Film, cinema, movies, motion pictures -- covers a wide range of topics. Though "Women in Cinema" narrows the topic in one sense to a particular type of film, at the same time it broadens it to include many aspects of topics such as feminism, the women's movement, and women's issues.
WOMEN IN CINEMA: A REFERENCE GUIDE
[By Philip F. McEldowney, email@example.com
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA SITE, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, ORIGINALLY DECEMBER 1994]
Introduction: Women in Cinema- A Reference Guide
The study of film encompasses a wide variety of types, historical periods, national productions, and related topics. Many studies of film concentrate on fictional, full-length feature films, though there are other types such as shorts, non-fictional documentaries, and docu-dramas. Various studies divide the film production into various periods, from the beginnings in 1896, dependent on major developments in film production (silents, sound, color, etc.) or in historical periods (pre-World War I, the Twenties, the Depression, World War II, post-World War II, the 50s and 60s, post-60s, Film Noire, etc.). Most studies in North America concentrate on Hollywood studio production films and some on non- Hollywood feature films. However, other nations or world-regions have developed their own trends and history of film production, whether in France, Germany, Britain, Italy, Japan, Latin America, India, etc. The study of film relates to a wide range of other topics - literature, stage, art, costumes, aesthetics, ethics, culture, erotica and pornography, television, technical inventions, computers, etc. These, like many aspects of the study of film, have complex relationships and interaction.
Thus, American viewers in the 1990s have available television programs (via networks, cable, video or CD-ROMS) based on fictional and non-fictional literature or plays or films. There are 'made for television' movies, or feature and other films shown on television, films made from books, books made from screen plays, and biographies of film stars made into Some of these incarnated formats are surrounded by a whole set of studies on mass media techniques, interpretations, fan books and magazines, as well as commercial products of dolls, toys, and other products.
One set of studies is concerned with women in film -- their roles and participation in cinema, audience reception and perception of women on the screen, and the implications of those productions and their impact, whether past, present, or future.
The study of women in cinema occupies that wide, still-evolving space between the general studies on film and feminist or women studies. The pull of these two poles may be represented, for example, by the Handbook of American Film Genres (1988) and Sue-Ellen Case's "Toward a Butch-Femme Aesthetic" (Hart, 1989).  The Handbook does not include any genre on women as such, but does allow it partly (and only) to be subsumed under a chapter on "Melodrama." This hallmark characteristic of general film studies to ignore or subsume the serious study of women in film provides feminists with a stimulus to attempt to develop their own studies and views of women in film, as represented, perhaps in the extreme, with Case's formulations. The battle between the sexes, on these film issues as with other issues, continues; but not necessarily without progress.
The history of women in film is as long as film production. Women have been involved with films from the beginning (1896), though feminist film studies arose much later, like many other 'movements,' in the late 1960s. Alice Guy Blache produced "The Cabbage Fairy" in 1896, and followed with 5 films the next year, including "The Bewitched Fiance" and "He."  Partly from the stimulus of the May 1968 events in Paris and France, the previously apolitical Cahiers du Cinema changed its editorial policy to advocating ideological analysis of films.  In turn, these events abroad and the Civil Rights movement in the United States, stimulated the study and rethinking of women in film, as part of the wider Women's Movement in the United States and elsewhere. The journals of Women and Film (1972-1975), and Camera Obscura: A Journal of Feminism and Film Theory (Berkeley, 1976-) emerged. The ideas in those journals stimulated further discussion and discourse in the seven issues of the Canadian journal of Cineaction: A Magazine of Radical Film Criticism and Film Theory (1985-). Thus from the late 1960s, the study of women in film has emerged and grown through the rising production of journals, books, conferences, festivals, academic course offerings, archival holdings, and reference materials.
From its early beginnings in the late 1960s to the present, feminist film criticism has evolved both as developing its own niche of many theories and attempting to remain within the 'mainstream.' In these ways, it has attempted to be both a reformist ideology and remain accessible as an entertainment resource. Some studies have emphasized the divisions between feminist critics of the west and east side of the Atlantic Ocean; between an emphasis of theory and history; between the images of film or 'what' is presented and 'how' or the 'cinema apparatus' of film production; and finally between the relationship of 'culture' as a mirror or representation in film and the 'signification' or signs and symbols on spectators of film.  Especially in recent years, the feminists' discussion, theories, and debates about women in cinema have included theories of Freud, Marx, Neo-Marxists, Foucault, Derida, and others; and thus included the approaches and ideas of psychoanalysis, semeiotics, poststructuralists, and deconstructionists.
Many people seem to find these theories, constructions, and deconstructions about women in film too strident, intellectual, elitist, or 'high-falootin.' On the other end, attempting to remain within the 'mainstream,' there are lists of 'women's films,' annual lists of the top 10 of 'women's' films, and documentaries dealing with the 'hot button' issues of the day for high school audiences and others. These would include the somewhat dated Women's Films in Print (1975) with distributors' addresses, the 1992 and 1993 lists of the Labyrises top ten films, and "Images: Women and Issues," some 22 documentaries for young audiences dealing with practical issues such as teen and single pregnancy, females in the workplace, female poverty, harassment, eating disorders, self-esteem, dating and date-rape. 
The study of women in film remains pulled by the two poles of general film studies and of feminist film studies. The problems remain -- that the general film studies are often not specific enough for good. sources on 'women,' while the women film studies are often too oriented to women's issues, without clear insight on film issues. In these circumstances, researchers for reference materials on 'women in film' might first look at general film reference bibliographies, in order to find some specific reference works on women in film within them. Using these citations, the researcher might expand to gender-specific sources.
Film studies, as such, rely mainly on 1) reference guides, 2) indexes, 3) reviews or filmographies or catalogs or surveys, 4) biographical sources, and 5) miscellaneous sources. There are very few or valuable handbooks, almanacs, yearbooks, and encyclopedias. The same is true for reference sources in women in film. Anthologies of essays on women's film criticism dominate in the reference works in this field of study; along with some filmographies and directories (mainly of directors). One would hope that publishers might soon fill these gaps of women in film with reference guides, more indexes, and some almanacs, yearbooks, and encyclopedias. One of the ways these gaps are partially being filled is by on-line databases from centers of women's studies. Two of them are already notable and might be expanded - 1) the one for the University of Wisconsin and for 2) the other for the University of Maryland. 
Most materials for women in film will be found under the Library of
Congress call number of "PN 1995.9 .W9" etc. The major LC subject
heading for these studies is
Researchers should be very aware that the use of 'films' or 'movies'
connected with 'females' or 'feminists' might produce very few or
incomplete 'finds' or 'hits.'
In conclusion, reference materials on women in film could use some basic additions, especially in print form. As yet, the databases and files available online, though developed and developing for reference for women in film, are not democratically or widely accessible. One hopes that this accessibility will become more democratic and that the reference items will continually expand and be constantly updated. But, until that happens, publishers could easily make basic reference materials on women in film available to the public through sale or in libraries. Such reference materials would certainly help to fill the continuing gap between the poles of the too-general film studies and the too-specific and ideological women's film studies.
============================================================================ REFERENCE SOURCES FOR WOMEN IN CINEMA Both general film sources and specialized women's film sources are selectively listed. Again, the problem with both is that general sources include few women's items and women's sources often concentrate on wider feminist issues rather than focusing on films. Both type of sources need to be investigated. Given the nature of the topic and the available literature, some types of reference sources are both rare and not included. They are mainly encyclopedias, handbooks, yearbooks, directories, etc. Rather this list consists of I. Bibliographies and guides. A. General. B. Women in Film. II. Anthologies and collections on women in cinema; sources of feminist film criticism. III. Biographical sources. IV. Reviews and filmographies. V. Subject Collections on Film. VI. Electronic sources.
A short-list of the top 5 sources for women in cinema is 1. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FEMINIST AESTHETICS IN THE LITERARY, PERFORMING AND VISUAL ARTS, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/ WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio. File: performace-arts. 2. Acker, Ally. REEL WOMEN: PIONEERS OF THE CINEMA, 1896 TO THE PRESENT. New York: Continuum, 1991. 374 p.* (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24 1991) 3. Manchel, Frank. "The Feminist Approach." In his FILM STUDY: AN ANALYTICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Rutherford: Associated University Presses, 1990. 4 volumes. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34 1990) Volume I, p. 465-526. 4. Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams. RE-VISION: ESSAYS, IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Frederick, MD : University Publications of America, 1984. xi, 169 p. 5. University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. FILM REVIEWS [Online]. (c. 1992-1994). Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies. File: FilmReviews.
========================= I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES/GUIDES =========================
I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND GUIDES A. GENERAL GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS. Eds. Eugene Paul Sheehy, Rita G.Keckeissen, and Richard J. Dionne. 10th ed. Chicago : American Library Association, 1986. xiv, 1560 p. (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986) "Motion Pictures," p. 587-597, items BG161- BG289. GUIDE TO REFERENCE BOOKS. SUPPLEMENT TO THE TENTH EDITION, COVERING MATERIALS FROM 1985-1990. Eds. Robert Balay and Eugene P. Sheehy. Chicago : American Library Association, 1992. x, 613 p. (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986 Suppl) "Motion Pictures," p. 179-184, items BG50-BG101. Although not specifically on women in film, this general source for reference books is as good a place to start as others. The "Motion Pictures" sections include Guides, Bibliography, Periodicals, Indexes, Catalogs and filmography, Library resources, Encyclopedias, Dictionaries (Terms), Directories and annuals, and Biography. The annotations are mostly brief (one or two sentences, often including quotes from prefaces) about scope and main use and coverage. The GUIDE usually provides ISBN and Library of Congress call number. It is almost exclusively a Western language and Western culture Guide. While the SUPPLEMENT was published in 1992, it includes books mainly from 1985 and not after 1990. These GUIDES are available in most libraries. Recommended as a good source to begin research for any topic on film. Fisher, Kim N. ON THE SCREEN : A FILM, TELEVISION, AND VIDEO RESEARCH GUIDE . Littleton, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1986. xii, 209 p. ; 25 cm. (Clemons Reference Z5784 .M9 F535 1986) This general, annotated guide provides 10 basic sources on women in film. Almost all of the publications unfortunately are from the 1970s. The guide is divided into 15 sections with author and subject indexes at the back, covering topics from Bibliographic Guides, Biographies, Filmographies and videographies, to Societies and Associations. Most of the sources (6) on women are listed under Filmographies and Videographies. The annotations of three or more sentences evaluate scope, number and type of inclusions, purposes, as well as comparisons to similar sources. Fisher includes and describes one women's association - the Los Angeles' Women in Film, which acts "as a clearinghouse and support group for women in these industries. It also plays an educational role through workshops, lectures, and discussions" (p. 176-77. The guide is well arranged with useful annotations; even much more useful would be an updated version of this guide. Recommended as a basic guide for resources of the 1970s. THE MACMILLAN FILM BIBLIOGRAPHY. Ed. George Rehrauer. New York : Macmillan, 1982. 2 volumes. (Clemons Reference Z 5784 .M9 R423 1982) While this bibliography includes 47 entries under its subject entry of "Women" (on p. 416 of it second or index volume), a sampling of four of the entries reveals this is not a useful reference for women in film. Three of the annotations are adequate in their list of the item's contents and placing it in a wider context. Again, most of the listings are for items before 1980. One item is just a listing, with no annotation. Not recommended. Wulff, Hans Jurgen, Moller-Nass, Karl-Dietmar, Horak, Jan-Christopher, Gwozdz, Andrzej, Wastkowska, Anna. BIBLIOGRAPHIE DER FILMBIBLIOGRAPHIEN: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FILM BIBLIOGRAPHIES. Munchen ; New York : K.G. Saur, 1987. xxix, 326 p. (Clemons Z 1002 .W85 1987) Gehring, Wes D., ed. HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN FILM GENRES. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 405 p. (Clemons PN 1993.5 .U6 H335 1988) The brief inclusion of both of these items points to the inadequacy of general film reference sources to provide good annotations or descriptions for subject-specific film topics. While Wulff's BIBLIOGRAPHIE is international in coverage, and even includes a special section on eastern European film, he lists only 7 items on "Women in / and the movies" (p. 154. Only 2 of those 7 are briefly annotated. "Women" fall under "Genre Studies and Partial Histories." Gehring is not really a 'handbook' and there is no particular "Women's genre" among these 18 identified genres, ranging from 'Adventure Film' to 'The Art Film.' Women, as such, are included under the 16th genre, "Melodrama." Steven Lipkin's essay ends with a selected, brief listing of bibliographic and filmographic sources (total 28). The attitude represented by this type of reference source clearly indicates that the study of women in film (and other specialized gender, race, etc. topics) has still NOT "come a long way, baby." The inadequacies of these two reference sources, and many others on film, causes a researcher (of women in film) frustrations. Definitely NOT recommended. Bibliographical sources for periodicals -- Slide, Anthony. INTERNATIONAL FILM, RADIO, AND TELEVISION JOURNALS. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1985. xiv, 428 p. Loughney, Katharine. FILM, TELEVISION, AND VIDEO PERIODICALS: A COMPREHENSIVE ANNOTATED. New York: Garland Publ, 1991. 431 p. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 L68 1991) UNION LIST OF FILM PERIODICALS: HOLDINGS OF SELECTED AMERICAN COLLECTIONS. Anna Brady, comp. and editor. Westpoert, Conn.: Greenwod Press, 1984. 316 p. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 B76 1984) None of the above three sources for information on film journals or serials is very helpful on the topic of women in film. Slide does include one good, full, and helpful annotation on one women's film journal, that of WOMEN & FILM. Some of the details of this short-lived journal (1972-1975) are included Slide's p. 374-375. The annotated Film does not have a subject index, so it is impossible to look up "women's" journals. There are annotations for such "women's films" journals as CINEACTION (p. 68), CAHIERS DU CINEMA (p. 56), and JUMP CUT (p. 182), but none for WOMEN & FILM. The UNION LIST shows the libraries which hold those journals (as of 1984), including WOMEN & FILM (but not CINEACTION, which did not start publication until 1985) and CAMERA OBSCURA (9 libraries with holdings). These three bibliography sources on film journals are not useful for the topic of women in film. I. BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND GUIDES B. WOMEN IN FILM ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF FEMINIST AESTHETICS IN THE LITERARY, PERFORMING AND VISUAL ARTS, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/ WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio. File: performace-arts. This is a very good collection of articles and books on women in the "Performance Arts," published during the two decades of the 1970s and 1980s. Krumholz and Lauter have selected, compiled, and annotated 97 works in the performing arts, of which almost half or 46 are connected with film. The list includes articles in journals, articles in anthologies, and books themselves. The annotations consist mostly of two long sentences, and are concerned with the ideas of the article and how they relate to the theories and philosophical developments in their fields. Highly recommended as one of the first sources to examine when beginning research on women in cinema. Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (December 1992). SELECTED WOMEN'S STUDIES BIBLIOGRAPHIES PUBLISHED IN PERIODICALS 1989-1992 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ Bibliographies. File: bibliographies. Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (January 1993). NEW REFERENCE WORKS IN WOMEN'S STUDIES, 1990/91-1992 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ Bibliographies. File: reference-books. These updates of Women's Studies Bibliographies contains several on women in cinema.. Though not annotated, they nonetheless provide a convenient companion and update to "Performance Arts" annotated list. Manchel, Frank. FILM STUDY: AN ANALYTICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. Rutherford: Associated University Presses, 1990. 4 volumes. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34 1990) Manchel's section, "The Feminist Approach" (v. 1, p. 465-490), provides a good introduction and overview for the study of women in cinema, as well as annotations on books or articles (42) and films (3) on the topic (p. 490-526). Both before and after the "Feminist" section, there are some interesting ideas and reviews of "Ideology versus Entertainment" (p. 455-465) and "The Pleasure Factor" (p. 527-534). All of these are under the somewhat objectionable category "Chapter 3: Stereotyping in Film." Manchel divides feminist film critics between American and British, but then goes on to emphasize (as Gledhill does) similarities of feminists' approaches to film who consider three different categories from which to analyze films of sociological, psychoanalytic, and textual (including semeiotics). Overall, both Manchel in his review and feminists in their criticisms emphasize the complicated nature of film and the many legitimate approaches and interpretations about film. Some feminist critics also emphasize the ideological aspects of film as part of cultural politics, as shown in the transition from apolitical film criticism before the late 1960s and the highly ideological criticism of film since that time. If there has been any trend in the feminist film ideology, it is from an approach of film in social context to film in psychoanalytic context, to film in literary textual and semiotic context, to film as signifier and representative among spectators (audience). Manchel prefers to see these trends as challenges rather than contradictions, as a progress to a better understanding rather than divergent strands leading away from each other. Manchel's annotations are uneven, some two pages long, while others are less than two sentences long. In his essay on the "Feminist Approach," he ends, without a clear break or transition, with a discussion of using films for products and advertisements (Mickey Mouse watches), and whether directors, as auteurs, intended or had any control over commercial or other messages conveyed in their films to audiences. Manchel might have made these discussions clearly separate from the Feminist Approach. Manchels's essay is recommended for his interesting ideas and overall view, but researchers should approach his interpretations critically. Cook, Samantha. WOMEN AND FILM BIBLIOGRAPHY. London: British Film Institute, 1992. 139 p. Kuhn, Annette with Susannah Radstone, eds. WOMEN IN FILM: AN INTERNATIONAL GUIDE. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1990. 500 p. [Neither of the above books are owned by the University of Virginia nor available for review before the production of this paper. The first is listed as a bibliography; while OCLC lists the second with the subject heading "Women in motion pictures--Encyclopedias."] =============================== II. ANTHOLOGIES ======================= II. ANTHOLOGIES AND COLLECTIONS ON WOMEN IN CINEMA: SOURCES OF FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Theories, criticism, and ideas on women in film developed mainly in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The following books and collections represent some of the leading writings and writers on women in film. Especially the four books, Rosen's POPCORN, Haskell's REVERENCE, French's REVOLT, and Higashi's VIRGINS, represent some of the early studies and ideas of women in film. These early books have been followed by other studies, as well as writings in journal articles, such as in the early journal WOMEN & FILM (1972-1975), which were often incorporated into anthologies or collections from the late 1970s through the present day. Many of these sources cover critical reviews of movies and their actors, as well as include short filmographies and bibliographies. Each book often has its own purpose, coverage, and audience level, but they have a common thread of discussing and debating issues of women in film. Among the leading writers and thinkers in these discussions of women in film are Teresa De Lauretis, Mary Ann Doane, Patricia Erens, Mary Gentile, Christine Gledhill, E. Ann Kaplan, Karyn Kay, Annette Kuhn, Constance Penley, Linda Williams, and Robin Wood. They have contributed in various ways to the ideas on women in film during the last two decades, and will likely continue to lead discussions and edit collections in the future, bringing in new writers as time goes on. Rosen, Marjorie. POPCORN VENUS: WOMEN, MOVIES & THE AMERICAN DREAM. New York, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973. 416 p. Haskell, Molly. FROM REVERENCE TO RAPE: THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN IN THE MOVIES. 2nd ed. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1974. 388 p. French, Brandon. ON THE VERGE OF REVOLT: WOMEN IN AMERICAN FILMS OF THE FIFTIES. New York : Ungar, 1978. xxiv, 165 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F7) Higashi, Sumiko. VIRGINS, VAMPS, AND FLAPPERS: THE AMERICAN SILENT MOVIE HEROINE. St. Albans, Vt. : Eden Press Women's Publications, 1978. vi, 226 p. Kay, Karyn and Gerald Peary. WOMEN AND THE CINEMA: A CRITICAL ANTHOLOGY . New York: Dutton, 1977. xvi, 464 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W65) Erens, Patricia, ed. SEXUAL STRATAGEMS: THE WORLD OF WOMEN IN FILM. New York: Horizon Press, 1979. 336 p. Kuhn, Annette. WOMEN'S PICTURES: FEMINISM AND CINEMA. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982. 226 p. Kaplan, E. Ann. WOMEN AND FILM: BOTH SIDES OF THE CAMERA. New York: Methuen, 1983. 259 p. Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams. RE-VISION: ESSAYS, IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984. xi, 169 p. De Lauretis, Teresa. ALICE DOESN'T: FEMINISM, SEMEIOTICS, CINEMA. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. ix, 220 p. Gentile, Mary C. FILM FEMINISMS: THEORY AND PRACTICE. Wesport: Greenwood Press, 1985. 182 p. Gledhill, Christine. British Film Institute. HOME IS WHERE THE HEART IS: STUDIES IN MELODRAMA AND THE WOMAN'S FILM. London: British Film Institute, 1987. 364 p. Todd, Janet M. WOMEN AND FILM. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988. 281 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W63 1988) Penley, Constance, ed. FEMINISM AND FILM THEORY. New York: Routledge, 1988. 271 p. Fischer, Lucy. SHOT/COUNTERSHOT: FILM TRADITION AND WOMEN'S CINEMA. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. xii, 348 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F57 1989) Erens, Patricia. ISSUES IN FEMINIST FILM CRITICISM. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. xxvi, 450 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 I87 1990) Jacobs, Lea and Patrice Petro, special issue editors. "Feminism and Film History." CAMERA OBSCURA. No. 22, January 1990. Jacobs, Lea. THE WAGES OF SIN: CENSORSHIP AND THE FALLEN WOMAN FILM, 1928-1942. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. xii, 202 p. Doane, Mary Ann. FEMMES FATALES: FEMINISM, FILM THEORY, AND PSYCHOANALYSIS. New York: Routledge, 1991. 312 p. ========================== III. BIOGRAPHICAL ======================== III. BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCES Acker, Ally. REEL WOMEN: PIONEERS OF THE CINEMA, 1896 to the present. New York: Continuum, 1991. 374 p. (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24 1991) Acker collects one of the best biographic sources for women in film, covering the early and later directors, well-known and lesser-known, and going on to cover film producers, writers, editors, animators, stunt women, foreign, and unsung women of cinema. A convenient index allows quick reference. The Notes and Photo Credits provide pointers to other sources for those that are interested. Alice Guy Blanche's biography and a list of her films cover six pages. At the other end of the book, Acker is less than enamored with director Lina Wertmuller and her "patriarchal-applauded cinema;" Wertmuller gets 1.5 pages coverage. This is a recommend source for information on persons involved in the production of women's film. Miller, Lynn Fieldman. "Women Directors." WLW JOURNAL. v. 16 (Summer 1993), p. 7-8. [review of "Women who made the movies." Video, 55 minutes. Gwendolyn Foster-Dixon and Wheeler Dixon, producers. Nebraska Educational Television.] Miller's short review of the 55-minute video, "Women who made the movies," makes a pitch for a video which introduces and covers many of the women involved in film production from the early 20th Century up through the 1950s. Heck-Rabi, Louise. WOMEN FILMMAKERS: A CRITICAL RECEPTION. Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1984. xv, 392 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 H4 1984) Heck-Rabi covers 11 women filmmakers. Most of the biographical essays are 30 or more pages in length. Each section quotes extensively from articles and books, and includes a filmography for each as well as notes. Quart, Barbara. WOMEN DIRECTORS: THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW CINEMA. New York : Praeger, 1988. xvi, 268 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q37 1988) Quart covers a wide-range of directors in six chapters titled Antecedents, American Women Directors, Western European Women Directors, Eastern European Women Directors, and Notes on Third World Women Directors. The last section is fairly brief, while her European sections are perhaps the most interesting and lengthy. She includes a good index as well as black and white stills of several of the book's directors. She raises and discusses several topics while reviewing the work of the selected directors such as new lesbian mainstream film and Hollywood pop feminism. Quinlan, David. WICKED WOMEN OF THE SCREEN. New York : St. Martin's Press, 1987. 155 p. This is a fun book for its many pictures of women on the screen, and for its many inventive categories such as Murderesses, Psychos, Baddies, Schemers, etc. It has a good index along with a short "Filmographies of principal stars." Segrave, Kerry, and Linda Martin. THE POST-FEMINIST HOLLYWOOD ACTRESS: BIOGRAPHIES AND FILMOGRAPHIES OF STARS BORN AFTER 1939. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. 313 p.* Segrave, Kerry and Linda Martin, THE CONTINENTAL ACTRESS: EUROPEAN FILM STARS OF THE POSTWAR ERA: BIBLIOGRAPHIES, CRITICISM, FILMOGRAPHIES, BIBLIOGRAPHIES. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. 314 p.* [The above two bibliographies/biographies were not owned by the University of Virginia, nor available through InterLibrary Loan in time for reviewing for this paper.] ======================= IV. REVIEWS AND FILMOGRAPHIES ============= IV. REVIEWS AND FILOGRAPHIES Dawson, Bonnie, ed. WOMEN'S FILMS IN PRINT: AN ANNOTATED GUIDE TO 800 FILMS BY WOMEN. San Francisco: Booklegger Press, 1975. 165 p. (Clemons PN 1998 .D3) This is one of the best early, annotated women's filmographies. Dawson lists the 800 films under 370 women filmmakers, including a film-title index. Where possible she provides the cost of the film, and includes a good list of the addresses of film distributors. Most of the annotations are brief but sufficient. Oshana, Maryann. WOMEN OF COLOR: A FILMOGRAPHY OF MINORITY AND THIRD WORLD WOMEN. New York : Garland Pub., 1985. xii, 338 p. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 O84 1985) The annotations in this fairly extensive list of English-language films from 1930-1983 run about four sentences. Other details are also listed including year, type, running time, producers, directors, etc. There are a few black and white photos of the films. There are separately both an Actress and Director index. A final Classification index includes lists by countries and types, such as African, Cajun, Indian, and Gypsy. Sufficiently interesting and useful for its period of coverage and short annotations. Brunsdon, Charlotte, and British Film Institute. FILMS FOR WOMEN. London : British Film Institute, 1986. iv, 236 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F54 1986) Brunsdon has brought together about 20 essays, discussing a film individually or the issues surrounding a group of films. Most of films were produced in 1970s and early 1980s. There is both an index as well as a filmography (p. 232-234). Karrmann, Elton S. (November 1994). UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM, WOMEN'S STUDIES AUDIOVISUAL COLLECTION [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu. Directory: .uwlibs/.womenstudies. File: .avcoll. Karrmann covers films under three categories 1) Documentary, 2) Experimental, and 3) Narrative films. The information includes format, date, running time, and one or two sentence summaries. At the end of the films is a list of books on women's films, filmmakers, and film theory. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1997). Ten Best of 1996 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. Text File: ten-best-1996. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1996). 1995 SUMMARY OF THE BEST FEMINIST FILMS [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. Text File: best-of-1995-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1995). 1994 SUMMARY OF BEST FEMINIST FILMS [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1993-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1994). YEAR'S BEST FEMINISTS FILMS OF 1993 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1993-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1993). YEAR'S BEST FEMINISTS FILMS OF 1992 [Online]. Also Titled: Linda's Labyris Awards for Best Feminist Feature Films of 1992. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1992-mcalister. These annual lists of the 10 best (feature films) describe some of the reasons why they were selected. Each list runs into three of four pages or screens. University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. FILM REVIEWS [Online]. (c. 1992-1994). Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies. File: FilmReviews. This is a set of reviews of about 152 feature films, mostly recently produced (in the last 5 years, i.e. the 1990s). Each review is more than 2 pages or screens long. Almost all of them are by Linda Lopez McAlister (of WMNF-FM radio, Tampa, Florida), with some written by Cynthia Fuchs and also appearing in the Philadelphia City Paper. This is a convenient online source to look up one's favorite film before renting it. Flynn, Barbara L. "Images: Women and Issues." SIGHTLINES. v. 25 (Spring. 1992), p. 14- 16. Flynn briefly annotates about 20 documentaries or videos/films. She encourages groups to look over the descriptions for possible use. All are on 'women's issues" as focused into four areas 1) females in the workplace and in school, 2) parenting, 3) feminization of poverty, and the 4) feminine image. Many of these are 'hot-button' issues, such as harassment, abuse, teenage pregnancy, dating, and dieting. A good list of films outside the mainstream when thinking usually about women in film. Lieberman, Anne. IN HER OWN IMAGE: FILMS AND VIDEOS EMPOWERING WOMEN FOR THE FUTURE: A MEDIA NETWORK GUIDE. Media Network, 1991. 40 p. [This short film and video catalog was not owned by the Univeristy of Virginia, nor available for review at the time this paper was produced.] ==================== V. SUBJECT COLLECTIONS ON FILM ================== V. SUBJECT COLLECTIONS ON FILM Ash, Lee. SUBJECT COLLECTIONS: A GUIDE TO SPECIAL BOOK COLLECTIONS AND SUBJECT EMPHASES AS REPORTED BY UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE, PUBLIC, AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. 7th ed., rev. and enl. New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1993. 2 volumes (Alderman Reference Z 731 .A78 1993) There are several categories and pages (v. 2, p. 1460-1469) for "Moving Pictures" Almost 40 collections are listed and described with the major ones being around Los Angeles, around New York City, in Ohio, Indiana, as well as special libraries in Texas, Wisconsin, and the District of Columbia. Some collection concentrate on the films themselves; others on scripts and books; still others on slides and stills; with one or two specializing on costumes and set designs. Included are the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science Margaret Herrick Library (Beverly Hills), the American Film Institute Louis B. Mayer Library (Los Angeles), and the New York Library for the Performing Arts (New York). ============================= VI. ELECTRONIC ========================= VI. ELECTRONIC SOURCES Two electronic sources, the University of Maryland and the University of Wisconsin Gophers for women's issues, are listed below. Though they mostly cover many other women's issues, they also include coverage of women filmographies and bibliographies on women in film. The advantage of these electronic sources often is their immediate availability through a computer at the office, library, home, or other places, at any time of day or night. Often the sources and services are free, whether through the Internet or through a paid service such as Dialog. As time goes on more and more services and sources are becoming available on the Internet and other ways, whether through Gophers, File Transfer Protocol, Telneting, or the World Wide Web. Another advantage is that sources can be quickly added or updated. Thus, the annual list of the ten best women's films for 1994 may soon be added (in the month of January 1995) to the annual lists for 1992 and 1993. Already many research customers take some electronic sources for granted - the local Online Public Access Catalog (usually not available 10 years ago), the FirstSource and OCLC, as well as such services as for periodicals (WILS or Wilson Periodical Index) and for newspapers (NABS). Researchers should become familiar with these electronic bibliographic, biographic, and filmographies, while not ignoring the usefulness of non-electronic sources for the study of women in film. University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. WOMEN'S STUDIES RESOURCES (University of Maryland) [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic. File: WomensStudies. The U. of Maryland's opening Women's Studies Gophers opening menu consists of 14 directories, including Bibliographies, Film Reviews, Other Women's Issues Gophers, Reading Room and Reference Room. Some of these sections have be described above. (eg under Reviews). There are 18 directories of Other Women's Issues Gophers ranging from UCLS; Chicana-Latina Studies to Florance, Italy's GopherDonna and New Zealand's Women's Centennial Sufferage Year gopher. Women's Studies Librarian's Office, University of Wisconsin. Gopher Main Menu [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu Direcotry: .uwlibs. File: .womenstudies. (9 sections) This U. of Wisconsin main menu includes 6 files and 3 directories. The table of contents for the locally published Feminist Collections is available for the last 2 years. In addition there are several "Bibliograpies in Women' Studies" available online and annnotated catalog of almost 80 women's films and videos.
============================= BIBLIOGRAPHY ==============================
BIBLIOGRAPHY Acker, Ally. Reel Women: Pioneers of the cinema, 1896 to the present. New York: Continuum, 1991. 374 p.* (Clemons PN 1998.2 .A24 1991) Angles: women working in film and video. Milwaukee, WI: Angles, Inc., 1992-. Quarterly periodical about women in motion pictures and video art. Annotated bibliography of feminist aesthetics in the literary, performing and visual arts, 1970-1990. Compiled by Linda Krumholz and Estella Lauter [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/ WomensStudies/Bibliographies/AestheticsBiblio. File: performace-arts. Arnold, William. Shadowland. New York : McGraw-Hill, c1978. (Clemons PN 2287 .F34 A7) On actress Frances Farmer, 1914-1970. Ash, Lee. Subject Collections: a guide to special book collections and subject emphases as reported by university, college, public, and special libraries and museums in the United States and Canada. 7th ed., rev. and enl. New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1993. 2 volumes (Alderman Reference Z 731 .A78 1993) Basinger, Jeanine. A woman's view: how Hollywood spoke to women, 1930-1960. New York : Knopf, 1993. viii, 528 p. Brunsdon, Charlotte, and British Film Institute. Films for women. London: British Film Institute, 1986. iv, 236 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F54 1986) Cahiers du cinema. Paris, Editions de l'Etoile, 1951-. (Clemons PN 1993 .C25) Camera obscura. Baltimore, MD. : Johns Hopkins University Press 1976-. "A journal of feminism and film theory." SUBJECT TERMS: Feminism and motion pictures--Periodicals. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 C28) Carson, Diane, Linda Dittmar, and Janice R. Welsch. Multiple voices in feminist film criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 M82 1994) Cook, Samantha. Women and Film: Bibliography. London: British Film Institute, 1992. 139 p.* Cook, Pam and Philip Dodd. Women and film: a Sight and sound reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993. xxix, 287 p. Collection of essays previously published by Sight and Sound. Includes bibliographical references (p. 254-264) and index. Filmography: p. 243-253. Dawson, Bonnie, ed. Women's Films in Print: an annotated guide to 800 films by women. San Francisco: Booklegger Press, 1975. 165 p. (Clemons PN 1998 .D3) De Lauretis, Teresa. Alice doesn't: feminism, semeiotics, cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984. ix, 220 p. Doane, Mary Ann. Femmes fatales: feminism, film theory, and psychoanalysis. New York: Routledge, 1991. 312 p. Doane, Mary Ann. The desire to desire: the woman's film of the 1940s. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. 211 p. Doane, Mary Ann, Patricia Mellencamp, and Linda Williams. Re-vision: essays, in feminist film criticism. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1984. xi, 169 p. Erens, Patricia. Issues in feminist film criticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990. xxvi, 450 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 I87 1990) Feminist Collections. Madison, Wis: Women's Studies Librarian-at-Large for the University of Wisconsin System, 1980-- . Quarterly. Fischer, Lucy. Shot/countershot: film tradition and women's cinema. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. xii, 348 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F57 1989) Fisher, Kim N. On the screen: a film, television, and video research guide . Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1986. xii, 209 p. ; 25 cm. (Clemons Reference Z5784 .M9 F535 1986) Flynn, Barbara L. "Images: Women and Issues." Sightlines. v. 25 (Spring. 1992), p. 14-16. Foreman, Alexa L. Women in motion. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1983. 248 p. Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey. Women film directors: an international bio-critical dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995. xliv, 443 p. ; 24 cm. (Clemons PN 1998.2 .F67 1995) Click on the INDEX for a listing of GA Foster's Women Film Directors. A short review in October 1995. Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey. Women filmmakers of the African and Asian diaspora : decolonizing the gaze, locating subjectivity. Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press, c1997. x, 177 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. (Clemons PN1998.2 .F672 1997) Foster-Dixon, Gwendolyn. Women who made the movies [videorecording]. Producer, Dennis Colman ; directors/writers, Gwendolyn Foster-Dixon, Wheeler Dixon. Tulsa, OK: VCI Home Video, c1991. (56 min.) (Clemons Video .VHS6355) French, Brandon. On the verge of revolt: women in American films of the fifties. New York: Ungar, 1978. xxiv, 165 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 F7) Gehring, Wes D., ed. Handbook of American film genres. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 405 p. (Clemons PN 1993.5 .U6 H335 1988) Gentile, Mary C. Film feminisms: theory and practice. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985. 182 p. Gledhill, Christine. British Film Institute. Home is where the heart is: studies in melodrama and the woman's film. London: British Film Institute, 1987. 364 p. Gledhill, Christine. Stardom: industry of desire. New York: Routledge, 1991. xx, 340 p. Guide to reference books. Eds. Eugene Paul Sheehy, Rita G.Keckeissen, and Richard J. Dionne. 10th ed. Chicago : American Library Association, 1986. xiv, 1560 p. (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986) Guide to reference books. Supplement to the tenth edition, covering materials from 1985-1990. Eds. Robert Balay and Eugene P. Sheehy. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992. x, 613 p. (Alderman Reference Z 1035.1 .S43 1986 Suppl) Haskell, Molly. From reverence to rape : the treatment of women in the movies. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. xviii, 425 p. Heck-Rabi, Louise. Women filmmakers: a critical reception. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1984. xv, 392 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 H4 1984) Higashi, Sumiko. Virgins, vamps, and flappers: The American silent movie heroine. St. Albans, Vt.: Eden Press Women's Publications, 1978. vi, 226 p. Jacobs, Lea. The wages of sin: censorship and the fallen woman film, 1928-1942. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991. xii, 202 p. Kaplan, E. Ann. Women and film: both sides of the camera. New York: Methuen, 1983. xii, 259 p. Kaplan, E. Ann. Women in film noir. London: BFI Publishing, 1980. 132 p. Kaplan, E. Ann. Psychoanalysis & cinema. New York: Routledge, 1990. xi, 249 p. Karrmann, Elton S. (November 1994). University of Wisconsin System, Women's Studies Audiovisual collection [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu. Directory: .uwlibs/.womenstudies. File: .avcoll. Kay, Karyn and Gerald Peary. Women and the cinema: a critical anthology. New York: Dutton, 1977. xvi, 464 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W65) Kowalski, Rosemary Ribich. Women and film : a bibliography. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976. ix, 278 p. Kuhn, Annette. Women's pictures: feminism and cinema. London; Boston: Routledge & K. Paul, 1982. xiv, 226 p. Bibliography: p. 211-217. Kuhn, Annette with Susannah Radstone, eds. Women in Film: An International Guide. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1990. 500 p.* Li, Xia and Nancy Crane. Electronic style: a guide to citing electronic information. Westport: Meckler, 1993. xi, 65 p. Lieberman, Anne. In her Own Image: Films and videos empowering women for the future: A media network guide. Media Network, 1991. 40 p.* The Macmillan film bibliography. Ed. George Rehrauer. New York: Macmillan, 1982. 2 volumes. (Clemons Reference Z 5784 .M9 R423 1982) Maio, Kathi. Popcorn and sexual politics : movie reviews. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1991. ix, 215 p. Manchel, Frank. Film Study: An analytical bibliography. Rutherford: Associated University Presses, 1990. 4 volumes. (Clemons Z 5784 .M9 M34 1990) Margolis, Nadia. Joan of Arc in history, literature, and film: A select, annotated bibliography. New York: Garland, 1990. 409 p. * McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1997). Ten Best of 1996 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. Text File: ten-best-1996. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1996). 1995 SUMMARY OF BEST FEMINIST FILMS [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. Text File: best-of-1995-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1995). "1994 Summary of Best Feminist Films" [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1994-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1994). Year's Best Feminist Films of 1993 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1993-mcalister. McAlister, Linda Lopez. (1993). Year's Best Feminist Films of 1992 [Online]. Available Host:Linda's Labyris Awards for Best Feminist Feature Films of 1992. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies/FilmReviews. File: best-of-1992-mcalister. Miller, Lynn Fieldman. "Women Directors." WLW Journal. v. 16 (Summer 1993), p. 7- 8. Pearse, Maria. Women in Film: That Object Named "Desire" or In Search of TRUE Liberation for Women. 1997. Web page [Online]. Available Host: www.hal-pc.org Directory: ~questers/womanhood File:women_in_film.html Oshana, Maryann. Women of color : a filmography of minority and Third World women. New York: Garland Pub., 1985. xii, 338 p. Quart, Barbara. Women directors : the emergence of a new cinema. New York: Praeger, 1988. xvi, 268 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q37 1988) Quinlan, David. Wicked women of the screen. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987. 155 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 Q56 1987) Rosen, Marjorie. Popcorn Venus; women, movies & the American dream. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973. 416 p. Segrave, Kerry, and Linda Martin. The Post-Feminist Hollywood Actress: Biographies and filmographies of stars born after 1939. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. 313 p.* Segrave, Kerry and Linda Martin, The Continental Actress: European film stars of the postwar era: Bibliographies, criticism, filmographies, bibliographies. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1990. 314 p.* Slide, Anthony. International film, radio, and television journals. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985. xiv, 428 p. Spilsbury, Christina. American Film Institute. National Education Services. Women and film/television. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, in association with The American Film Institute, 1979. (1984 printing) 33 p. Bibliography: 17-33. Todd, Janet M. Women and film. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1988. 281 p. (Clemons PN 1995.9 .W6 W63 1988) University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. Women's Studies Resources (University of Maryland) [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic. File: WomensStudies. University of Maryland at College Park, Women's Studies. Film Reviews [Online]. (c. 1992-1994). Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: Educational_Resources/ AcademicResourcesByTopic/WomensStudies. File: FilmReviews. Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (December 1992). Selected Women's Studies Bibliographies published in periodicals 1989-1992 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ Bibliographies. File: bibliographies. Weisbard, Phyllis Holman. (January 1993). New Reference works in women's studies, 1990/91-1992 [Online]. Available Host: www.inform.umd.edu. Directory: EdRes/Topic/WomensStudies/ Bibliographies. File: reference-books. Women's Studies Librarian's Office, University of Wisconsin. Gopher Main Menu [Online]. Available Host: silo.adp.wisc.edu Direcotry: .uwlibs. File: .womenstudies. (9 sections) Wood, Robin Personal views: explorations in film. London: G. Framer, 1976. 254, 1 p. Wulff, Hans Jurgen, Moller-Nass, Karl-Dietmar, Horak, Jan-Christopher, Gwozdz, Andrzej, Wastkowska, Anna. Bibliographie der Filmbibliographien: Bibliography of film bibliographies. Munchen; New York: K.G. Saur, 1987. xxix, 326 p. (Clemons Z 1002 .W85 1987) ________________ *Entries reviewed in Feminist Collections from volume 12, no. 1 (Fall 1990) through volume 14, no. 2 (Winter 1993). ================================ E N D =============================== The access or Web-Count is since 02 April 1996.Return to Library Science, Papers