In this essay, construct an argument built on the musical differences and simiiarities between two pieces.
Choose one of the pairs of musical examples listed below. Each of the pairs
is closely related (by style, performer, or time period), yet the individual examples are musically distinct. The evidence for your essay must be based directly on musical sound. You may focus on the differences between the two pieces, but you should also consider similiarites--"different ways of doing the same thing."
The overall argument for your essay, however, should move beyond a side-by-side comparison of these two pieces. You may choose to reflect on musical issues, such as improvisation versus composition, or discuss different artistic strategies on the part of an artist. You may want to reflect on different interpretations of a given genre, such as hard bop or swing, or consider how an individual musician can embrace two different genres. You may wish to situate these pieces within their historical context and discuss social issues such as the role of "blackness" as a social identity, or the relationship between jazz and popular culture. (To do this, you may want to consult articles assigned over the course of the semester.) Do not, however, make a claim that your musical evidence cannot support!
In citing the music, be sure to provide specific musical examples, such as CD timings (e.g., 0:35) or musical time (e.g., “the third bar of the second chorus”). Many students will find that making a listening guide comparable to the ones in the textbook will help organize their findings. Where you feel it appropriate, please use the musical vocabulary introduced in class to articulate your points. (A list of terms can be found in the textbook’s “Glossary” and on the web site’s "Definitions" page.)
A few disclaimers:
- This is not a research paper. You may cite articles from outside the
class, but your argument should be based primarily on your own observations
and material presented in class.
- The arguments and analyses presented in class or in the textbook can be used as a guide; you should also use your own ears and your own mind to find specific ideas and musical moments that are interesting to you.
- Do not suggest in your argument that one kind of jazz is superior because
it is compared to an example that is inferior. All the music chosen in this
class is of superior quality.
- Successful papers avoid making value-laden claims. Do not hinge your argument on the music's "greatness" or a musician's "brilliance."
- Make sure that the ideas behind your argument are clearly stated, and that
the relationship of your argument to the pieces in question is clear.
- Be sure to use paragraphs effectively. Each paragraph should have a point,
and should normally not last long. A paper written in one or two long
paragraphs suggests that the author does not know yet what he/she thinks.
- Remember that in music analysis, it is very easy simply to follow a piece
from beginning to end, but all too often, such a description fails to make
any kind of point at all. As before, students who make their argument
without analysis can expect to receive a lower grade (B as the best possible
- If you take an idea directly from a source--whether it's a page in the textbook, an article in
the reading, or some other resource--be sure to put it in quotation marks
and cite the source. Failure to do so can be considered plagiarism, which is
a serious offense against the Honor System.
- When citing the class textbook Jazz, use in-text parenthetical notes, listing
the source. For example: "According to Jazz [Chapter 8, p. 149], the
melody for 'Mood Indigo' came from Barney Bigard." Or: "According to Albert
Murray ["The Blues as Such," p. 74], blues musicians were professionals, not
Your paper should have your name,
Your paper should include your name, your TA's name, and your discussion section in a header on the first page only. Staple your pages together (no corner folding tricks)!
Since the papers will be graded quickly to meet the mid-May final grade deadline, comments will only be provided as requested. If you would like comments, indicate this in your header. You will be responsible for picking up your paper some time before next semester (orfor 4th-years, before graduation).
3 to 5 pages, double-spaced.
The paper should be delivered to your TA's mailbox no later than Friday, April 29.
Personnel for the examples
- " Blue Light"(1938): Ellington, piano; Wallace Jones, Cootie Williams, Rex Stewart, trumpets; Joe Nanton, Lawrence Brown, Juan Tizol, trombones; Barney Bigard, clarinet; Johnny Hodges, Otto Hardwicke, alto saxophones; HarryCarney, baritone saxophone; Fred Guy, guitar; Billy Taylor, string bass; Sonny Greer, drums. Soloists: Bigard, Brown.
- "Main Stem"(1942): Ellington, piano; Wardell Jones, Ray Nance, Rex Stewart, trumpets; Joe Nanton, Lawrence Brown, Juan Tizol, trombones; Barney Bigard, clarinet; Johnny Hodges, Otto Hardwick, alto saxophones; Ben Webster, tenor saxophone; Harry Carney, baritone saxophone; Fred Guy, guitar; Junior Raglin, string bass; Sonny Greer, drums. Soloists (in order): Stewart, Hodges, Stewart, Nance, Bigard, Nanton, Webster, Brown.
- "Salt Peanuts" (1945): Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet; Charlie Parker, alto sax;
Al Haig, Piano; Curley Russell, bass; Sid Catlett, drums.
- "A Night in Tunisia" (1946): Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet; Don Byas, tenor sax; Milt Jackson, vibes; Al Haig, piano; Bill De Arango, guitar; Ray Brown, bass; J.C. Heard, drums.
- "Doodlin'" (1954): Kenny Dorham, trumpet; Hank Mobley,
tenor sax; Horace
Silver, piano; Doug Watkins, bass; Art Blakey, drums.
- "Mercy, Mercy, Mercy" (1966): Cannonball Adderley, alto sax; Nat Adderley,
cornet; Joe Zawinul, electric piano; Victor Gaskin, bass; Roy McCurdy, drums.
- "Wednesday Night Prayer Meeting" (1959): Willie Dennis, Jimmy Knepper,
trombones; John Handy, Jackie McLean, alto saxophones; Booker Ervin, tenor
saxophone; Pepper Adams, baritone saxophone; Horace Parlan, piano; Charles
Mingus, bass; Dannie Richmond, drums.
- "Far Wells, Mill Valley" (1959): Richard Williams, trumpet; Jimmy Knepper,
trombone; Jerome Richardson, flute & baritone saxophone; John Handy, alto
saxophone; Booker Ervin, Benny Golson, tenor saxophones; Teddy Charles,
vibraphone; Roland Hanna, piano; Charles Mingus, bass; Dannie Richmond,
drums and timpani.
- "Bye Bye Blackbird" (1956): Miles Davis, trumpet; John Coltrane, tenor sax; Red Garland, piano; Paul Chambers, bass; Philly Joe Jones, drums.
- "Flamenco Sketches" (1959): Miles Davis, trumpet; John Coltrane, tenor
sax; Cannonball Adderley, alto sax; Bill Evans, piano; Paul Chambers, bass;
Jimmy Cobb, drums.