") looks back to Cont. p. 89. 10 ("veritas ... etiam stultis mentibus scintillas suas sparsit").

Padoan, Giorgio. "Teseo 'figura Redemptoris,' e il cristianesimo di Stazio," Lettere Italiane 11 (1959), 432-457, revised in his Il Pio Enea, l'empio Ulisse (Ravenna, 1977), 125-150.

Argues that the Super Thebaiden was an important influence on Dante's portrayal of a Christian Statius in the Purgatorio.

V. Work in Progress

This section is intended to serve as a clearing-house for current and unpublished work on Fulgentius. Additions are welcome, either of projects underway, forthcoming articles and notes, and unpublished conference papers.


Albu, Emily, "Disarming the Hero in Late Antiquity: Fulgentius on Arms and the Man," Annual Meeting of the American Philological Association, San Diego, Dec. 27-30, 1995.

------, "Disarming Aeneas: Fulgentius on Arms and the Man," Shifting Frontiers VII. The Power of Religion in Late Antiquity. University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, March 2007.

Ferguson, Thomas. "Misquoting Plautus: The 'Classical Curriculum' of Fulgentius the Mythographer," Fourteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies, Oxford, August 18-23, 2003.

Hays, Gregory. "After the Fall: Fulgentius's De Aetatibus mundi et hominis," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, July 14-17, 2003.

-----. "Recent Work on Fulgentius," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, July 10-14, 2005.

-----. "Fulgentius the Mythographer: Manuscripts and Reception," Texts & Contexts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, September, 2005.

-----. "Medieval Readers of Fulgentius's Expositio Sermonum Antiquorum," International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 2006.

-----. "Arta legis catena: Editing Fulgentius's De aetatibus," Texts & Contexts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, September, 2006.

-----. "Medieval Readers of Fulgentius: the Evidence of the Glosses," International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 2007.

-----. "Fulgentius and his Renaissance Readers," Texts & Contexts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, October 2008.

-----, "Index te libelli fefellit: The Prologue to Fulgentius's Mitologiae," Why Like Lies? Truth in the Fictions of Greco-Roman Antiquity, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, April 2009.

Vössing, Konrad. "Notes on the Biographies of the Two African Fulgentii," Fourteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies, Oxford, August 18-23, 2003.

Manca, Massimo. "'Aetas insulsa erigitur': Childhood and Youth in Fulgentius," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, July 10-14, 2005.

Wolff, Étienne
. "Fulgence et Virgile," International Medieval Congress, Leeds, July 10-14, 2005.


Brischoux, Bernard. French translation of the Mitologiae (doctoral thesis; University of Besançon, dir. J.-Y. Guillaumin); work on Christian elements in Mitologiae.

Ferguson, Thomas. Monograph on Fulgentius.

Ibañez Chacon, Alvaro. Work on Semiramis in the De aetatibus.

Hays, Gregory.

Ndiaye, Émile. French translation of De aetatibus with introduction and commentary (doctoral thesis; University of Besançon, dir. J.-Y. Guillaumin).

Selent, Doreen. Dissertation on myth and allegory in Dracontius and Fulgentius (University of Rostock)

Vössing, Konrad. Article on the chronology of the two Fulgentii, to appear in Studia Patristica 14 (2004) [see Conference Papers above].

[Thanks to those who have alerted me to their own work or that of others: Bernard Brischoux, Edward Courtney, Philippe Dain, Tom Ferguson, Alvaro Ibañez Chacon, Jean-Yves Guillaumin, Massimo Manca, Leslie MacCoull, Silvia Mattiacci, Doreen Selent, Martina Venuti, Étienne Wolff.]

Recent updates:

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