Last Updated: 1/2/2012

My White House Days - A View from the Bottom
(and a history of Presidential (Air Force One) and other VIP flight)


R.J.Ribando, Copyright 1998 - 2012 All Rights Reserved

Introduction

The year of my college graduation was probably as eventful as any in recent American history. The siege of Khe Sanh started in January 1968 and ran for 77 days; by the end of January the Tet offensive had also begun, and soon after even the Wall Street Journal had turned "dove." I remember my whole Collegetown neighborhood erupting in cheers that late March evening when LBJ announced that he would not run for a second full term. In April, while hunched over a drafting table finishing up the last design project of my senior year, I heard that Martin Luther King Jr. had been assassinated in Memphis. Then the cities rioted. At commencement that May each graduate received two documents: a real diploma and a fake induction notice, the latter a not-very-subtle reminder that the days of our "2S" deferments were over. In June we saw the murder of Robert Kennedy, and in August the rioting of both the Yippies and the Chicago police at the Democratic National Convention. Then in November, barely into the Ph.D. program in Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences at Princeton and only a few days after my 22nd birthday, I found myself with a notice to appear for induction - and this time it was a real one. The "Get Clean for Gene" McCarthy canvassing had been to no avail. Richard Nixon had won the election only a few weeks earlier - on the basis of his secret plan to end the war. It kept going for six more years, four of them with heavy U.S. involvement.

Maybe I should have been thrilled; after all, my draft board was the first and only entity that has ever wanted me strictly for my virile body! (I had planned on them not wanting it.) I did manage to finish the academic year, but in the meantime, not relishing spending a couple years as a Marine, I enlisted in the USAF (becoming what was called officially a "reluctant volunteer") and was accepted for Officer Training School (OTS). I left my good friends and the ivory towers of Princeton in May. Following three steamy months of management and leadership training at Lackland AFB (Armstrong and Aldrin's walk on the moon was the only TV we were allowed to watch that summer and I definitely missed Woodstock) and nine more at now-closed Chanute AFB, I found myself assigned to the 89th MAWg (now the 89th Airlift Wing) at Andrews AFB, just southeast of Washington. At the time I was the lowest-ranking officer who had ever been assigned to the 89th. I was treated well right from the start - and immediately assigned a convenient parking space marked with a gold bar and "The 2nd Lt." on the sign!

We were known as "Special Air Missions" (SAM) and because we flew the President and other VIP's, a respectable number of the 27 aircraft then assigned to the 89th wound up in museums once they retired. I will concentrate here on the aircraft that were part of the fleet between 1970 and 1972 when I was there, but also provide in appendices some information I have gathered about aircraft assigned to the 89th (and its predecessor, the 1254th) before and since. A number of links are given below; there are also some photos from my personal collection. The latter are all official USAF photos, or from such open sources as Aviation Week and Space Technology. You certainly didn't take a personal camera in there! Security was very tight - the 89th Security Police were said to take delight in tackling young officers caught without their security badges and I never tempted them.

During the time I was there most of the other 89th aircraft were repainted to look somewhat, but not exactly, like the President's aircraft. (Only the lower part of the fuselage was painted blue.) Thus many of the high resolution photos I have included here are of their earlier liveries (paint schemes) which the public affairs officer was discarding. It was also during that period that they tried to name SAM 62-6000, then the primary Presidential aircraft, "The Spirit of '76" in honor of the upcoming U.S. Bicentennial. That moniker never stuck. "Air Force One" was and still is technically a radio call sign for whatever Air Force aircraft the president is flying on, but generally denotes the president's primary aircraft.

The Fords

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 26k [1]).

 

The people I worked with in the 89th were all hand-picked professionals, literally the cream of the USAF. (I can't speak that highly of all of the passengers, quite a few of whom followed up their government service by serving time in Lompoc or Allenwood.) Our pilots took great pride in on-time, smooth landings. It was said that our passengers (DV's - Distinguished Visitors - as they were called, who had to be at least a three-star general or equivalent civilian rank or a hanger-on thereto) knew they had landed not by the bump of gear on the pavement, but by checking their watches. There being no COLA (cost of living allowance) in the Washington area back then, the overwhelming majority of our enlisted men moonlighted to make ends meet - for the privilege of serving! I was single, so even at the $373/month plus housing and food allowances at which I started, those couple years, measured by discretionary income, were the wealthiest of my life.

I must stress that this webpage is entirely unofficial. I have no affiliation with the USAF (and if they would collaborate with the producers of the goofy Air Force One movie [2], I'm sure they will have no objections to anything I reveal here). I do belong to the Sam Fox Association, the organization of 89th veterans, but my only constant connection with the 89th over the years has been the exchange of Christmas cards annually with "Mrs. Robinson," (32k), my friend and confidant.

The Fleet

VC-137B/C (Boeing 707)

The flagship at the time was Boeing VC-137C (707-320B) SAM 62-6000, seen below outside our hangers [3]. This aircraft served as Air Force One through the end of the Kennedy administration, all of Johnson's plus Nixon's first term. The livery was by noted industrial stylist Raymond Loewy, designer of the Studebaker Starlight automobile (the one that looked the same from either end), the Pennsylvania Railroad paint scheme and the Ritz cracker logo, and with the active involvement of Jackie Kennedy [4]. (A much better, airborne shot of SAM 72-7000, which is virtually identical to '6000 on the outside (but for the tail number) is reserved until later.) It was aboard '6000 that what is said to be the most widely-reproduced photo every taken aboard an aircraft - that of the swearing in of Lyndon Johnson (107k) at Love Field in Dallas with Mrs. Kennedy standing next to him still in her blood-stained dress - was taken [5]. Yes, I did fly to and from Love Field on that aircraft - nearly a decade later. In February 1972, just a few months before I left the 89th, she flew President Nixon on his historical trip to China. Once the VC-137's were replaced by the new VC-25's as the primary presidential aircraft, '6000 was repainted in the standard fleet livery (white above with the blue chin below) and continued to fly VIP's. She retired to the Air Force Museum at Wright- Patterson AFB in May 1998 [6].

Hangar Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 97k).

 

SAM 58-6970, (90k) a Boeing VC- 137B [7], was one of three 707's bought for VIP use in 1958 [4]. While I was there, she served as the backup to SAM 62-6000. Then 6000 became backup to SAM 72-7000 when the latter was delivered shortly after I left in 1972. Here '970 is seen in an early photo with MATS markings and with turbojet (rather than turbofan) engines. Note the "dayglo" paint on the nose, wingtips and tail, a precaution taken, I think, as a result of the mid-air, broad daylight collision of a UAL DC-7 and a TWA "Connie" over the Grand Canyon in the June 1956.

Though she never was designated the official "Presidential aircraft," she served as Air Force One many times and saw her share of history. (Columbine III, a Lockheed Super Constellation, retained that designation until the end of Eisenhower's administration and a DC-6 known simply as '3240 served for the first years of Kennedy's administration.) Without President Eisenhower's knowledge, the CIA outfitted '970 with secret reconnaissance cameras in preparation for his planned trip to Moscow. That trip was scuttled, ironically, because of the shooting down of Francis Gary Powers in his U-2 spy plane over the USSR on May 1, 1960. In 1962 '970 carried John Glenn to Washington the day after his orbital flight, and in the early 1970's she (and 62-6000) shuttled Henry Kissinger to Paris for the secret peace talks with North Vietnam. After the delivery of Aircraft 62-6000, '970 was relegated to service as backup, but in the process shed her plain Air Force markings in favor of Loewy's striking blue and white livery. Affectionately known as "Queenie", '970 retired with full military honors to the Museum of Flight in Seattle on June 18, 1996 [8].

SAM 58-6971 is now on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum along with several other veterans of the Presidential Fleet. This aircraft used the call sign "Freedom One" twice, once in 1981 while bringing back the hostages who had been held in the U.S. embassy in Iran and then again a decade later when she brought back former POW's from Operation Desert Storm [39]. The third of the VC-137B's (58-6972) was cannibalized for parts (including the Air Force One Simulator at the Reagan Presidential Museum) at McConnell AFB, KS [9] before being broken up in 1998. The latter two were set up with airline-style interiors, not the executive setup of '970.

VC-135B (Boeing Stratolifter)

Five VC-135's (62-4125, 62-4126, 62-4127, 62-4129 and 62-4130) came to the 89th beginning in 1966. The VC-135's were cargo versions of the KC-135 tanker converted to passenger use. Secretary of Defense McNamara had brought them to Andrews because, with nearly all the tankage of the KC-135 and with turbofan engines (KC-135's all had turbojet engines then; the remaining KC-135's were re-engined with JT-3D turbofan engines taken from retired civilian 707's or new CFM-56 high bypass ratio turbofans), they could fly from AAFB to Southeast Asia (SEA) non-stop. It was easy to tell when one was on its way there; with a full load of fuel you would hold your breath a very long time while waiting to see if it would be off the ground by the end of the nearly 10,000' runway. On the way back they would often be loaded with ceramic elephants destined for the Washington GOP establishment (or if they came back via Colorado, then possibly with some Coors beer - as noted on their cans).

VC-135 Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 94k, [7]).

 

The 135's were definitely spartan. Sometimes referred to by the maintenance crews as "flying submarines" or just "tubes" (the VC-137's were dubbed "supertubes") because they had no windows, the bulkheads were originally painted plywood, while the sleeping bunks were fabricated of square tubular iron and plywood. By the time I got there in 1970, they had at least covered the bulkheads with vinyl. Because the restrooms were fairly nasty (evidence perhaps that not all VIP's are straight-shooters), one of my first projects with the 89th was the design of a separate facility where those personal grooming activities that could not be accomplished with a gas mask in place, e.g., shaving and applying makeup, could be undertaken. Just before I left the 89th in 1972, I worked with the maintenance and operations crews to design a completely new interior - storage, sitting areas, sleeping quarters, galleys, etc. - for the 135's . When I came back as a civilian a few years later, I found that all five had been renovated exactly to our specifications - right down to such details as fabrics and carpets. While I was there, the white "chin" was painted blue, and, to reflect the civilian nature of the mission, "United States of America" replaced "United States Air Force" on the side of the fuselage. Aircraft 62-4125 painted in the newer livery may be seen by clicking here [10]. In late 1977, as part of the efforts of the Carter Administration to expunge the remnants of the Nixon "Imperial Presidency," the five VC-135's were again repainted in a bland white and gold livery. Then in 1981 at the beginning of the Reagan era, they were given back their attractive Air Force One-like livery [35]!

Three of the five VC-135's (62-4130, 62-4127 and 62-4125) later flew DV missions out of Hickam AFB in Hawaii. Like many of the KC-135 tankers, it appears that our VC-135's will fly well into the 21st century. All but 62-4126, which is assigned to the 21st AF at McGuire AFB in New Jersey [35], have already been reconfigured to fly reconnaissance missions. Aircraft 62-4125, now configured as a RC-135W Rivet Joint, is seen in this recent photo [11]. Pretty admirable to be able to make such a career switch after 36 years on the job!

C/VC-118 (Douglas DC-6)

Douglas VC-118 (DC-6) 53- 3240 is on display at Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, where it now sports the same livery as Jackie Kennedy had had designed for SAM 62-6000. Even though the three VC-137B's were already in the Presidential fleet, 3240 was actually designated the official presidential aircraft in the early years of the Kennedy administration [12]. Unlike the 137's it could land at small airports, including Hyannis. The engines are Pratt and Whitney R-2800's rated at 2500 hp (If you want to see a REAL engine, in fact, at 5000 hp the biggest reciprocating aircraft engine ever built [13], click here. My dad sits just to the left of the engine in the white shirt and tie, sleeves rolled up and ready to get back to work. (More engines)) It was fun to watch the 118's start up. You would see the aircraft on the ramp - and then it would disappear in a cloud of smoke. That was the oil that had drained to the bottom cylinders of the #1 engine burning off. Then you would see the aircraft again, and the process would repeat three more times! In many cases a 118 was used to ferry a VIP around Europe or Asia on a week-or-so-long fact-finding trip - when a jet couldn't be tied up that long. These aging birds had an on-time reliability rate even higher than our more modern jets - something in excess of 99.6%. Another of our three 118's (53-3300) was parked at Davis-Monthan AFB from April 1976 until May 2001, when it was finally scrapped [14]. The third 118, 53-3229, which was assigned to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, had a particularly interesting second career [37]. After its Air Force retirement in 1975, it flew several years for the USDA and then for a succession of private companies. At one point (1985) it was seized by the Guatemalan Federal Police. It retired to Tamiami Airport outside Miami where this photo was taken in 1993. It does not appear on recent inventories of DC-6's and C-118's, and thus appears to have been scrapped.

VC-131H (Convair 580)

For short hops we had three VC-131H's, including 54-2815 (seen below, [3]), 54-2816 and 54-2817. Another, 55-0299, flew in occasionally for maintenance from Bergstrom AFB in Texas, where it served the LBJ ranch. Like many Convairs of that era, ours started out piston-engined, but were retrofitted with turboprops in the mid-1960's. Aircraft 2815 served once as "Air Force One" in October 1972 [1]. Three of the 131's were transferred to the Navy in May 1979; Aircraft 2817 was destroyed in November 1985. Then in 1989 aircraft 2815 and 0299 went to work again in the drug war flying for the the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics Matters [15]. The former finally retired to Davis-Monthan in 1993 after nearly 40 years of reliable service [14], but then, amazingly enough, was bought by a civilian cargo airline in 1998! For a while it was being used for parts to keep other 580's flying; but now reportedly is in the process of being rebuilt and converted into a firebomber [36]. Still one more of 2815 in the post 1972 USAF livery may be seen by clicking here. Aircraft 55-0299, the one detailed to the LBJ ranch, flies for the same company as N191FL [36]. Aircraft 2816 has been reported as destroyed.

VC-131h Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 146k).

VC-140B (Lockheed Jetstar)

Lockheed Jetstar 61-2492 was the first of eleven C/VC- 140's whose interiors we completely rebuilt in the early 1970's. (The Air Force Museum write-up below the picture of '492 is wrong on the count. It says six Jetstars were assigned to the 89th, but we definitely had eleven. Some of the confusion may stem from the fact that before the renovation six had been designated as VC-140's and five as C-140's, but afterwards all were identical. Indeed, it was because of the planned renovation of all the Jetstars, the fact that I had an engineering degree and hadn't inhaled, that landed me the cushy Washington assignment. As part of its renovation, '492 was painted a plain white, with no identifying markings at all so that it could be used for sensitive White House missions. Secretary of State Kissinger was a frequent passenger. On more than one Saturday night while waiting as duty officer for him to arrive for his flight, I just assumed he was taking off on a hot date. We learned only later that most of the Saturday evening flights were the first leg of a secret peace mission to Paris. Other "sensitive" missions involved the First Family (64k [16]); I don't think that the daughters of a very unpopular president could have flown commercially [4]. (Maybe in some future life I will have a girlfriend who visits me in a four-engine executive jet!) Later as the Watergate scandal heated up and lines formed at the gasoline pumps during the Energy Crisis (263k) brought on by the 1973 oil embargo, people did take notice - and the Nixons flew commercial at least once. Now over 30 years later the fuel use associated with flying the President's big 747's has gotten the attention of the press again.

In each Jetstar we installed new communications gear, an auxiliary power unit (APU) and a completely new interior including a galley and an externally-serviced latrine - which the flight stewards much preferred to the earlier "honey bucket". I'm sure the same goes for the "pax," including Tricia Nixon and Julie Nixon Eisenhower (in the family photo standing next to her husband David, for whom Camp David was named by his grandfather). Tricia is the blonde - I was disappointed when I arrived in Washington to discover that she was already spoken for, and being a gentleman, had to be content with a quick handshake that I will always cherish. In order to use the older facilities we replaced, they had to walk to the front of the aircraft, close the doors to both the cockpit and cabin and squat in the entry foyer. One might surmise that such a critical application would call for a toilet seat made of some exotic material and costing $600, but that would be wrong. Our resourceful NCO's found exactly what they needed at a local RV dealer - for under $10 a piece.

Toilet Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 207k).

I had hoped to be important enough one day to be permitted an airborne whizz in one of the latrines I had helped design and install, but alas, the Jetstars were all retired before I became famous. Nevertheless, I guess the reader can imagine how thrilled I was to discover that the exact latrine on which I had labored so long and lovingly has been preserved for future generations at the Air Force Museum! (Unfortunately you can only poke your head in this aircraft. A plexiglass protective wall prevents you from viewing the restroom.)

The Jetstars were really short on range (despite the mid-wing, external fuel tanks which are more obvious in the 61-2489 picture below); thus our skilled NCO's went to remarkable lengths to make up for the weight of all the additions. (The nearly-500-pound APU installed in the tail (to provide power on the ground) was the biggest culprit.) All bulkheads were made of a lightweight, honeycomb composite. The formica covering the bulkheads and galley (flat cut regency walnut; I remember from having specified it on dozens of drawings, done manually, of course, since there was no such thing as CAD then) was sanded down to half its original thickness to save weight. Holes were drilled out of everything non-critical. Even the mirror in the restroom was made of lightweight plastic instead of glass.

Drafting Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 15k).

 

Because dimensions at altitude may be very different than those on the ground, aircraft interior design is a lot more complicated than one might imagine. Bulkheads, for instance, cannot be rigidly attached in more than one place. Designing a restroom door that will ensure privacy and open and shut easily both on the ground and at altitude can be a challenge. Legend has it that one of our aircraft was forced to make an unscheduled descent to allow the egress of the wife of a vice-president.

The last step in the refurbishment of each Jetstar was the new paint job, which involved painting a good bit of surface that had been bare previously. Because that metal had been polished and glass-waxed so frequently, getting the new paint to adhere was not trivial. The painting was done at JFK by a private contractor, and the first few landed back at Andrews having shed much of their brand new paint over New Jersey! Eventually an adequate surface preparation protocol was developed. (Nearly a quarter century later the Air Force established a new Coatings Center at WPAFB to address problems of this sort.) Note the reflection of the ground in the lower fuselage of Aircraft 4200 below.

Jetstar Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged, color view (jpg at 28k, [10]).

 

Lockheed Jetstar (VC-140) 61-2489, one of her sister aircraft, is on display at the Pima Air Museum, while another, 62-4201, can be visited at the Hill Aerospace Museum. Aircraft 61-2488, which was assigned to the White House during the LBJ administration, is on display at the Museum of Flight at Robins AFB. Three others of our 140's, 61-2493 (which as AF-2 was assigned to Vice-President Spiro Agnew at the time. Note the distinctive vice-presidential paint scheme), 61-2490 and 62-4199, were parked with thousands of other "golden agers" at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, until April 2001 when 2493 and 4199 were scrapped.  A/C 61-2490 was preserved and is now on display at the LBJ Ranch.  Before he was forced to resign in the face of bribery charges, Mr. Agnew was noted for his alliterative bombast, e.g., "nattering nabobs of negativism" to describe campus radicals and liberals; thus I will leave to the reader's imagination my non-verbal salutation as I walked past his aircraft several times a day. Two more Jetstars, 62-4197 and 62-4200, were relegated to the Allied/Minden Air Corp's scrapyard. You can spot them in the upper right hand corner of the photo. Some of the control surfaces and external fuel tanks seem to be gone.  Amazingly enough, both 62-4200 and 62-4197 seem to have escaped the smelter, having been moved recently to the storage area at Pima.  Aircraft 62-4198 was scrapped in about 1992, while the eleventh one, 61-2491, is used for Aircraft Battle Damage Repair (ABDR), that is, for teaching how to repair damage caused by crashes, enemy fire, accidents, etc. [37]. Another Jetstar, tail no. 89001 is on display outside the flight terminal at Andrews; this one is somewhat of a "fake." It is an early civilian Jetstar painted up to look like it belongs to the 89th.

VC-6A (Beech King Air)

Our lone VC-6a, which was once known as the "Lady Bird Special" in honor of its most regular user, made it to the Air Force Museum.

C-124C (Douglas Globemaster II)

I couldn't resist including a photo of a C-124C Globemaster [17]. My unit didn't fly them, but in case of an attack, the AF Reservists from the other side of the base were supposed to lumber over in their 124's to take us and our equipment and spares to a secret safe haven, fortunately at just 200 knots [18], not very far away. Our own aircraft would carry the VIP's.

C124 Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged, color view (jpg at 300k).

Conclusion

As of October 2011, ten of our assigned aircraft are permanently displayed in museums, while six are still flying. I suppose now you want some dirt on the passengers. (The book listed below [4] by J.F. terHorst, Gerald Ford's press secretary and Col. Ralph Albertazzie, Nixon's personal pilot, is billed as "The gossip-filled story of the highest office in the United States," and does contain far more than I can provide.) I would be less than honest to leave you with the impression that I worked that closely with the president's own aircraft. SAM 62-6000 (AF#1), 58-6970 (AF#1 backup), and VC-140 #61-2493 (AF-2) were maintained and operated by a separate Presidential flight within the 89th and in fact, with only an "extended background investigation", I wasn't even allowed to board those particular aircraft without an escort.

The only real "dirt" I remember hearing about the "old man" himself was how he would put his freshly polished shoes up on the very expensive upholstery. The flight stewards would try to put a towel between shoes and upholstery; he would get angry and pull it out. Contrast that to this shoe polish vignette published recently about our 16th president [19]: "A diplomat, visiting the White House, was surprised to find Abraham Lincoln shining his shoes. 'Mr. President,' exclaimed the diplomat. 'Do you black your own shoes?' 'Yes,' answered Lincoln. 'Whose do you black?'" Perhaps a lesson here.

By the spring of 1972 it was time to move on. I had already learned more than I would have had I spent the time at Princeton. I had had a full year of management and leadership training courtesy of my Uncle Sam and had experienced managing 165 men. (Unfortunately those skills were not really transferrable because nowhere else that I know of would you ever have so dedicated and professional a group of co-workers). I had learned a lot about aircraft interior design. The men in Field Maintenance had taught me useful skills, including sheet metal and woodworking, and my own men in Organizational Maintenance had taught me all I needed to know about "cosmetic" maintenance. Out of necessity I had become an excellent proofreader - if someone three levels up the chain of command found a single typo in an airman performance report (and with 165 men, our branch submitted boatloads of them), it would be bounced back to my office and typed again on a manual typewriter. I had seen a lot of history in the making - often without knowing it. I had seen plenty of celebrities - even Prince Charles before he met Diana. And best of all, in my off-duty time I had met my wife of 30 years!

With the winding down of the war, the Air Force was anxious to get rid of excess manpower. I was discharged and left the nation's capital on Memorial Day weekend of 1972. That traditional first weekend of summer had seemed pretty quiet, but some weeks later we heard that on that particular weekend a group of operatives working on behalf of the CREEP (standing here for the Committee to ReElect the President and not the more recent "Big Creep") had broken into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex. On their first incursion they bungled the installation of the "bugs" they had intended to plant; several weeks later while trying to rectify the bugs, they bungled the break-in itself and were caught. Two years of stone-walling and lies finally ended when Nixon resigned in August of 1974.

I remember a discussion I had with my boss well before leaving in which he reminded me that we did not fly an individual, but "an American institution." Thus our aircraft would continue to gleam no matter who the passengers were or how they behaved. That policy still is operative.

Of course you know that you should view anything you read on the Internet with skepticism), so you're probably justified in assuming I made all this up. In fact, I really was there, most of the above is true and below is proof! The colors are pretty faded from hanging on my various office walls for the past twenty-plus years, but it still brings back some good memories.

VC-137 Signed Picture

Click on the image for an enlarged view (jpg at 597k).


A Postscript

Some people have asked why I waited so long to write this document. On the serious side first, most Vietnam and Vietnam-era veterans simply do not talk about that period in their lives - except maybe to one another. My experiences are certainly lame compared to what many young men and women of my generation endured at their country's behest - those listed on "The Wall" are only those relatively few who made the ultimate sacrifice. Indeed, the only dangerous thing I did during those two years was drive the Capital Beltway - and that was on off-duty time. Second, only weeks after I left Andrews, the Watergate episode began. Several of those working for CREEP and arrested at Watergate had earlier served in a cloak-and-dagger unit known as the "White House Plumbers." The name came from their mission, which was mainly to plug news leaks. Since I didn't relish testifying before the Special Prosecutor, the last thing I wanted to do was announce to the world that I had spent a substantial amount of my time at Andrews working on plumbing for the Nixon White House!

 

References


Appendix I:
89th Aircraft that had come and gone before I arrived (pre-1970)


Appendix II: 89th Aircraft that were delivered after I Left (post-1972)


Aviation Art Virtual Exhibit

 

e-mail: rjr@virginia.edu.

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