WOMEN IN CINEMA: A Reference Guide

(Philip McEldowney, Dec. 1994)
Sections--
  • Introductory Essay
  • Top 5 sources for Women in Cinema
  • I. Bibliographies and Guides. A. General Film
  • I. Bibliographies and Guides. B. Women in Film
  • II. Anthologies and Collections
  • III. Biographical Sources
  • IV. Reviews and Filmographies
  • V. Subject Collections on Film
  • VI. Electronic Sources
  • Bibliography

  • WOMEN IN CINEMA: A REFERENCE GUIDE


    [By Philip F. McEldowney, philipmc@virginia.edu
    UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA SITE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, DECEMBER 1994]

    Introduction: Women in Cinema - A Reference Guide

    Film, cinema, movies, motion pictures -- covers a wide range of topics. Though "Women in Cinema" narrows the topic in one sense to a particular type of film, at the same time it broadens it to include many aspects of topics such as feminism, the women's movement, and women's issues.

    The study of film encompasses a wide variety of types, historical periods, national productions, and related topics. Many studies of film concentrate on fictional, full-length feature films, though there are other types such as shorts, non-fictional documentaries, and docu-dramas. Various studies divide the film production into various periods, from the beginnings in 1896, dependent on major developments in film production (silents, sound, color, etc.) or in historical periods (pre-World War I, the Twenties, the Depression, World War II, post-World War II, the 50s and 60s, post-60s, Film Noire, etc.). Most studies in North America concentrate on Hollywood studio production films and some on non- Hollywood feature films. However, other nations or world-regions have developed their own trends and history of film production, whether in France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Japan, Latin America, India, etc. The study of film relates to a wide range of other topics - literature, stage, art, costumes, aesthetics, ethics, culture, erotica and pornography, television, technical inventions, computers, etc. These, like many aspects of the study of film, have complex relationships and interaction.

    Thus, American viewers in the 1990s have available television programs (via networks, cable, video or CD-ROMS) based on fictional and non-fictional literature or plays or films. There are 'made for television' movies, or feature and other films shown on television, films made from books, books made from screen plays, and biographies of film stars made into Some of these incarnated formats are surrounded by a whole set of studies on mass media techniques, interpretations, fan books and magazines, as well as commercial products of dolls, toys, and other products.

    One set of studies is concerned with women in film -- their roles and participation in cinema, audience reception and perception of women on the screen, and the implications of those productions and their impact, whether past, present, or future.

    The study of women in cinema occupies that wide, still-evolving space between the general studies on film and feminist or women studies. The pull of these two poles may be represented, for example, by the Handbook of American Film Genres (1988) and Sue-Ellen Case's "Toward a Butch-Femme Aesthetic" (Hart, 1989). [1] The Handbook does not include any genre on women as such, but does allow it partly (and only) to be subsumed under a chapter on "Melodrama." This hallmark characteristic of general film studies to ignore or subsume the serious study of women in film provides feminists with a stimulus to attempt to develop their own studies and views of women in film, as represented, perhaps in the extreme, with Case's formulations. The battle between the sexes, on these film issues as with other issues, continues; but not necessarily without progress.

    The history of women in film is as long as film production. Women have been involved with films from the beginning (1896), though feminist film studies arose much later, like many other 'movements,' in the late 1960s. Alice Guy Blache produced "The Cabbage Fairy" in 1896, and followed with 5 films the next year, including "The Bewitched Fiance" and "He." [2] Partly from the stimulus of the May 1968 events in Paris and France, the previously apolitical Cahiers du Cinema changed its editorial policy to advocating ideological analysis of films. [3] In turn, these events abroad and the Civil Rights movement in the United States, stimulated the study and rethinking of women in film, as part of the wider Women's Movement in the United States and elsewhere. The journals of Women and Film (1972-1975), and Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism and Film Theory (Berkeley, 1976-) emerged. The ideas in those journals stimulated further discussion and discourse in the seven issues of the Canadian journal of Cineaction: A Magazine of Radical Film Criticism and Film Theory (1985-).[4] Thus from the late 1960s, the study of women in film has emerged and grown through the rising production of journals, books, conferences, festivals, academic course offerings, archival holdings, and reference materials.

    From its early beginnings in the late 1960s to the present, feminist film criticism has evolved both as developing its own niche of many theories and attempting to remain within the 'mainstream.' In these ways, it has attempted to be both a reformist ideology and remain accessible as an entertainment resource. Some studies have emphasized the divisions between feminist critics of the west and east side of the Atlantic Ocean; between an emphasis of theory and history; between the images of film or 'what' is presented and 'how' or the 'cinema apparatus' of film production; and finally between the relationship of 'culture' as a mirror or representation in film and the 'signification' or signs and symbols on spectators of film. [5] Especially in recent years, the feminists' discussion, theories, and debates about women in cinema have included theories of Freud, Marx, Neo-Marxists, Foucault, Derida, and others; and thus included the approaches and ideas of psychoanalysis, semeiotics, poststructuralists, and deconstructionists.

    Many people seem to find these theories, constructions, and deconstructions about women in film too strident, intellectual, elitist, or 'high-falootin.' On the other end, attempting to remain within the 'mainstream,' there are lists of 'women's films,' annual lists of the top 10 of 'women's' films, and documentaries dealing with the 'hot button' issues of the day for high school audiences and others. These would include the somewhat dated Women's Films in Print (1975) with distributors' addresses, the 1992 and 1993 lists of the Labyrises top ten films, and "Images: Women and Issues," some 22 documentaries for young audiences dealing with practical issues such as teen and single pregnancy, females in the workplace, female poverty, harassment, eating disorders, self-esteem, dating and date-rape. [6]

    The study of women in film remains pulled by the two poles of general film studies and of feminist film studies. The problems remain -- that the general film studies are often not specific enough for good. sources on 'women,' while the women film studies are often too oriented to women's issues, without clear insight on film issues. In these circumstances, researchers for reference materials on 'women in film' might first look at general film reference bibliographies, in order to find some specific reference works on women in film within them. Using these citations, the researcher might expand to gender-specific sources.

    Film studies, as such, rely mainly on 1) reference guides, 2) indexes, 3) reviews or filmographies or catalogs or surveys, 4) biographical sources, and 5) miscellaneous sources. There are very few or valuable handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks, and encyclopedias. The same is true for reference sources in women in film. Anthologies of essays on women's film criticism dominate in the reference works in this field of study; along with some filmographies and directories (mainly of directors). One would hope that publishers might soon fill these gaps of women in film with reference guides, more indexes, and some almanacs, yearbooks, and encyclopedias. One of the ways these gaps are partially being filled is by on-line databases from centers of women's studies. Two of them are already notable and might be expanded - 1) the one for the University of Wisconsin and for 2) the other for the University of Maryland. [7]

    Most materials for women in film will be found under the Library of Congress call number of "PN 1995.9 .W9" etc. The major LC subject heading for these studies is

    Subject: Women in motion pictures
    Researchers should be very aware that the use of 'films' or 'movies' connected with 'females' or 'feminists' might produce very few or incomplete 'finds' or 'hits.'

    In conclusion, reference materials on women in film could use some basic additions, especially in print form. As yet, the databases and files available online, though developed and developing for reference for women in film, are not democratically or widely accessible. One hopes that this accessibility will become more democratic and that the reference items will continually expand and be constantly updated. But, until that happens, publishers could easily make basic reference materials on women in film available to the public through sale or in libraries. Such reference materials would certainly help to fill the continuing gap between the poles of the too-general film studies and the too-specific and ideological women's film studies.

    
    ============================================================================
    
    REFERENCE SOURCES FOR WOMEN IN CINEMA
    
         Both general film sources and specialized women's film sources are
    selectively listed.  Again, the problem with both is that general sources
    include few women's items and women's sources often concentrate on wider
    feminist issues rather than focusing on films.  Both type of sources
    need to be investigated.
         Given the nature of the topic and the available literature, some
    types of reference sources are both rare and not included.  They are
    mainly encyclopedias, handbooks, yearbooks, directories, etc.  Rather
    this list consists of
    
         I.  Bibliographies and guides.  A. General. B. Women in Film.
         II.  Anthologies and collections on women in cinema; sources of 
                 feminist film criticism.
         III. Biographical sources.
         IV. Reviews and filmographies.
         V.  Subject Collections on Film.
         VI. Electronic sources.
    
    A short-list of the top 5 sources for women in cinema is
    
    
    1.  ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FEMINIST AESTHETICS IN THE LITERARY,
    PERFORMING AND VISUAL ARTS, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and
    Estella Lauter [Online].  Available Host:  gopher.inform.umd.edu.
    Directory:  Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/
    WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio.  File: performace-arts.
    
    2.  Acker, Ally.  REEL WOMEN: PIONEERS OF THE CINEMA, 1896 TO THE
    PRESENT.  New York:  Continuum, 1991. 374 p.* (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24
    1991)
    
    3.  Manchel, Frank.  "The Feminist Approach."  In his FILM STUDY: AN
    ANALYTICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Rutherford: Associated University Presses,
    1990.  4 volumes.  (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34 1990) Volume I, p. 465-526.
    
    4.  Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams.  RE-VISION:
    ESSAYS, IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM.  Frederick, MD : University
    Publications of America, 1984.  xi, 169 p. 
    
    5.  University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies.  
    FILM REVIEWS [Online]. (c. 1992-1994).  Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies.  File: FilmReviews. 
    
    
    ========================= I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES/GUIDES =========================
    
    I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND GUIDES
       A. GENERAL
    
       GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS.  Eds. Eugene Paul Sheehy, Rita G.Keckeissen,
    and Richard J.  Dionne.  10th ed.  Chicago : American Library
    Association, 1986.  xiv, 1560 p.  (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986)
    "Motion Pictures," p. 587-597, items BG161- BG289.
       GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS. SUPPLEMENT TO THE TENTH EDITION, COVERING
    MATERIALS FROM 1985-1990.  Eds. Robert Balay and Eugene P. Sheehy.
    Chicago : American Library Association, 1992.  x, 613 p.  (Alderman
    Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986 Suppl) "Motion Pictures," p. 179-184, items
    BG50-BG101.
         Although not specifically on women in film, this general source for
    reference books is as good a place to start as others.  The "Motion
    Pictures" sections include Guides, Bibliography, Periodicals, Indexes,
    Catalogs and filmography, Library resources, Encyclopedias, Dictionaries
    (Terms), Directories and annuals, and Biography. The annotations are
    mostly brief (one or two sentences, often including quotes from prefaces)
    about scope and main use and coverage.  The GUIDE usually provides ISBN
    and Library of Congress call number.  It is almost exclusively a Western
    language and Western culture Guide.  While the SUPPLEMENT was published
    in 1992, it includes books mainly from 1985 and not after 1990. These
    GUIDES are available in most libraries.  Recommended as a good source to
    begin research for any topic on film.
    
       Fisher, Kim N.  ON THE SCREEN : A FILM, TELEVISION, AND VIDEO RESEARCH
    GUIDE .  Littleton, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1986.  xii, 209 p. ; 25
    cm.  (Clemons Reference Z5784 .M9 F535 1986)
         This general, annotated guide provides 10 basic sources on women in
    film.  Almost all of the publications unfortunately are from the 1970s.
    The guide is divided into 15 sections with author and subject indexes at
    the back, covering topics from Bibliographic Guides, Biographies,
    Filmographies and videographies, to Societies and Associations.  Most of
    the sources (6) on women are listed under Filmographies and
    Videographies.  The annotations of three or more sentences evaluate
    scope, number and type of inclusions, purposes, as well as comparisons to
    similar sources.  Fisher includes and describes one women's association -
    the Los Angeles' Women in Film, which acts "as a clearinghouse and
    support group for women in these industries.  It also plays an
    educational role through workshops, lectures, and discussions" (p.
    176-77.  The guide is well arranged with useful annotations; even much
    more useful would be an updated version of this guide.  Recommended as a
    basic guide for resources of the 1970s.
    
       THE MACMILLAN FILM BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Ed. George Rehrauer.  New York :
    Macmillan, 1982.  2 volumes. (Clemons Reference Z 5784 .M9 R423 1982)
         While this bibliography includes 47 entries under its subject entry
    of "Women" (on p.  416 of it second or index volume), a sampling of four
    of the entries reveals this is not a useful reference for women in film.
    Three of the annotations are adequate in their list of the item's
    contents and placing it in a wider context.  Again, most of the listings
    are for items before 1980.  One item is just a listing, with no
    annotation.  Not recommended.
    
       Wulff, Hans Jurgen, Moller-Nass, Karl-Dietmar, Horak, Jan-Christopher,
    Gwozdz, Andrzej, Wastkowska, Anna.  BIBLIOGRAPHIE DER
    FILMBIBLIOGRAPHIEN:  BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FILM BIBLIOGRAPHIES.  Munchen ; New
    York : K.G. Saur, 1987.  xxix, 326 p.  (Clemons Z 1002 .W85 1987)
       Gehring, Wes D., ed.  HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN FILM GENRES.  New York:
    Greenwood Press, 1988.  405 p.  (Clemons PN 1993.5 .U6 H335 1988)
         The brief inclusion of both of these items points to the inadequacy
    of general film reference sources to provide good annotations or
    descriptions for subject-specific film topics.
         While Wulff's BIBLIOGRAPHIE is international in coverage, and even
    includes a special section on eastern European film, he lists only 7
    items on "Women in / and the movies" (p.  154.  Only 2 of those 7 are
    briefly annotated.  "Women" fall under "Genre Studies and Partial
    Histories."  
         Gehring is not really a 'handbook' and there is no particular
    "Women's genre" among these 18 identified genres, ranging from 'Adventure
    Film' to 'The Art Film.' Women, as such, are included under the 16th
    genre, "Melodrama."  Steven Lipkin's essay ends with a selected, brief
    listing of bibliographic and filmographic sources (total 28).  The
    attitude represented by this type of reference source clearly indicates
    that the study of women in film (and other specialized gender, race, etc.
    topics) has still NOT "come a long way, baby."
         The inadequacies of these two reference sources, and many others on
    film, causes a researcher (of women in film) frustrations.  
         Definitely NOT recommended.
    
    
    Bibliographical sources for periodicals --
    
       Slide, Anthony.  INTERNATIONAL FILM, RADIO, AND TELEVISION JOURNALS.
    Westport, Conn. :  Greenwood Press, 1985.  xiv, 428 p.
       Loughney, Katharine. FILM, TELEVISION, AND VIDEO PERIODICALS: A
    COMPREHENSIVE ANNOTATED.  New York:  Garland Publ, 1991.  431 p.
    (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 L68 1991)
       UNION LIST OF FILM PERIODICALS:  HOLDINGS OF SELECTED AMERICAN
    COLLECTIONS. Anna Brady, comp. and editor.  Westpoert, Conn.:  Greenwod
    Press, 1984.  316 p. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 B76 1984) 
         None of the above three sources for information on film journals or
    serials is very helpful on the topic of women in film.  
         Slide does include one good, full, and helpful annotation on one
    women's film journal, that of WOMEN & FILM.  Some of the details of this
    short-lived journal (1972-1975) are included Slide's p. 374-375.
         The annotated Film does not have a subject index, so it is
    impossible to look up "women's" journals.  There are annotations for such
    "women's films" journals as CINEACTION (p. 68), CAHIERS DU CINEMA (p.
    56), and JUMP CUT (p. 182), but none for WOMEN & FILM.  The UNION LIST
    shows the libraries which hold those journals (as of 1984), including
    WOMEN & FILM (but not CINEACTION, which did not start publication until
    1985) and CAMERA OBSCURA (9 libraries with holdings). 
         These three bibliography sources on film journals are not useful for
    the topic of women in film.
    
    I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND GUIDES
       B. WOMEN IN FILM
    
    
       ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FEMINIST AESTHETICS IN THE LITERARY,
    PERFORMING AND VISUAL ARTS, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and
    Estella Lauter [Online].  Available Host:  gopher.inform.umd.edu.
    Directory:  Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/
    WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio.  File: performace-arts.
         This is a very good collection of articles and books on women in the
    "Performance Arts," published during the two decades of the 1970s and
    1980s.  Krumholz and Lauter have selected, compiled, and annotated 97
    works in the performing arts, of which almost half or 46 are connected
    with film.  The list includes articles in journals, articles in
    anthologies, and books themselves.  The annotations consist mostly of two
    long sentences, and are concerned with the ideas of the article and how
    they relate to the theories and philosophical developments in their
    fields.
         Highly recommended as one of the first sources to examine when
    beginning research on women in cinema.
    
       Weisbard, Phyllis Holman.  (December 1992).  
    SELECTED WOMEN'S STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHIES PUBLISHED IN PERIODICALS
    1989-1992 [Online]. Available Host: gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/
    Bibliographies.  File: bibliographies.
       Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (January 1993).  
    NEW REFERENCE WORKS IN WOMEN'S STUDIES, 1990/91-1992 [Online].
    Available Host: gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/
    Bibliographies.  File: reference-books.  
         These updates of Women's Studies Bibliographies contains several on
    women in cinema..  Though not annotated, they nonetheless provide a 
    convenient companion and update to "Performance Arts" annotated list.
    
       Manchel, Frank.  FILM STUDY: AN ANALYTICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Rutherford:
    Associated University Presses, 1990.  4 volumes.  (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34
    1990)
         Manchel's section, "The Feminist Approach" (v. 1, p. 465-490),
    provides a good introduction and overview for the study of women in
    cinema, as well as annotations on books or articles (42) and films (3) on
    the topic (p. 490-526).  Both before and after the "Feminist" section,
    there are some interesting ideas and reviews of "Ideology versus
    Entertainment" (p.  455-465) and "The Pleasure Factor" (p. 527-534).
         All of these are under the somewhat objectionable category "Chapter
    3: Stereotyping in Film."  Manchel divides feminist film critics between
    American and British, but then goes on to emphasize (as Gledhill does)
    similarities of feminists' approaches to film who consider three different
    categories from which to analyze films of sociological, psychoanalytic,
    and textual (including semeiotics).  Overall, both Manchel in his review
    and feminists in their criticisms emphasize the complicated nature of
    film and the many legitimate approaches and interpretations about film.
    Some feminist critics also emphasize the ideological aspects of film as
    part of cultural politics, as shown in the transition from apolitical
    film criticism before the late 1960s and the highly ideological criticism
    of film since that time.  If there has been any trend in the feminist
    film ideology, it is from an approach of film in social context to film
    in psychoanalytic context, to film in literary textual and semiotic
    context, to film as signifier and representative among spectators
    (audience).  Manchel prefers to see these trends as challenges rather
    than contradictions, as a progress to a better understanding rather than
    divergent strands leading away from each other.
         Manchel's annotations are uneven, some two pages long, while others
    are less than two sentences long.  In his essay on the "Feminist
    Approach," he ends, without a clear break or transition, with a
    discussion of using films for products and advertisements (Mickey Mouse
    watches), and whether directors, as auteurs, intended or had any control
    over commercial or other messages conveyed in their films to audiences.
    Manchel might have made these discussions clearly separate from the
    Feminist Approach.
         Manchels's essay is recommended for his interesting ideas and
    overall view, but researchers should approach his interpretations
    critically.
    
       Cook, Samantha.  WOMEN AND FILM BIBLIOGRAPHY.  London:  British Film
    Institute, 1992.  139 p. 
      Kuhn, Annette with Susannah Radstone, eds.  WOMEN IN FILM: AN
    INTERNATIONAL GUIDE.  New York:  Fawcett Columbine, 1990.  500 p.
         [Neither of the above books are owned by the University of Virginia
    nor available for review before the production of this paper.  The first
    is listed as a bibliography; while OCLC lists the second with the subject
    heading "Women in motion pictures--Encyclopedias."]
    
    
    =============================== II. ANTHOLOGIES =======================
    
    II.  ANTHOLOGIES AND COLLECTIONS ON WOMEN IN CINEMA:  SOURCES OF
         FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM.
    
         Theories, criticism, and ideas on women in film developed mainly in
    the late 1960s and early 1970s.  The following books and collections
    represent some of the leading writings and writers on women in film.
    Especially the four books, Rosen's POPCORN, Haskell's REVERENCE, French's
    REVOLT, and Higashi's VIRGINS, represent some of the early studies and
    ideas of women in film.  
         These early books have been followed by other studies, as well as
    writings in journal articles, such as in the early journal WOMEN & FILM
    (1972-1975), which were often incorporated into anthologies or
    collections from the late 1970s through the present day.  Many of these
    sources cover critical reviews of movies and their actors, as well as
    include short filmographies and bibliographies.  Each book often has its
    own purpose, coverage, and audience level, but they have a common thread
    of discussing and debating issues of women in film.
         Among the leading writers and thinkers in these discussions of women
    in film are Teresa De Lauretis, Mary Ann Doane, Patricia Erens, Mary
    Gentile, Christine Gledhill, E. Ann Kaplan, Karyn Kay, Annette Kuhn,
    Constance Plenley, Linda Williams, and Robin Wood.  They have contributed
    in various ways to the ideas on women in film during the last two
    decades, and will likely continue to lead discussions and edit
    collections in the future, bringing in new writers as time goes on.  
    
       Rosen, Marjorie.  POPCORN VENUS: WOMEN, MOVIES & THE AMERICAN DREAM.
    New York, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.  416 p. 
       Haskell, Molly.  FROM REVERENCE TO RAPE: THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN IN THE
    MOVIES.  2nd ed.  Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1974.  388 p. 
       French, Brandon.  ON THE VERGE OF REVOLT: WOMEN IN AMERICAN FILMS OF
    THE FIFTIES.  New York : Ungar, 1978.  xxiv, 165 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9
    .W6 F7)
        Higashi, Sumiko.  VIRGINS, VAMPS, AND FLAPPERS: THE AMERICAN SILENT
    MOVIE HEROINE.  St. Albans, Vt. : Eden Press Women's Publications, 1978.
    vi, 226 p.
       Kay, Karyn and Gerald Peary.  WOMEN AND THE CINEMA: A CRITICAL
    ANTHOLOGY .  New York:  Dutton, 1977.  xvi, 464 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6
    W65)
       Erens, Patricia, ed. SEXUAL STRATAGEMS:  THE WORLD OF WOMEN IN FILM.
    New York:  Horizon Press, 1979.  336 p. 
       Kuhn, Annette.  WOMEN'S PICTURES:  FEMINISM AND CINEMA.  London:
    Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.  226 p.
       Kaplan, E. Ann.  WOMEN AND FILM:  BOTH SIDES OF THE CAMERA.  New
    York:  Methuen, 1983.  259 p. 
       Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams.  RE-VISION:
    ESSAYS, IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM.  Frederick, MD: University
    Publications of America, 1984.  xi, 169 p.
       De Lauretis, Teresa.  ALICE DOESN'T: FEMINISM, SEMEIOTICS, CINEMA.
    Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.  ix, 220 p.
       Gentile, Mary C.  FILM FEMINISMS: THEORY AND PRACTICE.  Wesport:
    Greenwood Press, 1985.  182 p.
       Gledhill, Christine.  British Film Institute.  HOME IS WHERE THE HEART
    IS: STUDIES IN MELODRAMA AND THE WOMAN'S FILM.  London: British Film
    Institute, 1987.  364 p. 
       Todd, Janet M.  WOMEN AND FILM.  New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988.  281
    p.  (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W63 1988) 
       Plenley, Constance, ed.  FEMINISM AND FILM THEORY.  New York:
    Routledge, 1988.  271 p.
       Fischer, Lucy.  SHOT/COUNTERSHOT: FILM TRADITION AND WOMEN'S CINEMA.
    Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press, 1989.  xii, 348 p. (Clemons
    PN 1995.9 .W6 F57 1989)
       Erens, Patricia.  ISSUES IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM.  Bloomington:
    Indiana University Press, 1990.  xxvi, 450 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 I87
    1990)
      Jacobs, Lea and Patrice Petro, special issue editors.  "Feminism and
    Film History."  CAMERA OBSCURA.  No. 22, January 1990.
       Jacobs, Lea.  THE WAGES OF SIN: CENSORSHIP AND THE FALLEN WOMAN FILM,
    1928-1942.  Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.  xii, 202
    p.
       Doane, Mary Ann.  FEMMES FATALES: FEMINISM, FILM THEORY, AND
    PSYCHOANALYSIS.  New York:  Routledge, 1991.  312 p. 
    
    
    ========================== III. BIOGRAPHICAL ========================
    
    III.  BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES
    
       Acker, Ally.  REEL WOMEN: PIONEERS OF THE CINEMA, 1896 to the
    present.  New York:  Continuum, 1991. 374 p.  (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24
    1991)
         Acker collects one of the best biographic sources for women in film,
    covering the early and later directors, well-known and lesser-known, and
    going on to cover film producers, writers, editors, animators, stunt
    women, foreign, and unsung women of cinema.  A convenient index allows
    quick reference.  The Notes and Photo Credits provide pointers to other
    sources for those that are interested. Alice Guy Blanche's biography and
    a list of her films cover six pages.  At the other end of the book, Acker
    is less than enamored with director Lina Wertmuller and her
    "patriarchal-applauded cinema;" Wertmuller gets 1.5 pages coverage.  This
    is a recommend source for information on persons involved in the
    production of women's film.
    
       Miller, Lynn Fieldman.  "Women Directors."  WLW JOURNAL.  v. 16
    (Summer 1993), p.  7-8.  [review of "Women who made the movies."  Video,
    55 minutes.  Gwendolyn Foster- Dixon and Wheeler Dixon, producers.
    Nebraska Educational Television.]
         Miller's short review of the 55-minute video, "Women who made the
    movies," makes a pitch for a video which introduces and covers many of
    the women involved in film production from the early 20th Century up
    through the 1950s.
    
       Heck-Rabi, Louise.  WOMEN FILMMAKERS: A CRITICAL RECEPTION.
    Metuchen, N.J. :  Scarecrow Press, 1984.  xv, 392 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9
    .W6 H4 1984)
         Heck-Rabi covers 11 women filmmakers.  Most of the biographical
    essays are 30 or more pages in length.  Each section quotes extensively
    from articles and books, and includes a filmography for each as well as
    notes.
         
       Quart, Barbara.  WOMEN DIRECTORS: THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW CINEMA.  New
    York :  Praeger, 1988.  xvi, 268 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q37 1988)
         Quart covers a wide-range of directors in six chapters titled
    Antecedents, American Women Directors, Western European Women Directors,
    Eastern European Women Directors, and Notes on Third World Women
    Directors.  The last section is fairly brief, while her European sections
    are perhaps the most interesting and lengthy.  She includes a good index
    as well as black and white stills of several of the book's directors.
    She raises and discusses several topics while reviewing the work of the
    selected directors such as new lesbian mainstream film and Hollywood pop
    feminism.
    
       Quinlan, David.  WICKED WOMEN OF THE SCREEN.  New York : St. Martin's
    Press, 1987.  155 p. 
         This is a fun book for its many pictures of women on the screen, and
    for its many inventive categories such as Murderesses, Psychos, Baddies,
    Schemers, etc.  It has a good index along with a short "Filmographies of
    principal stars."
    
       Segrave, Kerry, and Linda Martin.  THE POST-FEMINIST HOLLYWOOD
    ACTRESS:  BIOGRAPHIES AND FILMOGRAPHIES OF STARS BORN AFTER 1939.
    Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990.  313 p.*
       Segrave, Kerry and Linda Martin, THE CONTINENTAL ACTRESS:  EUROPEAN
    FILM STARS OF THE POSTWAR ERA: BIBLIOGRAPHIES, CRITICISM, FILMOGRAPHIES,
    BIBLIOGRAPHIES.  Jefferson, NC:  McFarland, 1990.  314 p.*
         [The above two bibliographies/biographies were not owned by the
    University of Virginia, nor available through InterLibrary Loan in time
    for reviewing for this paper.]
    
    
    ======================= IV. REVIEWS AND FILMOGRAPHIES =============
    
    IV.  REVIEWS AND FILOGRAPHIES
    
       Dawson, Bonnie, ed.  WOMEN'S FILMS IN PRINT: AN ANNOTATED GUIDE TO 800
    FILMS BY WOMEN.  San Francisco: Booklegger Press, 1975.  165 p.  (Clemons
    PN 1998 .D3)
         This is one of the best early, annotated women's filmographies.
    Dawson lists the 800 films under 370 women filmmakers, including a
    film-title index.  Where possible she provides the cost of the film, and
    includes a good list of the addresses of film distributors.  Most of the
    annotations are brief but sufficient.
    
       Oshana, Maryann.  WOMEN OF COLOR: A FILMOGRAPHY OF MINORITY AND THIRD
     WORLD WOMEN.  New York : Garland Pub., 1985.  xii, 338 p. (Clemons Z
     5784 .M9 O84 1985)
         The annotations in this fairly extensive list of English-language
    films from 1930-1983 run about four sentences.  Other details are also
    listed including year, type, running time, producers, directors, etc.
    There are a few black and white photos of the films.  There are
    separately both an Actress and Director index.  A final Classification
    index includes lists by countries and types, such as African, Cajun,
    Indian, and Gypsy.  Sufficiently interesting and useful for its period of
    coverage and short annotations.
    
       Brunsdon, Charlotte, and British Film Institute.  FILMS FOR WOMEN.
    London : British Film Institute, 1986.  iv, 236 p.  (Clemons PN 1995.9
    .W6 F54 1986)
         Brunsdon has brought together about 20 essays, discussing a film
    individually or the issues surrounding a group of films.  Most of films
    were produced in 1970s and early 1980s.  There is both an index as well
    as a filmography (p. 232-234).
    
       Karrmann, Elton S.  (November 1994).  UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM,
    WOMEN'S STUDIES AUDIOVISUAL COLLECTION [Online]. Available Host:
    silo.adp.wisc.edu.  Directory: .uwlibs/.womenstudies.  File: .avcoll.  
         Karrmann covers films under three categories 1) Documentary, 2)
    Experimental, and 3) Narrative films.  The information includes format,
    date, running time, and one or two sentence summaries.  At the end of the
    films is a list of books on women's films, filmmakers, and film theory.
    
       McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1995).  
    1994 SUMMARY OF BEST FEMINIST FILMS [Online]. Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1993-mcalister.
       McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1994).  
    YEAR'S BEST FEMINISTS FILMS OF 1993 [Online]. Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1993-mcalister.
       McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1993).  
    YEAR'S BEST FEMINISTS FILMS OF 1992 [Online]. Also Titled: Linda's
    Labyris Awards for Best Feminist Feature Films of 1992.  Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1992-mcalister.
         These annual lists of the 10 best (feature films) describe
    some of the reasons why they were selected.  Each list runs into three of
    four pages or screens.
    
       University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies.  
    FILM REVIEWS [Online]. (c.  1992-1994).  Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies.  File: FilmReviews. 
         This is a set of reviews of about 152 feature films, mostly recently
    produced (in the last 5 years, i.e. the 1990s).  Each review is more than
    2 pages or screens long.  Almost all of them are by Linda Lopez McAlister
    (of WMNF-FM radio, Tampa, Florida), with some written by Cynthia Fuchs
    and also appearing in the Philadelphia City Paper. This is a convenient
    online source to look up one's favorite film before renting it.
    
       Flynn, Barbara L.  "Images: Women and Issues." SIGHTLINES. v. 25
    (Spring. 1992), p. 14- 16.
         Flynn briefly annotates about 20 documentaries or videos/films.  She
    encourages groups to look over the descriptions for possible use.  All
    are on 'women's issues" as focused into four areas 1) females in the
    workplace and in school, 2) parenting, 3) feminization of poverty, and
    the 4) feminine image.  Many of these are 'hot-button' issues, such as
    harassment, abuse, teenage pregnancy, dating, and dieting.  A good list
    of films outside the mainstream when thinking usually about women in film.
    
    
       Lieberman, Anne.  IN HER OWN IMAGE: FILMS AND VIDEOS EMPOWERING WOMEN
    FOR THE FUTURE: A MEDIA NETWORK GUIDE.  Media Network, 1991.  40 p.
         [This short film and video catalog was not owned by the Univeristy
    of Virginia, nor available for review at the time this paper was
    produced.]
    
    
    ==================== V. SUBJECT COLLECTIONS ON FILM ==================
    
    V. SUBJECT COLLECTIONS ON FILM
    
       Ash, Lee.  SUBJECT COLLECTIONS: A GUIDE TO SPECIAL BOOK COLLECTIONS
    AND SUBJECT EMPHASES AS REPORTED BY UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE, PUBLIC, AND
    SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA.  7th ed.,
    rev. and enl.  New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1993.  2 volumes
    (Alderman Reference Z 731 .A78 1993) 
         There are several categories and pages (v. 2, p. 1460-1469) for
    "Moving Pictures" Almost 40 collections are listed and described with the
    major ones being around Los Angeles, around New York City, in Ohio,
    Indiana, as well as special libraries in Texas, Wisconsin, and the
    District of Columbia.  Some collection concentrate on the films
    themselves; others on scripts and books; still others on slides and
    stills; with one or two specializing on costumes and set designs.
    Included are the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Margaret
    Herrick Library (Beverly Hills), the American Film Institute Louis B.
    Mayer Library (Los Angeles), and the New York Library for the Performing
    Arts (New York).
    
    
    ============================= VI. ELECTRONIC =========================
    
    VI. ELECTRONIC SOURCES
    
         Two electronic sources, the University of Maryland and the
    University of Wisconsin Gophers for women's issues, are listed below.
    Though they mostly cover many other women's issues, they also include
    coverage of women filmographies and bibliographies on women in film.  
         The advantage of these electronic sources often is their immediate
    availability through a computer at the office, library, home, or other
    places, at any time of day or night.  Often the sources and services are
    free, whether through the Internet or through a paid service such as
    Dialog.  As time goes on more and more services and sources are becoming
    available on the Internet and other ways, whether through Gophers, File
    Transfer Protocol, Telneting, or the World Wide Web.
         Another advantage is that sources can be quickly added or updated.
    Thus, the annual list of the ten best women's films for 1994 may soon be
    added (in the month of January 1995) to the annual lists for 1992 and
    1993.
         Already many research customers take some electronic sources for
    granted - the local Online Public Access Catalog (usually not available
    10 years ago), the FirstSource and OCLC, as well as such services as for
    periodicals (WILS or Wilson Periodical Index) and for newspapers (NABS).
         Researchers should become familiar with these electronic
    bibliographic, biographic, and filmographies, while not ignoring the
    usefulness of non-electronic sources for the study of women in film.
    
       University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. 
    WOMEN'S STUDIES GOPHER (University of Maryland) [Online]. Available
    Host:  gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic.  File: WomensStudies.
         The U. of Maryland's opening Women's Studies Gophers opening menu
    consists of 14 directories, including Bibliographies, Film Reviews, Other
    Women's Issues Gophers, Reading Room and Reference Room.  Some of these
    sections have be described above.  (eg under Reviews).  There are 18
    directories of Other Women's Issues Gophers ranging from UCLS;
    Chicana-Latina Studies to Florance, Italy's GopherDonna and New Zealand's
    Women's Centennial Sufferage Year gopher.
    
    Women's
    Studies Librarian's Office, University of Wisconsin. Gopher Main Menu
    [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu Direcotry: .uwlibs.
    File: .womenstudies. (9 sections)
         This U. of Wisconsin main menu includes 6 files and 3 directories.
    The table of contents for the locally published Feminist Collections is
    available for the last 2 years. In addition there are several
    "Bibliograpies in Women' Studies" available online and annnotated catalog
    of almost 80 women's films and videos.
    
    
    ============================= BIBLIOGRAPHY ==============================
    
                                  BIBLIOGRAPHY
    
    Acker, Ally.  Reel Women: Pioneers of the cinema, 1896 to the present.
    New York:  Continuum, 1991. 374 p.* (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24 1991)
    
    
    Annotated bibliography of feminist aesthetics in the literary, performing
    and visual arts, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella
    Lauter [Online].  Available Host:  gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/
    WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio.  File: performace-arts.
    
    Ash, Lee.  Subject Collections: a guide to special book collections and
    subject emphases as reported by university, college, public, and special
    libraries and museums in the United States and Canada.  7th ed., rev. and
    enl.  New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1993.  2 volumes (Alderman
    Reference Z 731 .A78 1993) 
    
    Basinger, Jeanine.  A woman's view: how Hollywood spoke to women,
    1930-1960.  New york : Knopf, 1993.  viii, 528 p.
    
    Brunsdon, Charlotte, and British Film Institute.  Films for women.
    London: British Film Institute, 1986.  iv, 236 p.  (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6
    F54 1986)
    
    Cahiers du cinema.  Paris, Editions de l'Etoile, 1951-.  (Clemons PN 1993
    .C25)
    
    Camera obscura.  Baltimore, MD. : Johns Hopkins University Press 1976-.
    "A journal of feminism and film theory." SUBJECT TERMS:  Feminism and
    motion pictures--Periodicals.  (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 C28)
    
    Cook, Samantha.  Women and Film: Bibliography.  London:  British Film
    Institute, 1992.  139 p.*
    
    Cook, Pam and Philip Dodd.  Women and film: a Sight and sound reader.
    Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 1993.  xxix, 287 p.  Collection
    of essays previously published by Sight and Sound.  Includes
    bibliographical references (p. 254-264) and index.  Filmography:  p.
    243-253.
    
    Dawson, Bonnie, ed.  Women's Films in Print: an annotated guide to 800
    films by women.  San Francisco: Booklegger Press, 1975.  165 p.  (Clemons
    PN 1998 .D3)
    
    De Lauretis, Teresa.  Alice doesn't: feminism, semeiotics, cinema.
    Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.  ix, 220 p.
    
    Doane, Mary Ann.  Femmes fatales: feminism, film theory, and
    psychoanalysis.  New York: Routledge, 1991.  312 p.
    
    Doane, Mary Ann.  The desire to desire: the woman's film of the 1940s.
    Bloomington:  Indiana University Press, 1987.  211 p. 
    
    Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams.  Re-vision:
    essays, in feminist film criticism.  Frederick, MD: University
    Publications of America, 1984.  xi, 169 p. 
    
    Erens, Patricia.  Issues in feminist film criticism.  Bloomington:
    Indiana University Press, 1990.  xxvi, 450 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 I87
    1990)
    
    Feminist Collections.  Madison, Wis:  Women's Studies Librarian-at-Large
    for the University of Wisconsin System, 1980-- .  Quarterly.
    
    Fischer, Lucy.  Shot/countershot: film tradition and women's cinema.
    Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press, 1989.  xii, 348 p. (Clemons
    PN 1995.9 .W6 F57 1989)
    
    Fisher, Kim N.  On the screen: a film, television, and video research
    guide .  Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1986.  xii, 209 p. ; 25
    cm.  (Clemons Reference Z5784 .M9 F535 1986)
    
    Flynn, Barbara L.  "Images: Women and Issues." Sightlines. v. 25 (Spring.
    1992), p. 14-16.
    
    Foreman, Alexa L.  Women in motion.  Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green
    University Popular Press, 1983.  248 p.
    
    French, Brandon.  On the verge of revolt: women in American films of the
    fifties.  New York:  Ungar, 1978.  xxiv, 165 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F7)
    
    Gehring, Wes D., ed.  Handbook of American film genres.  New York:
    Greenwood Press, 1988.  405 p.  (Clemons PN 1993.5 .U6 H335 1988)
    
    Gentile, Mary C.  Film feminisms: theory and practice.  Westport, Conn.:
    Greenwood Press, 1985.  182 p.
    
    Gledhill, Christine.  British Film Institute.  Home is where the heart
    is: studies in melodrama and the woman's film.  London: British Film
    Institute, 1987.  364 p. 
    
    Gledhill, Christine.  Stardom: industry of desire.  New York: Routledge,
    1991.  xx, 340 p.
    
    Guide to reference books.  Eds. Eugene Paul Sheehy, Rita G.Keckeissen,
    and Richard J.  Dionne.  10th ed.  Chicago : American Library
    Association, 1986.  xiv, 1560 p.  (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986)
    
    Guide to reference books. Supplement to the tenth edition, covering
    materials from 1985-1990.  Eds. Robert Balay and Eugene P. Sheehy.
    Chicago: American Library Association, 1992.  x, 613 p.  (Alderman
    Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986 Suppl)
    
    Haskell, Molly.  From reverence to rape : the treatment of women in the
    movies.  2nd ed.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.  xviii, 425
    p. 
    
    Heck-Rabi, Louise.  Women filmmakers: a critical reception.  Metuchen,
    N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1984.  xv, 392 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 H4 1984)
    
    Higashi, Sumiko.  Virgins, vamps, and flappers: The American silent movie
    heroine.  St.  Albans, Vt.:  Eden Press Women's Publications, 1978.  vi,
    226 p.
    
    Jacobs, Lea.  The wages of sin: censorship and the fallen woman film,
    1928-1942.  Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.  xii, 202
    p.
    
    Kaplan, E. Ann.  Women and film: both sides of the camera.  New York:
    Methuen, 1983.  xii, 259 p.
    
    Kaplan, E. Ann.  Women in film noir.  London: BFI Publishing, 1980.  132
    p. 
    
    Kaplan, E. Ann.  Psychoanalysis & cinema.  New York: Routledge, 1990.
    xi, 249 p. 
    
    Karrmann, Elton S.  (November 1994).  University of Wisconsin System,
    Women's Studies Audiovisual collection [Online]. Available Host:
    silo.adp.wisc.edu.  Directory: .uwlibs/.womenstudies.  File: .avcoll.  
    
    Kay, Karyn and Gerald Peary.  Women and the cinema: a critical
    anthology.  New York:  Dutton, 1977.  xvi, 464 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6
    W65)
    
    Kowalski, Rosemary Ribich.  Women and film : a bibliography.  Metuchen,
    N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.  ix, 278 p.
    
    Kuhn, Annette.  Women's pictures: feminism and cinema.  London; Boston:
    Routledge & K. Paul, 1982.  xiv, 226 p.  Bibliography: p. 211-217.
    
    Kuhn, Annette with Susannah Radstone, eds.  Women in Film: An
    International Guide.  New York:  Fawcett Columbine, 1990.  500 p.*
    
    Li, Xia and Nancy Crane.  Electronic style: a guide to citing electronic
    information.  Westport: Meckler, 1993.  xi, 65 p. 
    
    Lieberman, Anne.  In her Own Image:  Films and videos empowering women
    for the future:  A media network guide.  Media Network, 1991.  40 p.*
    
    The Macmillan film bibliography.  Ed. George Rehrauer.  New York:
    Macmillan, 1982.  2 volumes.  (Clemons Reference Z 5784 .M9 R423 1982)
    
    Maio, Kathi.  Popcorn and sexual politics : movie reviews.  Freedom, CA:
    Crossing Press, 1991.  ix, 215 p. 
    
    Manchel, Frank.  Film Study: An analytical bibliography.  Rutherford:
    Associated University Presses, 1990.  4 volumes.  (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34
    1990)
    
    Margolis, Nadia.  Joan of Arc in history, literature, and film: A select,
    annotated bibliography.  New York: Garland, 1990.  409 p. *
    
    McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1995).  
    "1994 Summary of Best Feminist Films" [Online]. Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1993-mcalister.
    
    McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1994).  
    Year's Best Feminist Films of 1993 [Online]. Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1993-mcalister.
    
    McAlister, Linda Lopez.  (1993).  
    Year's Best Feminist Films of 1992 [Online]. Available Host:Linda's
    Labyris Awards for Best Feminist Feature Films of 1992.  Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews.  File:
    best-of-1992-mcalister.
    
    Miller, Lynn Fieldman.  "Women Directors."  WLW Journal.  v. 16 (Summer
    1993), p. 7- 8. 
    
    Oshana, Maryann.  Women of color : a filmography of minority and Third
    World women.  New York: Garland Pub., 1985.  xii, 338 p.
    
    Quart, Barbara.  Women directors : the emergence of a new cinema.  New
    York: Praeger, 1988.  xvi, 268 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q37 1988)
    
    Quinlan, David.  Wicked women of the screen.  New York:  St. Martin's
    Press, 1987.  155 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q56 1987)
    
    Rosen, Marjorie.  Popcorn Venus; women, movies & the American dream.  New
    York:  Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.  416 p. 
    
    Segrave, Kerry, and Linda Martin.  The Post-Feminist Hollywood Actress:
    Biographies and filmographies of stars born after 1939.  Jefferson, NC:
    McFarland, 1990.  313 p.*
    
    Segrave, Kerry and Linda Martin, The Continental Actress:  European film
    stars of the postwar era: Bibliographies, criticism, filmographies,
    bibliographies.  Jefferson, NC:  McFarland, 1990.  314 p.*
    
    Slide, Anthony.  International film, radio, and television journals.
    Westport, Conn.:  Greenwood Press, 1985.  xiv, 428 p.
    
    Spilsbury, Christina.  American Film Institute. National Education
    Services.  Women and film/television.  Frederick, Md.: University
    Publications of America, in association with The American Film Institute,
    1979. (1984 printing) 33 p.  Bibliography: 17-33.
     
    Todd, Janet M.  Women and film.  New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988.  281 p.
    (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W63 1988) 
    
    University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. Women's
    Studies Gopher (University of Maryland) [Online]. Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic.  File: WomensStudies.
    
    University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies.  
    Film Reviews [Online]. (c.  1992-1994).  Available Host:
    gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:  Educational_Resources/
    AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies.  File: FilmReviews. 
    
    Weisbard, Phyllis Holman.  (December 1992).  
    Selected Women's Studies Bibliographies published in periodicals
    1989-1992 [Online]. Available Host: gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/
    Bibliographies.  File: bibliographies.
    
    Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (January 1993). 
    New Reference works in women's studies, 1990/91-1992
    [Online].  Available Host: gopher.inform.umd.edu.  Directory:
    Educational_Resources/AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/
    Bibliographies.  File: reference-books.  
    
    
    Women's Studies Librarian's Office, University of Wisconsin. Gopher Main
    Menu [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu Direcotry: .uwlibs.
    File: .womenstudies. (9 sections)
    
    Wood, Robin Personal views: explorations in film.  London: G. Framer,
    1976.  254, 1 p.
     
    Wulff, Hans Jurgen, Moller-Nass, Karl-Dietmar, Horak, Jan-Christopher,
    Gwozdz, Andrzej, Wastkowska, Anna.  Bibliographie der
    Filmbibliographien:  Bibliography of film bibliographies.  Munchen; New
    York:  K.G. Saur, 1987.  xxix, 326 p.  (Clemons Z 1002 .W85 1987)
    
    ________________ 
    *Entries reviewed in Feminist Collections from volume 12, no. 1 (Fall
    1990) through volume 14, no. 2 (Winter 1993).
    
    ================================ E N D ===============================
    
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