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One soon finds in searching for the materials in a pathfinder on the subject of "witches," that more material is to be found under "witchcraft," and even sometimes under "occultism" or "magic." (See SUBJECT HEADING STATEMENT below) An aid to organizing and understanding the topic of "witches" is to distinguish different types. Accepting Jeffery Russell's (in Encyclopedia of Religion, below) good suggestions, the topic may be divided into 1) Simple Sorcery, 2) European Witchcraft, and 3) Modern Witchcraft. An additional and separate field, which this pathfinder does not concentrate on, is African or non-European witchcraft. FULLER COMMENTARY Simple Sorcery is that type which is unorganized, unsystematic, intuitive, and local either in its performance or in opposition to it. It includes everything from charms to spells, and to the Evil Eye prevalent in the Middle East. European Witchcraft has its roots in Egyptian cults, up through Greek and Roman times, to the organized opposition and trial of witches, mainly by the Catholic Church, beginning in the 15th century and reaching a peak in the "witch craze" of the 17th and 18th centuries. Anywhere from 2 to 9 million witches (of both genders) were killed or burned at the stake in Europe. Joan of Arc was unsuccessfully accused of being a witch. She was burned at the stake for heresy. The Salem, Massachusetts witch trials and 19 hangings in the last 1600s are a continuation of attitudes and practices brought over to the New World from Europe. Modern Witchcraft has its roots with the neo-pagan revival which began in the late 19th century, with such books as James Frazer's The Golden Bough. During the 20th century it has spread throughout most of the United States with organized covens, practicing high "white" witches or priestesses, magazines, and courses either in an informal setting or more formally within Community Colleges. It also is often times incorporated and co- exists with the New Age movement with modern concerns for the environment, traditional or herbal medicine, and feminism. There is considerable interest and serious writing on witchcraft, with different approaches and interpretations from a variety of disciplines: history, religion, anthropology, medicine, psychiatry, etc. The ideas and attitudes of Simple Sorcery, reinforced by European ideas of witchcraft and proceedings at the witch trials, are perhaps most represented in popular culture by Halloween. The stereotypical witch is an old woman or hag, dressed in black (death), cackling, and riding around on a broomstick, using her familiar of cats and owls to do her bidding. A majority of those accused during European witch trials were women between the age of 40 and sixty, living alone without support of relatives or the local community, who sometimes muttered under their breath, were involved with herbal medicine or acted as mid-wives (life threatening), and appeared to act abnormally. Most occurrences of witchcraft accusations occur during periods of time of increased social, political, or religious tension and crisis. The Salem witch trails perhaps occurred because of the change of the community's minister, from one who was popular to one who was unknown and feared. People often used accusations of witchcraft for 'scapegoating,' to try to understand, explain, and integrate unusual events and activities into their belief systems. The European witch craze perhaps originated in the Catholic Church, with priests and monks feeling greatly threatened by the continued popularity of peasant pagan religious beliefs. It occurred at the same time as the development of the cult of the Virgin Mary, and a corresponding underground development of the idea of a dark, evil, or Black Virgin Mary. Some of these ideas of entered into the modern jargon. During the unsettling times after World War II, Joseph McCarthy carried out Congressional hearings, which were characterized as 'witch- hunts' to find Communists who were spreading the Red Menace. Most accusations of witchcraft are insidious, in that they are "no-no win situations." If a person accused of witchcraft denies practicing witchcraft, it is taken as proof of witchcraft. If an accused witch floats when dipped in water, it is proof of their evil powers. If they sink and drown, they perhaps were innocent (but dead!). So too with poison--if they vomit it up, they have evil powers, while if they succumb they were perhaps innocent. Similarly with 'witch-hunt' accusations of modern times. There is perhaps no defence for the person accused as a witch. Is Hilary Clinton, recently cynically designated as "St. Hilary" (New York Times, June 1993), especially involved with health care and reform, aware that in the future she may be considered a black saint, or witch? So, a pathfinder on "witches" may take one to all sorts of topics from ancient times up to today.


World Book, Inc. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1992 ed. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1992. S.v. "Witchcraft," by Alan Dundes. (For short, WB) New Electronic Encyclopedia. Version 3.0. Danbury, Conn.: Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.,: 1990. S.v. "Witchcraft," by E. William Monter. (This is the convenient, electronic version and also called the Academic American Encyclopedia, AAE) Grolier Incorporated. Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Conn.: Grolier Inc., 1993. S.v. "Witchcraft," by Elizabeth E. Bacon. (EA) Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1991. S.v. "Occultism," by Maxwell Gay Marwick and Robert Andrew Gilbert. (EB) All four encyclopedia articles above provide a good starting point for investigating the subject. Depending on the level of the customer, one can look at the articles which have an increasing level of depth, scholarliness, and scope. All have at least two illustrations, and list sources for further reading or bibliographies. The WB, for example, lists four sources and concentrates on European and U.S. witchcraft. The EB lists seventeen sources with short comments on their contents, and discusses the same subjects in depth as well as witchcraft world- wide and in Africa. The WB article does not appear to be updated recently, as the latest source is 1986. So to with Elizabeth Bacon in the EB, and she appears to rely heavily on fellow anthropologist Margaret Murray's ideas. Though Margaret Murray wrote two important books on witchcraft in the 1920s, and the very influential article for the 14th edition of the EB in 1929, her ideas have generally be discredited as unsubstantiated and without solid documentation. Maxwell Marwick of the EB has written at least two other books on witchcraft and sorcery. Though the EB does not have a separate article on witchcraft, its inclusion under "Occultism" consists of almost a half of the small print pages on that broader topic.


International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. New York: Macmillan, 1968. S.v. "Magic," by Nur Yalman. (ESS) Eliade, Micaea. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York, N.Y.: Macmillan, 1987. S.v. "Witchcraft," by Jeffrey Burton Russell, and "African Witchcraft," by Maxwell Gay Marwick. (ER) Robbins, Rossell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology. New York: Crown Publishers, 1959. (EWD) Guiley, Rosemary. The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. New York: Facts on File, 1989. (EWW) Nur Yalman's article in the ESS was disappointingly brief, even with a subsection on "Sorcery . . . ." Jeffrey Russell's in ER, on the other hand, was full, well-structured, and easy to read; it is perhaps the richest, most interesting, informative, and lucid of all the general introductory articles on witchcraft. Of the two witchcraft encyclopedias, perhaps Rosemary Guiley's is better, not just because it is the most recent. Her items are easy to read with good size print, and she includes both a small general bibliography as well as a select, detailed one. Both of these may be considered subject or topic dictionaries, more than encyclopedias because of their format and presentation. Both concentrate on European or Western witchcraft.


Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. (On-line version at the University of Virginia.) This dictionary is mainly useful for historic references, not for etymology or for meaning. Old forms include "wicca, wycca." A 1350 reference states "His wif with wichecraft to a wolf him schaped." Though a 1671 reference states "The Sickness is more than natural, and Witchcraft is to be feared," a few years earlier (1651) already there were statements that, "As for Witches, I think not that their witchcraft is any reall power."


In the University of Virginia On-Line Public Catalog (OPAC), which follows the Library of Congress subject headings, there are many items (913) under a subject search of "Witch," which extends to several sub-headings from "witchcraft" by itself to "witchcraft- -China" through "witchcraft--Zaire." Related subject headings under "witchcraft" include Amulets, Charms, Goddess Religion, Mana, Obeah Cult, Ordeal, Sabbat, and Trials Witchcraft. It also brings up "Witch Hazel," which is not connected to the topic of witches. Further investigation of the related subject headings shows that the Goddess Religion is described as "Here are entered works on modern, Wiccan and Neo-Pagan religions in which the Goddess is worshiped," and under "Obeah" is listed the large related subject of "Vooddoism." As with all LC subject headings, one must creatively think and search several alternatives before one will be able to find all appropriate subject headings as well eliminate the ones which are not really related to one's topic.


The main section for the topics of witches or witchcraft under the Library of Congress classification system is BF1566. There are other materials both before and after that specific area (the BF1500s generally), as well as scattered materials. For the Dewey system, the Main Library (of the Jefferson Madison Regional Libraries) in downtown Charlottesville groups materials on witchcraft in the 133.4 section, and for juvenile books in the J 133.4 section.


--AFRICAN WITCHCRAFT Evans-Pritchard. E. E. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1937. Witchcraft Among the Azande. 52 min. New York, N. Y.: Filmakers Library, 1982. Videocassette. Mair, Lucy Philip. Witchcraft. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Evans-Pritchard's study is often considered the best modern study of witchcraft, even though (or maybe because) it is out of the mainstream of the European tradition of witchcraft. His four- year study of the Zande in the Sudan is full of provocative and seminal ideas, while detailing a variety of Zande beliefs and practices about witchcraft, magic, and sorcery. He shows how the Zande have fully integrated these ideas in their social and political life to produce a logical, if not "scientific," system. Since the publication of Evans-Pritchard's study, other scholars have continued to investigate the function of witchcraft in African societies. Debate continues over whether his distinction between sorcery (good) and witchcraft (bad) is comparatively and universally applicable to the beliefs and practices of other groups and societies. The video is a good companion to Evans-Pritchard's study. Mair surveys, summaries, and updates many of the ideas on African witchcraft (from Evans-Pritchard's work through Monica Wilson's) and adds some of her own observations. She provides some interesting illustrations and photos to accompany her text. --INDIAN WITCHCRAFT Oman, John Campbell. Cults, Customs and Superstitions of India. Philadelphia: G. W. Jacobs, 1908. Bandyopadhyay, Tarashankar. "The Witch." in Of Women, Outcastes, Peasants, and Rebels, ed. Kalpana Bardhan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Devi, Mahasweta. "The Witch-Hunt." in Of Women, Outcastes, Peasants, and Rebels, ed. Kalpana Bardhan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Unlike African witchcraft, Indian witchcraft as yet does not have detailed and good studies of its functioning in India. Campbell's book, with "Part IV--Superstitions" and its "Chapter I. Witchcraft, Demoniacal Possession, and Other Superstitions of the People," added to the original 1890s book, is mostly anecdotal and not well-documented or enlightening. The two short stories on witches, which Bardhan translated from Bengali, provide some insight into Indian ideas of witches and witchcraft. Both are located near or in Santal tribal areas of India, where witchcraft continues to persist. Bandyopadhyay's story is about a old women living on the outskirts of a village. She accepts that she has been sadly cursed with the powers of a witch (especially sucking out the life juices of babies just by her piercing stare). Throughout her life she tries to avoid contact with others, knowing the harm she can cause. At the story's end, when she tries to move or escape after her attempt to help a young boy in love back-fires with his death, a tornado lifts her off the ground and impales her on a barren tree in a barren field. The villages believe the way she died is proof she was a witch. Devi's story is rich with many ideas and beliefs of the villagers about witchcraft, especially at the time of a severe famine. It includes the episode of American, turned guru and living in a near-by town, who exploits the episode for publicity by photographing his "blackened" girlfriend as the witch caught in the witch-hunt, and getting published in an international magazine as proof that witchcraft still exists in India. Hopefully in the future better systematic and solid studies of Indian witchcraft will be made. OTHER READINGS ON INDIAN WITCHCRAFT-- Chaudhuri, A. B. Witch-Killings among Santals. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1984. Carstairs, G. M. Death of a Witch: a Village in Northern India, 1950-1981. London: Hutchinson, 1983. Kapur, Sohaila. Witchcraft in Western India. Hyderabad: Oriental Longman Limited, 1983. Suraiya, Bunny. "Sinister motives behind those brutal hunts against the forces of darkness." Far Eastern Economic Review 126 (Dec. 6, 1984); 60-1. Telegraph (Calcutta). 1993. 9 February; p. 4. Here is a brief notice, selected among several others, which continue to crop up in Indian newspapers, on events involving witchcraft. 'WITCH' KILLED Chaibasa: A 60-year old tribal woman and her son were murderd and their bodies burt by villagers at Gannore, 80 km from here, our correspondent reports. The woman allegedly practised witch-craft. --EUROPEAN WITCHCRAFT Kraemer, Heinrich. Malleus Maleficarum. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1970. Kraemer, Heinrich. Malleus Maleficarum. Read by Ian Richardson. Cassette CDL 51434. Caedmon, n.d. James I, King of England, 1566-1625. Dmonologie (1597). News from Scotland, Declaring the Damnable Life and Death of Doctor Fian, a Notable Sorcerer Who was Burned at Edenbrough in Ianuary last (1591). New York: Barnes and Nobel, 1966. Cornell University. Libraries. Catalogue of the Witchcraft Collection in Cornell University Library. Millwood, N. Y.: KTO Press, 1977. (With an introduction by Rossell Hope Robbins.) Del Dervo, Dianne M. Witchcraft in Europe and America. Microform. Woodbridge, Conn.: Research Publications, 1983. (104 microfilm reels) Berkhout, Carl T. Medieval Heresies: A Bibliography, 1960-1979. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1981. Lea, Henry Charles. Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. New York: T. Yoseloff, 1939. (3 volumes) Trevor-Roper, Hugh Redwald. The European Witch-craze in the Sixteen and Seventeenth Centuries, and Other Essays. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Cohn, Norman Rufus Colin. Europe's Inner Demons: an Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. New York: Basic Books, 1975. Articles on Witchcraft, Magic and Demonology. Edited by Brian P. Levack. New York: Garland Publishing, 1992. [The 12 volumes consist of v. 1 Anthropological Studies of Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion; v. 2 Witchcraft in the Ancient World and the Middles Ages; v. 3 Witch-hunting in Early Modern Europe; v. 4 The Literature of Witchcraft; v. 5 Witch-hunting in Continental Europe; v. 6 Witchcraft in England; v. 7 Witchcraft in Scotland; v. 8 Witchcraft in Colonial America; v. 9 Possession and Exorcism; v. 10 Witchcraft, Women and Society; v. 11 Renaissance Magic; v. 12 Witchcraft and Demonology in Art and Literature.] These articles were mostly written during the 1950s through the 1980s, in magazines or edited books, and are nicely collected and reprinted here in a single set of 12 volumes. Although early Christianity had started to confront non- Christian religions, it was the Dominican Inquisitors, Heinrich Kraemer and Jakob Sprenger, who collected earlier occurrences and trials of witches, and provided a manual for further accusations, torture, trial, and execution of witches during the next two centuries in Europe in their Malleus Maleficarum or "Hammer of Witches," first published in 1486. The Bull of Innocent VIII against witchcraft, before the turn of the 15th century, gave church sanction to proceedings. The sound recording, read sometimes with emotion and emphasis by Ian Richardson, takes its text mostly from about 20 pages of the Second Part of Malleus Maleficarum. Especially read are those from sections of chapters concerning "whereby Witches copulate with those Devils know as Incubi," "How Witches Impede and Prevent the Power of Procreation," and "How, as it were, they Deprive Man of his Verile Member," but ending with some "strong" prayers for protection against witches. King James (of England) was known to be fearful of witches, even from his days in Scotland. He ensured that in his King James Version of the Bible, the Hebrew word "kashshaf" would be translated as "witch," rather than "sorcerer" or "old women." Thus in Deuteronomy, there is an injunction of "They shall not suffer a witch to live." Two notes, one on this work of Dmonologie. The supposed or ascribed author of this work, is JAMES CARMICHAEL, d. 1628! And secondly, my minister, punning father always said that witches were in the Bible under the quote of "the sand which is by the sea" (the "sand witches" by the sea, or a deli alternatively, the "sandwiches by the sea!" Picnic, anyone?). Otherwise, the above sources for European witchcraft indicate bibliographies and collections (Cornell, Berkhout and Levack) for the subject. The microfilm collection is a copy of the actual manuscripts housed at Cornell. Hall, David D. "Witchcraft and the limits of interpretation." New England Quarterly 58 (June 1985): 253-81. Hall reviews several recent publications and indicates recent re-interpretations of witchcraft, particularly in New England. --SALEM WITCHCRAFT Burr, George Lincoln. Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases, 1648- 1706. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1914. Boyer, Paul S. Salem-village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1972. Boyer, Paul S. Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974. Similar to the sources for European Witchcraft, these sources include printed primary sources (Burr and Boyer), as well as an interpretation of those sources, especially from a sociological interpretation.


Marley, Christiana Marie. "John Wyer and Reginal Scot: an Examination of Late Sixteenth Century Ideas on Witchcraft and Demonology." M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1993. Eisenach, Emlyn. "Witchcraft as a Local Affair: Witch Trials in the Val di Fiemme, 1504-1505." M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1992. Campinha, Josepha. "Consideration of the Cultural Belief System of Individuals Experiencing Conjure Illness by Public Health Nurses and Emergency Room Nurses; An Exploratory Study." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1986. Mabe, Glenda Ann. "Witchcraft, Conjuring, and Root Work: A Study in the Anthropology of Experience." Thesis, University of Virginia, 1979. Moorrees, Louise Frances Theodora. "Witchcraft and Art--1480- 1520." M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1975. Marberg, William Paul. "The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Study in Social Stress." M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1974. These University of Virginia theses are mostly concerned with European and Salem witchcraft. Of particular interest are the ones concerning art and anthropological experience; even more unusual is the Doctoral dissertation connecting conjure illness with emergency room nursing.


Bartlett, John. Familiar Quotations. 15 ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1980. (BFQ) Lady Macbeth (Act IV): Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble. Eye of newt, and toe of frog, Wool of bat, and tongue of dog. Finger of birth-strangled babe, Ditch-delivered by a drab. By the pricking of my thumbs, Something wicked this way comes. Open, locks, Whoever knocks! How now, you secret, black, and midnight hags! [BFQ, p. 239] --MODERN WITCHCRAFT Frazer, James George. The Golden Bough; a Study in Magic and Religion. 1963 Paperback Abridged ed. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1922. (Originally published in 1890.) Starhawk. The Spiral Dance. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1979. Adler, Margot. Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess- Worshipers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986. (Originally published 1979) Lady Sheba. The Book of Shadows. St. Paul: Llewellyn Publications, 1973. Murray, Margaret Alice. The God of the Witches. London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1952. Eliade, Mircea. Occultism, Witchcraft, and Cultural Fashions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976. Marwick, Max. Witchcraft and Sorcery: Selected Readings. New York: Penguin Books, 1982. Cabot, Laurie. Power of the Witch. New York, N. Y.: Delacorte Press, 1989. Caro Baroja, Julio. The World of the Witches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964. Farber, M. D. Modern Witchcraft and Psychoanalysis. Canbury, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, 1993. Though it is debatable whether James Frazer is the founder and initiator of the new Witchcraft movement or Neo-Paganism, his writings certainly had a strong impact, from its inception in the late 19th century. Others followed to elucidate and extend his ideas of connections between ancient pagan and witchcraft religious ideas and practices into the 20 century. Frazer dealt with witchcraft most directly in his sections, near the end of his book, on "Fire-Festivals of Europe" (including the origins of Hallowe'en), "Interpretation of Fire-Festivals," and "Burning of Human Beings in the Fires." Although the publication dates of sources above appear fairly recent, some are a result of earlier studies, researches, and editions. They follow in the train or "heredity," not only of Frazer, but also of Charles Leland's Aradia: The Gospel of the Witches (1899), Aleister Crowley's writings on magic, Margaret Murray's writings in the 1920s through the 1940s, Robert Graves' White Goddess (1948), and Gerald Gardner's writings. In addition to Starhawk's book, one can find specific ritual incantations and ritual readings in Lady Sehba's book; almost all end with the refrain-- EKO EKO ARIDA, EKO EKO KERNUNNOS. Eliade provides an overview, and Adler updates wicca practices and organizations in the U.S. along with two interviews of witches. The practicing witch of Salem, Laurie Cabot, provides recent information on witchcraft practices in the U. S. She has also produced a "Seduction" through witchcraft audio recording. Caro Baroja is specially good on witchcraft in the Basque area of Spain, both historically and in the 20th century, and for bringing together many disparate ideas and sources. Farber is a very recent book which summaries some of the sources of the Neo-Pagan movement. The middle section of his book, investigates in detailed psychological terms, the influences and writings of Freudian and especially Jungian writers, and the mother/child relationship in connection with witchcraft ideas. Kingston, Jeremy. Witches and Witchcraft. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1976. (Kingston, Witches.) Kingston has provided a book full of illustrations and photographs, which are much more interesting and useful than his text. Ott, Bill. "Quick bibs: witches." American Libraries. 23:816, Oct. 1992. This is a brief review of recently published materials on witches. FORTHCOMING BOOKS Forthcoming Books. December 1992 ed. New York: R. R. Bowker, 1966-. While the subject index lists only two books (one on witches' home remedies and the other on witchcraft in the Channel Islands), there are 24 titles starting with Witch . . . . There is no single press which seems to concentrate on publication of witchcraft materials. Several of these 1992 publications are part of Levack's "Articles on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology Series," selling at around $60 per volume. There is also Charles Clifton's edited Witchcraft Today, Book I; The Modern Craft Movement (Llewellyn Publications) in paperback for $9.95, Fadiman's on African oral history of the witchcraft tradition (University of California Press), and Stephanie Tolan's Witch of Maple Park (Morrow Junior Books) for $14.00 MAGAZINES Standard Periodical Directory. 16th ed. New York: Oxbridge Publishing Company, 1993. Of the 19 periodicals listed under Wiccan, Pagan, none were held by the University of Virginia, though 8 were listed in the OCLC. Almost half are published in California, with an additional 3 published on the West Coast. Wisconsin has a surprising three. From other sources, the most respected and longest running (1968-) appears to be Green Egg published by the Church of All Worlds in Ukiah, California. They consider themselves as an "interdisciplinary journal of New Paganism and related topics.' The quarterly issues cost $5 each. Another journal often mentioned is Panegyria or Panegyria Journal, from the Aquarian Tabernacle Church in Seattle, Washington. It caters to "matters of interest to the followers of Wiccan and neo-pagan religions in English countries," costing $2 a copy for each of the 8 publications per year. There are a Circle Guide to Pagan Resources (annual, from Wisconsin) and a Directory of Canadian Pagan Resources (annual, from Vancover). A journal publishing semiannually on neo-African systems is Societe (Burbank, California). Even North Carolina, surprisingly, produces six issues per year of it's Survival from the Church or School of Wicca in New Bern. (See also Journal of New Thought under ORGANIZATIONS--LOCAL, below.)


--MUSEUMS Salem, Massachusetts. One of the houses of the witch trials in Salem is still shown as a museum. (Photograph in Kingston, Witches, p. 96-97.) Boscastle, England. Witch Museum. One of the aspects of the museum concerns witches selling sailors charmed ropes to "raise winds." (Kingston, Witches, p. 127.) --MUSIC "Ding Dong, the Witch is Dead" by E. Y. Harburg. In Over the Rainbow. Sound disc. Sung by Susannah McCorkle. New York: Inner City, 1981. "Witchy Woman." In Eagles: Their Greatest Hits. N.p.: Asylum, 1976. "The Witch" by The Cult. In Songs from the Cool World. Burbank, California: Warner Brothers Records, 1992. "Angel No" by Boris Blank (Yello). In Stella. N.p.: Mercury, 1985. "Season of the Witch." In Super Session. Sung and played by Mike Bloomfield, Al Kooper, and Steve Stills. Sound disc. New York: Columbia, 1968. CS 9701 Columbia. "Ding Dong" is the well-known song from The Wizard of Oz (1939) after the wicked witch of the West has been melted away. The four other songs are about witches from modern rock music. There is also the bewitching chant or attempted spell of "No Rain! No more Rain! No Rain!" chanted by the rain-soaked, muddied-covered celebrants on the third day of the Woodstock Rock Festival in August 1969 (Woodstock [1970] 180 min.). --MOVIES Videohound's Golden Movie Retriever. Detroit: Visible Ink, 1993. Videohound's list of categories does not include "witches," though it does include such categories of "zombies" and "vampires." 21 listed movies begin with the title "witch-". Movies (personally seen and enjoyed) are The Witches (1990), Bell, Book and Candle (1959), and I Married a Witch (1942). The first, based on a Ronald Dahl story, is appropriate for the younger set as it features a nine-year old boy who successfully foils the attempt of the grand high witch at a witch convention to turn all the world's children into furry little creatures. Both Bell and Married concern witches who's powers back-fire as they fall in love with mortal men and thus lose their powers; but all for a happy ending. Many other movies either include witches or the use of witchcraft. Perhaps a recent popular one is the Witches of Eastwick (1987), about three bored New England women who conjure up a warlock, who uses his powers to help satisfy their wants and desires. A much older, but nonetheless popular one, is the Wizard of Oz (1939), with the good witches as well as the "wicked witch of the West." There are also several other movies (mostly Walt Disney produced) with feature or include witchcraft and are often based on folk tales. They often feature memorable songs. They include Cinderella (1950) (with "Alacazoo, menchikaboo, bibadibabadibo"), Hansel and Gretel (1954), Sleeping Beauty (1959) (also with two good witches and one bad witch, like Oz), Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1983), and Fantasia (1940) (with the classical music pieces of "The Sorcerer's Apprentice," and the "Night on Bald Mountain"). Three Sovereigns for Sarah (1985) is about the Salem witch trails, where a young girl and her two sisters are accused of practicing witchcraft (from a PBS television series, 152 min.). --TELEVISION Brooks, Tim. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows, 1946--Present. New York: Ballantine Books, 1979. The popular television series, now in re-runs, Bewitched ran on ABC from September 17, 1964 to July 1, 1972. It featured a young witch Samantha, who used "white" witchcraft to aid her advertizing executive husband, even while trying all the time to abandon her resorting to her witch powers. --VIDEOCASSETTE Il Tovatore. 138 min. Conducted by Richard Bonynge. N.p.: Sony Corporation of America, 1985. This Giuseppe Verdi opera (performed at the Sydney Opera House) features Acuzena, the daughter of a gypsy, who was burned at the stake as a witch for cursing the young son of a nobleman, and Acuzena's subsequent efforts at revenge against the nobleman and his family. Burning Times. 58 min. Directed by Donna Read. Los Angles, California: Direct Cinema Ltd., 1990. Videocassette. Martha Henry discusses legends and misconceptions about witches, and the torture and killing of women by church- and state- supported institutions during "burning times." Goddess Remembered. 54 min. Directed by Donna Read. Los Angeles, California: Direct Cinema Ltd., 1990. Videocassette. Several women, leading authorities on witchcraft including Starhawk, discuss "early goddess-worshiping cultures and the current women's spirituality movement." --ELECTRONIC In this age of expanding electronic information and access (see the electronic encyclopedia and dictionary above), many sources may be tapped on the topic of witches. Within NewsNet, there are three groups which sometimes discuss topics connected with witches, "alt.magic," "alt.magick," and "alt.pagan." One message, for example in "alt.pagan," discusses "wicca" under the heading of "Christians interested to learn about Wicca." Further information is available in the "gopher" areas of different sites, especially in their "archive" files. For example, there are 12 archives under the NYSERNet, which include the Witch Scene (full text) from "Monty Python and the Holy Grail," and interviews with local pagans and wiccas under the heading of "Area pagans shed light on a religion that is often misunderstood." See also developing World Wide Web pages. As of 15th May 1995, this was one site on the Web, under COGWEB or "The Covenant of the Goddess." Under it is also a Web Page listing of Bibliographies on witches.

Costumed Pumpkin Cat Dance
Barth, Edna.  Witches, Pumpkins, and Grinning Ghosts:  the Story of
the Halloween Symbols.  New York:  Clarion Books, 1972.

Brokaw, Meredith.  The Penny Whistle Halloween Book.  New York: 
Fireside Book, 1989.

     Both these short paperback books seem intended aid children in
their celebration of Halloween.  The first (for 6th and 7th
Graders?) does a very good job of explaining the background to
symbols with an extremely fine short history of witches through the
ages.  It presents this in a straightforward manner, neither
pejoratively nor through rose-colored glasses.  Brokaw's (yes,
Tom's wife!) book is almost a workbook with ideas and projects for
parties and costumes.  
     Other juvenile books and materials may be found in juvenile
section of the local library  (the Public Library has about 20
books on witches under the call number J 133.4).

     [A personal note.  As a parent, my daughter came home at the
age of 10, dressed up as a witch, and went out trick-or-treating,
singing a song she had learned at school which went somewhat like--

          "I'm a witch. Tish, Tish.
           I'm a witch. Tish, Tish.
           I ride on my broomstick
           Over hill and dale.

           I'm a witch.  Tish, Tish.
           I'm a witch.  Tish, Tish."]

"Toward a more P.C. Halloween."  Harper's 283 (Oct.1991):  19+.
     This article is about a teachers' manual by Louise Derman-
Sparks of the Anti-Bias Curriculum Task Force.  It describes
activities to help children shed negative stereotypes of witches.

                    [In the original manuscript, on
                    this page was depicted a witch
                    with a cat riding on a
--A black silhouette, on an
                                        orange sheet.]


Yearbook of International Organizations. 1992/1993 ed. Brussels: Union of International Associations, 1967-. (YIO) Encyclopedia of Associations. 27th ed. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1993. (EofAss) --INTERNATIONAL The YIO indicates 7 associations under Religious Practice/Divination, but they are mostly concerned with magic and astrology. The Divinatory Arts World Association in Rillieux-la- Pape, France appears closest to concentrating on modern witchcraft. --UNITED STATES The EofAss lists three organizations directly connected with witchcraft. The Witches Anti-Discrimination Lobby, known earlier as the Witches International Craft Associates, began in 1970 and has about 5,000 members. From its headquarters in New York City, Director Leo Louis Martello aims to educate the public about the religion of witchcraft and to fight discrimination against witches. In 1970 they won a discrimination lawsuit against the New York Parks Department who had refused a permit for their Witch-In. It maintains a library of 20,000 volumes and publishes the WICA Newsletter with a subscription of $4.00 per year. The Crystal Stargate of San Marcos, California lists 190 members, seeking to expand metaphysical knowledge and offers classes in natural magic. One can obtain its bimonthly publication, Wanderment, at $12.00 a year. Finally there is the Pagan/Occult/Witchcraft Special Interest Group as part of Mensa. It is headquartered in Palo Alto, California with 400 members, and publishes Pagana of 10 issues per year at $20.00. --LOCAL, CHARLOTTESVILLE, AND VIRGINIA By contacting people at a local store, Feather on the Wind, a person's name and phone number was obtained, who was thinking about starting a local Wicca/Pagan group sometime in the near future. In an interview on Sunday afternoon, June 21, 1993, the person emphasized the uncertainty of whether the group would come into existence. If so, it would probably be part of the International Academy of Hermetic Knowledge (incidently located in Charlottesville on Wise street!). He also mentioned that he had met a woman from Richmond about a month ago who is the high priestess of two covens in the Richmond area. He agreed that, in Virginia, New Age groups abound especially around the Virginia Beach area, where (Norfolk) a free monthly The Journal of New Thought is produced. Page twelve of its May 1993 issue advertises for the "Free Spirit Alliance" of Laurel, Maryland who claim to be "A non-profit association promoting worship of alternative Spirituality, Wicca, Neo-Paganism, and Goddess Worship."


Newspaper Abstracts. Computer File. An Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1984-. This on-line service (supported by "the generosity of the University of Virginia athletic Department with proceeds from the 1991 Sugar Bowl"!) is not just a bibliographic tool for newspaper articles from 27 U.S. and 1 British selected newspapers, but also provides 1 to 6 or 7 sentences of abstract on each article. It is searchable by keyword ("witches") as well as author, title, and subject. FACTS --1,000 witches are estimated to live in the St. Louis area (St Louis Post-Dispatch, Oct 31, 1991). --10,000 practicing witches are estimated for Britain. Dot Griffiths is known as the Madam Morgana or high priestess of Buckinghamshire. She started the country's first school of Wicca in 1989 to preserve religious observances. (Atlanta Constitution, Oct. 31, 1990). --"Kestryl & Company: A Pagan Talk Show" is devoted entirely to witchcraft, on Arlington (VA) Community Television, cable (Washington Times, June 3, 1991). ISSUES --Hansel and Gretel asked to be banned from schools in Northern California. Karlyn Straganana, a self-proclaimed witch, requested the ban as it teaches children it is acceptable to kill witches (San Francisco Chronicle, May 28, 1992). --Celebration of Halloween is vanishing from the schools. Some parents feel witches, ghosts, etc are religious symbols. Some school ban Halloween itself (USA TODAY, Oct 27, 1992). --Salem, MA. Laurie Cabot, a local resident witch, heads the Witches League for Public Awareness. Salem is a favorite hunt of tourists around Halloween (Boston Globe, Nov. 1, 1989). --Tax-exempt status is given to Our Lady of the Roses Wiccan Church, a coven in Rhode Island, as a legitimate religious group. The coven's high priestess, Joyce Siegret, say it will help witches take their rightful place in society (Boston Globe, Aug. 9, 1989.) --Air Force allows Airman Patricia Hutchins to observer her religious holidays of wicca (USA TODAY, Apr. 25, 1989). --the Salvation Army has settled a lawsuit, which arose out of their dismissal of Jamie Kellam Dodge for practicing the naturalist Wicca faith (Times-Picayune, Apr. 28, 1989). --Witches celebrate Groundhog Day as Candlemas. Atlanta witches will try to shed some light on their religion when this day comes (Atlanta Journal Constitution, Jan 27, 1990). SAINT HILLARY (Clinton) Kelly, Michael. "St. Hillary." New York Times Magazine. May 23, 1993: 22-25, 63-66. Hillary Clinton is featured in another of Michael Kelly's articles. * * * * Will St. Hillary's image succumb, as did Joan of Arc's, to the "dark" or "shadow" side, and might she be accused of "witchcraft" or be part of a "witch-hunt" in the future (after 1993)? ======================= END ==========================
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