------------------------------------------------------------------- DAWN WIRE SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 21 March 1998 Issue : 04/12 -------------------------------------------------------------------
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                          C O N T E N T S 
===================================================================

------------------------- 
N A T I O N A L   N E W S
------------------------- 
Pakistan, India expel diplomats
Islamabad hints at reviewing nuclear policy
US, Japan enhancing stake in Pakistan's economy
Jirga's call for strike against census today  
14th Amendment: SC reserves judgment on petition 
Govt has accepted all MQM demands: Saif
Recruitments to be made in education dept: Ghous
Rise in power rates to accentuate inflation
$250m pact signed for satellite station
No more govt jobs for jobless: PM

--------------------------------- 
B U S I N E S S  &  E C O N O M Y 
---------------------------------
$250 million Japan loan accord signed
IMF agrees to fixed tax system till June-end
KSE performance improves on bank, energy shares
ISO 9000  opportunity for exporters
225 industrial units closed down in NWFP
Nawaz for rescheduling of WAPDA loans
Banks to quote dollar rates within set band
'UBL should look after treasury functions'


---------------------------------------
E D I T O R I A L S  &  F E A T U R E S
---------------------------------------
Auto-reverse                                      Ardeshir Cowasjee
The moral high ground                                  Irfan Husain
India's political crisis                                M. B. Naqvi
Senseless violence                                     M. H. Askari 

-----------
S P O R T S 
-----------
Pakistan has definite edge over Zimbabwe
Moin Khan and Youhana stave off defeat
Electrifying centuries by Afridi and Elahi
Pakistan hockey team back from Holland

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                     N A T I O N A L   N E W S 
===================================================================
980315
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Pakistan, India expel diplomats
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Faraz Hashmi

ISLAMABAD, March 14: Pakistan on Saturay expelled an Indian 
diplomat for acts of espionage and subversion. The action was 
followed by the expulsion of a Pakistani diplomat by New Delhi. 
    
The Indian deputy high commissioner was summoned to the foreign 
office here and told that the government of Pakistan had 
"incontrovertible evidence" of P. N. Nair's involvement in "acts of 
espionage and subversion", an official announcement said.
    
The foreign office asked the Indian deputy high commissioner that 
Nair should leave Pakistan within the next 72 hours.
    
The decision to expel Nair, a press release said, had been taken in 
the wake of a spate of terrorist bombings in Pakistan which had 
claimed the lives of many innocent persons. He had been found 
indulging in activities "incompatible with his official status".
    
The Indian deputy high commissioner was further told that the 
Indian intelligence agencies were actively sponsoring acts of 
sabotage and terrorism in Pakistan which had not only led to tragic 
loss of life but were also a blatant violation of the UN Charter 
and international norms proscribing terrorism.
    
A few days earlier, a strong protest had been lodged by Pakistan 
with the government of India at the "organized and systematic 
campaign of terrorism launched by Indian intelligence agencies 
against Pakistan". The foreign secretary had also briefed the heads 
of missions representing the five permanent members of the UN 
Security Council on the Indian sponsored terrorist acts in Pakistan 
which, he had said, were in stark violation of the UN charter and 
called for their universal condemnation.
    
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980320
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Islamabad hints at reviewing nuclear policy
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Hasan Akhtar

ISLAMABAD, March 19: A Foreign Office spokesman said on Thursday 
Islamabad could review its policy of nuclear restraint in response 

to New Delhi's plan to keep its option open to develop nuclear 
weapons.
 
The spokesman said the plan announced by the BJP on Wednesday had 
created a "fearsome situation" posing threat to Pakistan's 
security. He said it was a dangerous development for South Asia and 
the whole world.
 
The spokesman, Mr Tariq Altaf, said under the situation, if need 
arose, Islamabad would review its nuclear policy to safeguard its 
sovereignty, territorial integrity and national interests.
 
He said BJP's plan multiplied manifold the threat to Pakistan's 
security besides dealing a grievous blow to international efforts 
for nuclear non-proliferation.
 
The spokesman asserted that the Indian missile and nuclear 
programmes had no relevance to the genuine Indian defence needs.
 
The ballistic and nuclear programmes launched by India after it 
carried out its first atomic test in 1974, failed to evoke 
international censure or sanctions, while Pakistan had been 
victimised and made to suffer because of double-standards of the 
world community, the spokesman said.
 
The spokesman said Indian state terrorism in Kashmir and in 
Pakistan confirmed it as a terrorist state.
 
"We urge the international community to take a serious note as it 
deserves, of Indian intentions and to exert pressure on India to 
show restraint and refrain from endangering the regional and global 
peace and security", Mr Altaf said.
 
The spokesman disclosed that Pakistan had received forewarnings 
from several friendly governments, alerting Pakistan against 
possible spate of bombings and other terrorist acts, some time 
before the two major train bomb blasts earlier this month.
 
The forewarning, he maintained, exposed India to many countries as 
a state sponsoring terrorist activities.
 
The spokesman, however, refused to disclose the identity of the 
foreign governments who gave prior information saying "why should 
we compromise our sources of information."
 
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980316
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US, Japan enhancing stake in Pakistan’s economy
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M. Ziauddin

TWO COUNTRIES, Japan and the US, appear to be poised to come back 
to Pakistan and enhance the level of their economic activities in 
this country back to perhaps where they were at the end of the 
Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.
    
For the first time in many years, Japanese official assistance has 
shot back to over $500 million this year which is almost equal to 
the annual average achieved during the Soviet occupation years in 
Afghanistan. Most of the resources which Japan has committed 
recently are grants or soft loans for balance of payments support.
    
In fact, the press release issued the other day announcing these 
generous commitments said that the loan was being extended “taking 
into consideration the economic difficulties faced by the 
government of Pakistan, with a view to encouraging Pakistan to 
continue the implementation of one of its most important current 
economic reform policies under the banking sector adjustment 

programme.”
    
It further said the loan agreement will be signed soon in 
Islamabad, “making it possible for disbursing the amount by the end 
of March when huge repayment of foreign debt is due to be made by 
Pakistan.”
    
And in a related development, the Japanese business houses 
operating in Pakistan have taken upon themselves to identify and 
discuss among themselves the potential areas for Japanese 
investment in Pakistan, establish a continuous dialogue with the 
Board of Investment (BOI), set up their own self-protection 
security systems and also (and this is more significant) take 
advantage of their proximity with Central Asia which their location 
in Pakistan provides them to build a gateway to the region.
    
There could be two explanations for this sudden renewal of economic 
interest of Japan in Pakistan. One, the crisis in the East Asian 
countries and the other to help Pakistan to stand on its two feet 
so that it could serve a strategic purpose of the rich world in the 
region.
    
There appears to be no hope of an immediate turnaround in East 
Asia.
    
Indonesia, the country which was perhaps the largest recipient of 
Japanese assistance and a significant amount of Japanese investment 
is not likely to come out of its troubles in the foreseeable 
future. Perhaps not even in a decade.
    
The fundamentals in South Korea appear to be sound, but the Korean 
banks are likely to go into the hands of foreign private financial 
institutions whose interests in Korean markets will depend upon the 
whims of the manufacturers of the West who do not feel comfortable 
competing with the East Asian countries in the vast, expanding 
markets of China.
    
Thailand is also in the same league as Indonesia. The country is 
likely to become the sick man of the East in coming years.
    
The Japanese banks have suffered a lot because of their over- 
exposure in the East Asian countries where the financial 
institutions operated under very lax laws. So, in the immediate 
future, the Japanese investors are likely to keep away from East 
Asia. The next best bet for them was India. But the unsavoury 
experience, the makers of Suzuki cars had in India last year when 
their Indian partners refused to appoint a Suzuki-nominated person 
as the CEO, perhaps has dampened the enthusiasm of the Japanese 
investors in India.
    
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980321
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Jirga's call for strike against census today  
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Staff Correspondent

QUETTA, March 20: Pakhtoon Ulasi Qaumi Jirga (PUQJ) has given a 
shutdown call for Saturday and a complete strike call for Sunday in 
Quetta and Pakhtoon-dominated areas of northern Balochistan in 
protest against the holding of census.
    
The convener of the jirga, Nawab Ayaz Khan Jogezai, gave the call 
while addressing protesters at Manan Chowk who have been on a sit-
in there for the past five days defying a ban on public meetings 
and processions in the city.

    
Some protesters comprising members of PUQJ and PMAP took out a 
procession from the jirga's central office and marched through 
Jinnah Road. They chanted slogans against the provincial 
government.
    
Speaking to the protesters Nawab Jogezai said the indifferent 
attitude of Mengal and Nawaz governments had forced them to resort 
to protests and strikes.
    
He said that members of the jirga had been demanding extreme steps 
but he had decided to observe one-day shutdown on Saturday and a 
wheeljam strike on Sunday in Quetta and Pakhtoon areas of the 
province.
    
He said that though shutdowns would create problems for traders and 
other people, the jirga was left with no option but to resort to 
such actions.
    
Nawab Jogezai said that when the government failed to conduct 
census in Pakhtoon areas it decided to collect data-base forms 
forcibly from the people with the help of heavy contingent of 
police and Frontier Corps.
    
The Pakhtoon leader asked party activists and supporters to resist 
the holding of census in their respective areas.
    
GOVERNOR"S ASSURANCE: Balochistan Governor Miangul Aurangzeb and a 
PML leader Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Magsi have assured the leaders of 
Pakhtoon Jirga that they would take up their demands regarding 
census with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the provincial 
government.
    
Talking to a delegation of PUQJ, who met him on Friday, Governor 
Miangul said he would take up the issue with the provincial and the 
federal government.
    
The jirga members demanded of the federal government to cancel the 
census carried out in the province and re-conduct it under the 
supervision of a Baloch-Pakhtoon joint commission.
    
Meanwhile, a PML delegation headed by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Magsi also 
held talks with jirga leadership in PMA hostel on Friday. During 
the meeting the PML leaders informed jirga members that the PML 
would take up the issue with Prime Minister.

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980321
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14th Amendment: SC reserves judgment on petition 
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Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, March 20: The Supreme Court on Friday reserved its 
judgment on the petitions challenging the 14th Amendment with the 
observation that the petitioners should pray to God for providing 
"proper insight" to the court to decide the case.
    
The seven-member bench headed by Chief Justice Ajmal Mian had 
started the hearing on Monday of the two constitutional petitions 
filed by Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan and Dr Abdul Basit.
    
The counsel for Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, Syed Iftikhar Gilani, 
presenting his arguments on Friday said there was no doubt that 
parliament had the power to legislate, but the power was not 
absolute. Parliament can make laws remaining within the limits 
prescribed by the Constitution, he said.
    
Mr Gilani said he was not saying that members had the right to 
defect to a new party leaving the one on whose ticket they had been 
elected. He said his contention was that a member should be allowed 

to express his views. "If he (legislator) violates party decision 
or votes against party directive, he should be expelled or 
penalised," Mr Gilani said.
    
Substantiating his argument, Mr Gilani said that a member was duty-
bound to represent his constituents in the assembly and had to 
express his views if a legislation was under way which could affect 
the lives of his constituents.
    
He said that the Supreme Court had defined the word defection in 
Pir Sabir Shah case. Under this definition a member would not be 
disqualified if he disagreed with the party, in good faith.
    
Justice Shaikh Riaz observed that if defection was clearly defined, 
parliamentarians should correct the defection law themselves. Mr 
Gilani said that the decision to amend the law also rested with the 
party leader.
    
He said if a party head enjoyed absolute power over the elected 
members, there was no need for forming a party.
    
Mr Gilani said vesting arbitrary powers in the party leader to 
unseat an elected member for dissent, was alien to the provisions 
of the Constitution.
    
Chief Justice Ajmal Mian observed that if a proposed legislation 
was not discussed at the party forum, there was something wrong 
with the working of the political party.
    
Justice Irshad Hasan Khan observed that there was no bar on the 
members of parliament to speak, but not after a decision had been 
taken. He observed that a member could express his views when a 
policy was in the process of formation, but not after a decision 
had been taken by majority members.
    
Justice Mamoon Kazi observed that a member of parliament had to 
safeguard the interests of his constituents, and he had the right 
to speak against the party line if he honestly felt that the 
proposed action was going to hurt the interests of his 
constituents.
    
In response to the observation made by Justice Raja Afrasiab that a 
member was morally obliged to follow the party line, Syed Iftikhar 
Gilani said if a member after expressing his views went to vote 
against his party decision or abstained, he had certainly defected. 
But the right of a member to speak his mind could not be construed 
as defection as it was a fundamental right guaranteed under the 
Constitution.
    
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980321
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Govt has accepted all MQM demands: Saif
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Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, March 20: The federal government has accepted all the 
major demands of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement, including the 
elimination of "no-go areas", said the chairman of Ehtesab Bureau 
and a member of the PML's negotiating team, Sen Saifur Rehman.
    
He claimed that the MQM had withdrawn the ultimatum after 
successful negotiations.
    
Talking to Dawn here on Friday Sen Rehman said that the government 
had also agreed to pay adequate compensation to the families of the 
MQM workers allegedly killed or tortured during the previous 
government.

    
"We have held out assurances that the irritants identified by the 
MQM will be removed immediately", he said adding that the culprits 
identified by the MQM leadership would be apprehended to restore 
peace in Karachi.
    
Asked whether the MQM had extended its ultimatum by one month, Sen 
Rehman said that he had held negotiations with MQM leaders along 
with the Sindh chief minister and could say with authority that 
there did not exist ultimatum any more.
    
He said that the prime minister had directed the Sindh chief 
minister to end 'no-go' areas immediately and ensure that all 
genuine demands of the MQM were met without delay.
    
Sen Rehman claimed that all the misunderstandings between the PML 
and the MQM had been removed to the satisfaction of both the 
parties and the MQM would continue to be PML's strong ally.
    
During negotiations, he said, he had also talked to Altaf Hussain 
on phone and found him very accommodating.
    
Responding to a question, the Ehtesab Bureau chief said that so far 
there was no decision on the holding of local bodies elections in 
Sindh. He said the MQM had called for postponing the polls and a 
decision in this regard would be taken after the approval of PM.
    
He said that the prime minister was of the view that PML and the 
MQM had seen difficult times together and as the PML was in power 
now, it could not ignore the problems of its old ally.
    
He said Altaf Hussain sincerely wanted to help restore peace to 
Karachi. "Mr Hussain never asked for any personal benefit but 
always talked about the collective betterment of the people of 
Sindh", he said. He said that MQM chief had played a constructive 
role in ending the current stalemate and hoped that cooperation 
between the PML and the MQM would continue.

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980320
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Recruitments to be made in education dept: Ghous
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Staff Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, March 19: Federal Minister for Education Syed Ghous Ali 
Shah has said that recruitments will be made for all the posts 
lying vacant in the Education Department of the Federal Government 
and its affiliated institutions.
 
Presiding over a meeting of the cabinet committee on partial 
lifting of the ban on recruitments here on Thursday, the minister 
said the basic responsibility of the government was to work for the 
welfare and economic betterment of the masses and for that purpose 
all the vacant posts would be filled despite financial constraints. 
He said the ban was imposed temporarily and it will be lifted where 
needed.
 
During the meeting, recruitments on critical vacant posts existing 
in Ministries of Education and Foreign Affairs and other 
departments and autonomous organizations were reviewed thoroughly.
 
It was revealed that some 1571 posts in educational institutions 
working under the Federal Ministry of Education were still vacant. 
The Cabinet Committee recommended that all the vacant posts should 
be filled to promote education in the country. The 219 posts of 

lecturers and professors will be filled through FPSC and the 
urgency of these posts will be reviewed in some next meeting.
 
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980316
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Rise in power rates to accentuate inflation
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Sultan Ahmed

POWER rates have been increased by 12 per cent with its 
acknowledged multiplier effect on prices and its adverse impact on 
the economy as a whole.
    
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif who had earlier hesitated to approve a 
rate rise, which as suggested by WAPDA and KESC initially was 20 to 
22 per cent, has finally approved the 12 percent rise as the two 
institutions have failed to increase their revenues substantially 
or reduce their large deficit through the institutional means 
available to them. Following the sustained financial failure of 
WAPDA and KESC the World Bank and Asian Development Bank, which 
have been lending a great deal of money to both bodies, have been 
pressing a large rate rise along with the IMF which has been doing 
that in the name of macro- economic stability and financial health 
of the public sector bodies.
    
In fact a substantial rate rise appears to be one of the conditions 
for releasing the second tranche of $208 million of the three-year 
$1.6 billion Extended Structural Adjustment Facility, following the 
recent review of Pakistan’s economic performance by an IMF team and 
its broad approval.
    
The Prime Minister says that WAPDA which was making a profit of Rs 
10 billion annually in 1993-94 is now facing a deficit of Rs 16 
billion  a difference of Rs 26 billion. That is the situation 
which WAPDA is facing after it had borrowed Rs 41 billion locally 
at a high interest rates. 
   
The banks are now reluctant to lend more and the public is 
disinclined to buy more of WAPDA shares despite the temptation of 
18 percent interest.
    
We are served such disturbing figures as Rs 16 billion lost through 
subsidy to domestic consumers, loss of Rs 20 billion through 
subsidy to Azad Kashmir, Tribal Areas and for tube wells in 
Balochistan or loss of Rs 5 billion in FATA following the failure 
of WAPDA to collect payments against its bills there.
    
The government announced a restructuring scheme for WAPDA on 
January 28 last and said it had decided to remove subsidy on power 
for FATA, Azad Kashmir and the flat rates for tubewells. And the 
gain of Rs 11 billion under that scheme would include reduced power 
rates for those industries and commercial consumers who used power 
far in excess of their normal concession and boosted WAPDA 
revenues.
    
Evidently the increase in incomes of Rs 11 billion is not regarded 
enough. Hence the new rise in power rates following the rise in 
rates in February last year, but we have not been told how much of 
a rise in revenues WAPDA and KESC expect through this means. Raja 
Nadir Pervaiz, Minister for Water and Power, says WAPDA is selling 
almost 40 per cent of its energy at less than half its own cost of 
generation and distribution and at one-third of the cost of buying 

power from Independent Power Producers.
   
The People’s Party through a statement made in Lahore protests 
while its government had increased power rates by 11 per cent 
during its three-year term. 
   
The caretaker government of Meraj Khalid and the PML (N) government 
had raised power rates by 33 per cent.    And, there is no 
guarantee power rates will not be raised further to match the total 
of 20 to 22 per cent rise demanded by WAPDA and KESC after the 
rupee is devalued further if world oil prices rise.
    
In fact the right means to help WAPDA and KESC, the consumers and 
the country as a whole is to reduce the furnace oil prices 
following the sharp fall of nine dollars per barrel in world 
prices. The government is committed to lower oil prices within the 
country as world oil prices go down in the manner it has been 
raising POL prices as world oil prices went up or the rupee got 
devalued and made import of oil more costly in rupee terms. 
   
But even after world oil prices have fallen by a record $9 per 
barrel in five years the government is not lowering furnace oil 
prices at home and enabling WAPDA and KESC to lower their cost of 
power production. 
   
The government has instead decided to use the large funds gained 
thereby for bridging the budgetary gap following the fall in tax 
revenues.
    
This is an outrageous breach of trust which was forcefully 
underscored by the President of the Overseas Investors’ Chamber, 
Syed Nassem Ahmed, when the Prime Minister met its members in the 
city last week. He cautioned against the hazards of the people 
losing faith in the assurances of the government in this manner. 
But the government prefers hot money in its hands to its own 
credibility or the disbelief of the people in the government’s 
words. This is shabby show.
    
Now while the general rise in power rates is 12 per cent the three 
slabs of power users at the bottom of the tariff table would pay 
far more  upto 30 per cent  as the subsidised rates are being 
slashed. These consumers using upto 300 units per month number 7.5 
million, which is indeed a large figure.
    
On the other side, industrial and commercial consumers using far 
more than their normal consumption will be given a reduced rate 
along with sick industries. Residential consumers using more than 
3,000 units per month will also be given a concessional rate.
    
The government is coming up to subsidise the big consumers as WAPDA 
has surplus power following the power it has to buy from the 
private sector producers under agreements signed with them. Because 
of the slump in economic activities, particularly industrial 
production, the increase in power consumption in the country is 
rising by only 2.4 per cent against the earlier estimated rise in 
consumption of 7 per cent, as during the last three years.
    
In spite of their surplus power WAPDA as well as KESC are obliged 
to accept 4,000 MW of power from independent producers before the 
end of next year. 
    
When all that power becomes available WAPDA and KESC can be in 
greater financial distress if the industrial revival is not fast 

enough and new industrials do not come up to consume more power at 
a high cost.
    
Mr Javed Burki, secretary, ministry of power, and other power 
experts talk of Pakistan needing 14,000 to 18,000 MW of additional 
power by the year 2000, but all the dependence on a steady rise in 
industrial and export activities and the consumers paying their 
bills regularly, and a vast reduction in corruption and 
inefficiency in WAPDA and KESC with their militant unions.
    
Meanwhile, the present 12 per cent rise in power rates and more at 
lower levels of consumption would raise the cost of living, 
increase the cost of industrial production against which there is 
so much protest from the industrialists and export costs. And, the 
big farmers would demand higher support prices like the Rs 350 for 
40 kg of wheat from Rs 240 as they are asking now. Surely Pakistan 
cannot afford to raise its production and export costs at a time 
when East Asian exports, particularly of textiles, have become far 
cheaper following massive devaluation of their currencies. And the 
rise in power rates would speed up the process of devaluation of 
the rupee with all its adverse fall-out despite the dislike of the 
Prime Minister for such repeated emasculation of the rupee.

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980315
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$250m pact signed for satellite station
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Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, March 14: An agreement of $250 million was signed here 
on Saturday between the ministry of communication and the French 
company, Alcatel for setting up of a separate satellite station in 
the space of Pakistan.
    
Joint Secretary of Ministry of Communications, Gulrez Yazdani and 
Chief Executive of Alcatel in Pakistan, Mirza signed the pact in 
the presence of Secretary Communications, Sheikh Inaamul Haque, 
Chairman PTA Mian Javed Ahmad, Marc Villemain of Alcatel and senior 
officials of the ministry of communications and the Alcatel.
    
After the signing ceremony, Secretary Communications Sheikh Inaamul 
Haque said, this agreement would cast far reaching effects on 
global level.
    
He said Pakistan's telecommunications system will be linked up to 
the Satellite Station.
    
Under this system, the transmissions of PTV and PBC will be 
reviewed and listened on world level. He said, under the existing 
system we had to spend heavy foreign exchange for hiring time from 
other satellites.
    
He said, the Alcatel would establish a Satellite Station on 
BOT basis through which PTV and PBC's transmissions and 
telecommunication system will be coordinated with the other Asian 
countries, Europe and South Africa, while European Satellite will 
be used for USA.
    
He said, this project is an important step for providing modernized 
communications system.

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980315
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No more govt jobs for jobless: PM
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Staff Reporter

LAHORE, March 14: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said on Saturday that 
government departments were already overstaffed and unable to 
provide more jobs to the unemployed. The private sector should be 
activated to create more job opportunities.

"The government has no more jobs. Some departments are overstaffed 
but their performance is zero. Many are on the verge of collapse," 
he said while addressing a ceremony at a polytechnic institution in 
Allama Iqbal Town.

Governors of the Punjab and Balochistan and ministers for health 
and excise were also present.

The prime minister said that there was no room for more clerks and 
new jobs would not be available unless the private sector played 
its role.

Mr Sharif regretted that billions of rupees were being spent on 
ghost schools. He said the government had already surveyed these 
schools and was taking appropriate measures to plug the wastage of 
the national resources.

The 10-kanal land for the polytechnic institution was given by Mian 
Nawaz Sharif when he was Punjab chief minister.

Dr Muhammad Jafar and banker Syed Saeed Alam Zaidi built 
institution through donations of Rs 50 million.

About 1,600 students are studying in five technologies in two 
shifts. The institution is affiliated with the Punjab Board of 
Technical Education.

Syed Saeed Alam Zaidi briefed the prime minister about the 
performance of the institution and said it was affiliated with the 
Punjab University for the Bachelors of Computer Science. He urged 
the PM to affiliate the institution with the Lahore University of 
Engineering and Technology for degrees in BSc Engineering in civil 
and electrical technologies.

He also sought a 200-kanal in Lahore for the establishment of a 
medical college, and a permission to commercialize three kanals of 
the land adjacent to the polytechnic. The prime minister said the 
government would provide lands to Mr Zaidi and Dr Muhammad Jafar in 
every province for the establishment of medical colleges.

He also asked them to set up kidney centres for which, he said, the 
government would give donations.  The prime minister said kidney-
related diseases were on the rise and a majority of patients did 
not have resources for treatment.

He also allowed commercialization of the land with the institute 
which would fetch an amount of Rs 100 million. The amount would be 
spent to provide more facilities to students.

=================================================================== 
                 B U S I N E S S  &  E C O N O M Y
===================================================================
980321
-------------------------------------------------------------------
$250 million Japan loan accord signed
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Bureau Report

ISLAMABAD, March 20: Japan has decided to extend 250 million 
dollars to Pakistan to help improve its balance of payment 
position.
    
An agreement to this effect was signed here on Friday between the 
Japanese Ambassador Minoru Kubota and Secretary Economic Affairs 
Division Aftab Ahmad Khan. The loan agreement was also signed by 

Ikuro Sato, the chief representative of Overseas Economic 
Cooperation Fund (OECF) of Japan.
    
The loan will be provided under Japanese Yen Loan package at 1.8 
per cent interest rate and will be returned in 30 years time. 
    
The agreement had been reached between the two countries during 
Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub's recent visit to Japan. The loan will 
be available to Pakistan next week.
    
This balance of payment support is parallel co-financing with the 
World Bank. 
    
The Bank has already provided to Pakistan a matching amount of 250 
million dollars. The loan is being extended with a view to support 
the government of Pakistan to continue the implementation or reform 
policies under the Banking Sector Reforms Programme.
    
Japanese Ambassador in Pakistan has said that his country would 
continue its financial and technical assistance for the development 
of Pakistan.
    
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980320
-------------------------------------------------------------------
IMF agrees to fixed tax system till June-end
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ihtashamul Haque

ISLAMABAD, March 19: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has 
agreed to the levy of General Sales Tax (GST) under "Fixed Tax 
Regime" till the end of 1997-98, a relaxation that has apparently 
brightened Pakistan's chances to acquire 208 million dollars from 
the Fund in March next.
 
"The IMF has agreed to GST as a presumptive tax till the start of 
1998-99", disclosed Chairman of the Central Board of Revenue (CBR) 
Moeenudin Khan.
 
He told Dawn here on Thursday that the Fixed Tax Regime has been 
accepted by the IMF after it was told that from the next financial 
year the government would certainly be changing the pattern of 
recovery to 3 per cent GST on retail level.
 
Earlier, the IMF had disapproved the fixed tax regime and a report 
was sent to its headquarters by a local IMF office against the 
decision. The government had also separately written to the IMF 
headquarters narrating its compulsions and the problems including 
countrywide strike that was observed by the traders community 
against the recovery of tax on the basis of income.
 
"In principle the traders community has accepted to pay GST on the 
basis of their income but has sought some time till the start of 
the next financial year and in the meantime we will charge the 
fixed tax", Khan said.
 
"The IMF has no objection to fixed tax for next five months that 
will help us to target 2,00,000 to 3,00,000 new tax payers during 
this period", the new chairman of the CBR said.
 
Khan, who had earlier served in the Standard Chartered Bank and the 
Citibank at London for more than 25 years, said that the IMF was 
told that the government needed to net new tax-payers and in case 
the demand of the traders community to postpone recovery of GST on 
the basis of income till the next fiscal was not met, the CBR may 
lose Rs 2 to 3 billion.
 
"We have made a step forward to surely recover GST on the basis of 
income from the next financial year", he asserted, adding that the 

business community has finally realized that without paying tax on 
the basis of their income, the government would continue to chase 
them.
 
The chairman of the CBR pointed out that the procedure was being 
further simplified to help the traders so that they did not have to 
hire accountants. " And in return they have agreed to show their 
profit on the basis of their income".
 
Responding to a question, he said that the current revenue target 
has been reduced from Rs 324 billion to Rs 305 billion and not Rs 
285 or Rs 290 billion as was reported in the section of the press.
 
He said that the IMF has agreed that due to political reasons, 
Ramazan and 10 holidays on Eid, tax collection was hampered for 
which revenue target had to be lowered.
 
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980320
-------------------------------------------------------------------
KSE performance improves on bank, energy shares
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Staff Reporter

KARACHI, March 19: Stocks turned in an improved performance on 
Thursday as strength of the bank and energy sectors spilled over to 
other counters on active institutional and foreign short-covering. 
The KSE 100-share index recovered about 8 points, pushing the 
market capitalization higher by Rs 2 billion at Rs 463 billion.
 
For the second session in a row, the broader market performed well, 
reflecting major shift in investors perceptions and that could save 
the market from fresh liquidation.
 
"Investors are selling high-priced shares to buy lower ones in the 
bank, energy and textile sectors and that could change the current 
recessionary cycle," some analysts said.
 
The KSE 100-share index was last quoted at 1,528.13 as compared to 
1,520.26 a day earlier as most of the base shares ended higher 
under the lead of Hub-Power, PSO and ICI Pakistan.
 
The recovery in the index without participation of the PTCL, which 
holds 32 per cent weightage in it, demonstrated that the broader 
market could put it back irrespective of size of the gain.
 
Despite facing liquidity problems, leading institutional traders, 
notably ICP, NIT and State Life, came to the market rescue at a 
time when it was groaning under the weight of foreign selling, 
analysts said.
 
But their operations were largely confined to safe areas as all of 
them after having received massive battering recently could hardly 
afford further losses, they added.
 
"External news, notably passing over of the MQM's 48 hour ultimatum 
to quit the government, seems to have defused the prevailing 
political tension and lured investors back in the rings," said a 
floor broker.
 
He said swearing in of Atal Behari Vajpayee as India's new prime 
minister did not affect the budding technical rally as the market 
has to go a along with the new Indian political perceptions.
 
PTCL appeared to be again the star performer as investors made 
massive short-covering in it at the last two days lower levels and 
it generated a good bit of sympathetic support in other index 
shares, although it finally ended with an extended fall.

 
News that Privatization Commission has signed an agreement with 
Goldman Sachs, appointing it financial adviser for the sell-off of 
controlling shares of the PTCL to some strategic foreign investors, 
was said to be another supporting favourable factor.
 
"Below Rs 30, that is its face value, the PTCL offers a good 
investment opportunity for any prospective investor who wants to 
invest in shares both on short and long-term basis," said a dealer.
 
Other current favourites and pivotals, which received heavy 
battering during the last two sessions on near-panic selling and 
which pushed the index down by hefty six per cent, also came in for 
active support at the lower levels and finished partially 
recovered.
 
"The rally could prove deceptive as it is not backed by objective 
conditions both on the economic and political fronts," some brokers 
said.
 
Pakistan Oilfields and PSO, the two giants of the energy sector, 
initiated the recovery, posting gains ranging from Rs 6 to Rs 7.50 
amid active trading. Both were finally quoted at Rs 262.10 and Rs 
69.
 
DEFAULTING COMPANIES: Three shares came in for trading in this 
sector. While Allied Tractors rose by 50 paisa on 500 shares, 
National Modaraba and Shahpur Textiles were quoted unchanged on 
1,500 and 500 shares respectively.
 
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980316
-------------------------------------------------------------------
ISO 9000  opportunity for exporters
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Waqas Muslim

QUALITY has become synonymous with growth and opportunity. 
Companies all over the world are investing more into quality as 
they realize the returns are promising.
    
A case in point, Samsung of South Korea, a member of the chaebol 
(giant Korean conglomerates), is investing $13 billion in a new car 
manufacturing plant.
    
Even though there are four other major Korean concerns already in 
the car market and the car industry is already wallowing in excess 
capacity, Samsung is betting such enormous amount on one crucial 
edge, quality.
    
They are of the opinion by making high quality cars they will be 
able to carve a profitable position for themselves. This example is 
just one of many that sends a very clear message, quality will be 
the winning game for trade in the 21st century.
    
The definition of quality has undergone a dramatic change.
    
Till some time ago it meant conformance to specifications and being 
acceptable in the market place. Now, it means making a product 
which wins the heart and minds of the customers!
    
Businesses all over the world have come to realize that only with a 
high quality product, they have a chance of winning over their 
customers. Quality products not only bring a premium price but also 
secures their position in the highly competitive world markets.
    
In order to equip themselves with the ‘winning edge’ companies are 
increasingly adopting universally acclaimed quality management 
system to improve the reputation and the quality of their products.
    

ISO 9000 has emerged as the system which has gained a lot of 
acceptance. It is a series of five international standards that 
establishes requirements for the quality system of a company. There 
are three ISO models  9001, 9002, 9003 quality assurance system  
the basic requirements for a company’s quality management system. 
They are the standard against which the quality management system 
will be assessed.
    
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980317
-------------------------------------------------------------------
225 industrial units closed down in NWFP
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Intikhab Amir

PESHAWAR, March 16: Out of six hundred units set up in the NWFP's 
three industrial estates, 225 have closed down, a survey revealed.
    
According to figures, the worst placed is Gadoon-Amanzai Industrial 
Estate (GIE).
    
The number of non-operating industrial concerns in GIE stands at 
124, 58 in Hattar Industrial Estae and 43 in Peshawar Industrial 
Estate, according to figures obtained from the Sarhad Development 
Authority (SDA).
    
However, independent sources disputed SDA figures and put the 
number of closed down units in the three industrial estates at over 
300.
    
These sources also challenged the official figure of 124 non-
operational units in GIE. They claimed the number of such units 
stood at around 160.
    
"Actually the figure of non-operational units in GIE fluctuates 
from time to time," said a responsible official of SDA while 
talking to Dawn. "Due to an unfavourable industrial environment 
that has caused a reduction in the compatibility and profitability 
of the GIE industrialists, the number of non-operational units goes 
up whenever there is no special incentive package for the GIE".
    
The GIE had been established by the Benazir Bhutto government to 
discourage poppy cultivation in the Gadoon-Amanzai area. To lure 
industrialists from all over the country to that under-developed 
area of the Frontier province, the government had announced an 
extraordinary incentive package which, at first attracted a large 
number of industrialists from Punjab and Sindh.
    
However, following the withdrawal of incentives by the first Nawaz 
Sharif government, the GIE industrialists started losing out to 
competitors.
    
The depressing situation led industrialists to shift machinery to 
other places, while some of them closed down their units, said an 
official of the NWFP Sales Tax Collectorate.
    
However, the point was rejected by the SDA official. "There is no 
possibility that an industrialist could shift machinery from GIE to 
any other place", said the SDA official, adding "a lot of 
documentation is involved in the matter".
    
He wondered how leading DFIs and commercial banks could allow 
shifting of complete units as they had extended big loans to 
industrialists.
    
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980318
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Banks to quote dollar rates within set band

-------------------------------------------------------------------
Staff Reporter

KARACHI, March 17: State Bank of Pakistan has decided to widen its 
buy/sell spread for US dollar from 0.5 per cent to 1 per cent and 
allow banks to quote their own US dollar/rupee exchange rates for 
transaction with their customers within this band. The decision 
would come into effect from March 24, 1998.
    
Now the authorized dealers will fix the export bill buying rates. 
The discount rate to be used for calculating the bill buying shall 
be the US dollar LIBOR for relevant tenure +2 per cent.
    
In a circular issued to all authorized dealers, the State Bank has 
said that as different dealers will quote different exchange rates 
for US dollar like other currencies, the publication of authorized 
dealers' spot rates for US dollar for public and the US dollar bill 
buying rate by the Foreign Exchange Rates Committee will also be 
discontinued simultaneously.
    
On January 20, 1998, the Central Bank had allowed banks to 
determine their own rates of exchange for foreign currencies other 
than the US dollar.
    
As a consequence of the latest SBP decision, the condition of 
purchase of US dollar by the importers from authorized dealers 
opening the letter of credit/registering the contract/proforma 
invoice/purchase order has also been dispensed with.
    
Accordingly, the importers will be free to purchase the US dollars 
for imports, in ready or forward, from any authorized dealer like 
other foreign currencies subject to the procedure and stipulations 
contained in circular number one of January 20, 1998.
    
Likewise instructions contained in para seven of the January 
circular applicable for sale of foreign currencies other than the 
US dollar by the exporters to the authorized dealers will ipsofacto 
apply to the US dollar also.

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980319
-------------------------------------------------------------------
'UBL should look after treasury functions'
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ihtashamul Haque

ISLAMABAD, March 18: The Privatization Commission has advised the 
government to direct UBL to perform treasury functions with a view 
to privatize the National Bank along with the Habib Bank by June 30 
this year.
    
Informed sources told Dawn here on Wednesday that the PC believes 
that NBP should not be retained for performing treasury functions. 
It said that the UBL has the required expertise to handle the job.
    
Sources said that Chairman PC Kh Muhammad Asif has told Prime 
Minister Nawaz Sharif that NBP and the HBL could be privatized due 
to their better financial health. However, he said there were 
problems in the UBL due to which it could not be disinvested by 
June this year. In the meantime, it should perform treasury 
functions.
    
Sources said that the PM was also informed that by June 1998, NDFC, 
KESC and two fertilizers plants would be privatized. The officials 
of the PC have also informed the prime minister about the snags and 
hurdles in the privatization process.

    
The alleged rift between the PC and the ministry of finance was 
also causing delay in the disinvestment of banks and other state 
owned corporations. Sources said that the PC often complained that 
its powers of appointing Financial Advisors and fixing reference 
price of any unit have been resisted by the ministry of finance. 
    
The PC officials maintained that they were only showing grace to 
the ministry for informing it about the appointments of FAs and 
reference price of any unit. However, its powers have unnecessary 
been challenged by the ministry about which the prime minister has 
been briefed adequately.
    
The officials of the PC said that they never challenged the powers 
of the ministry and the Cabinet Committee on Privatization (CCOP) 
to reject or approve any deal, finalized by the Commission.
    
Sources said that the PC has also called for establishing 
regulatory authorities for different state-owned corporations, in 
the absence of which, the Commission experienced problems to 
disinvest them.
    
For example, they said, the gas authority should be set up as early 
possible. "Real money will be coming from oil and gas sector for 
which it is necessary to set up a required authority", said a 
source.
    
Secondly, the current tariffs of these corporations and companies 
were also one of the impediments that needed to be addressed 
urgently.
    
Talking specifically about the Pakistan Telecommunication Company 
Limited (PTCL), sources said that without increasing charges for 
the local calls, it would be difficult to privatize it. The PTCL 
required rightsizing and the strengthening of the Pakistan 
Telecommunication Authority (PTA). Sources said that mobile phone 
to be offered by the PTCL was another matter that needed 
acceleration to have value addition before its privatization.
    
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              E D I T O R I A L S  &  F E A T U R E S

===================================================================
980315
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Auto-reverse
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ardeshir Cowasjee

WHEN Farooq Leghari belatedly packed off Benazir Bhutto and her 
boys and girls in November 1996, too many months too late, there 
was a good number of people in the country who felt that it would 
be far wiser and genuinely in the national interest (to use that 
misused and hackneyed phrase) to delay elections, install an 
interim government of men of as much integrity and capability as 
are available, and sort out the mess.
    
With elections on the calendar, the stage was set for the return of 
Nawaz Sharif and there were many who foresaw doom and disaster, 
knowing he would be up to his old tricks as soon as he was 
reinstated. Even internationally, objective observers felt that 
Leghari was doing the wrong thing in insisting on a return to the 
ballot box. One, The Times (London) printed an editorial early in 
January 1997 headed 'Time for Pakistan  Delaying elections may be 
better than it appears.'
    
Nawaz Sharif's defenders proclaimed loudly and repeatedly that he 
was a chastened and changed man, that he had learnt lessons from 
past mistakes, that he would not repeat his mistakes, that he would 
not misuse taxpayers' money, that he would not expand his 
industrial empire at the people's expense. They insisted that he 
would run a clean government, appoint men solely on merit and never 
again indulge in cronyism. They assured us that he would process 
accountability evenly, fairly and swiftly and that the robbers and 
thieves would be disqualified. The promise was made that the PML 
manifesto would be strictly adhered to, that no party member 
holding government office, or a member of his family, would either 
seek to establish new projects or would be allowed to so do, and 
that none would carry out any expansion, even under the guise of 
BMR (balancing, modernisation, replacement).
    
Nawaz Sharif and his family knew too well that they had borrowed 
way beyond their means, misusing power, using political influence, 
and much of it had not been paid back. They knew how thin the line 
is between the rescheduling of loans and bankruptcy. They knew that 
if he were to be prime minister again the loans would be 
rescheduled, giving them a new lease of life. Were he not to become 
prime minister, the family loans of some Rs.10 billion would be 
called in and they would be bankrupt. Elections were vital. They 
saw to it that they were not delayed for a day. Needless to say, 
most of the loans have now all been rescheduled. The Sharif family 
remains deeply indebted to the poor, the people, as do the Chaudhry 
Shujaat family, and other families of that ilk who have followed 
suit and managed to have their loans rescheduled.
    
Nawaz Sharif does realize that he must stay in power, but he does 
not realize that political machinations will not revive the 
economy, that the way his government is going the economy is bound 
to collapse, and then he and his government will be out in the 

loanless cold once again.
    
His priorities are wrong for his purpose. He allows the economy to 
trundle along, sinking each day; he has no care for the good of the 
people  for their education or health; he cannot tolerate any one 
who stands up to him or attempts to do the job he is paid to do, 
whether it be the chief justice of the country or the governor of 
the State Bank. He gives his cronies a long loose rein and they do 
exactly what and as they please.
    
One such person is Humayun Akhtar Khan, who took to politics, 
thanks to the money he inherited from his army officer father. 
Humayun Akhtar is the son of General Akhtar Abdul Rahman, President 
Zia's ISI head and then his Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff 
Committee. General Khalid Mahmud Arif in his book 'Working with 
Zia' writes : "The last two MLA conferences were farewell get-
togethers . . . To the surprise of his listeners, General Zia, 
referred to Lt.General Akhtar Abdul Rahman Khan, the DG of the ISI 
Directorate, as the Kingmaker. While the others stared hard and 
winked at Akhtar, he blushed, smiling his captivating smile, 
perspiration beading his not so well cropped head. In March 1987, 
Akhtar was promoted to the rank of General and replaced General 
Rahimuddin Khan as Chairman of the JCSC. At the formal dining out 
of General Rahimuddin, General Akhtar sat next to the president. In 
his farewell speech for the outgoing Chairman of the JCSC, the 
President evoked loud laughter when he said that General Akhtar, 
the Kingmaker, had himself become the King."
    
The King died with Zia in the August 1988 air crash. All that was 
amassed in his counting house was left to his four heirs, Akbar, 
Humayun, Haroon and Ghazi. Humayun, the second, opted for politics 
and more pelf. In 1977 he qualified as an MBA, with actuarial 
science as his subject, from the University of Manitoba, Canada.
    
He was elected to the National Assembly from Lahore in 1990 and 
1993, and from Rahim Yar Khan in 1997. His political clout, enabled 
him to build up an industrial empire. He describes himself as 
coming "from a family, which is one of the leading industrial 
families of Pakistan." For services rendered, one supposes, Nawaz 
Sharif made him a minister of state and gave him the lucrative 
position of Chairman of the Board of Investment (BoI).
    
Akhtar describes his professional qualifications : "Fellow of 
Society of Actuaries, Chicago, USA - FSA; Fellow of Canadian 
Institute of Actuaries - FCIA. Fellowship of these two professional 
bodies is equivalent to a Ph.D. in financial subjects. A Fellow can 
call himself an 'Actuary'. Actuaries are trained professionals in 
areas of economics, finance, marketing, investments and other 
related fields."
    
As we all know, a fellowship, a membership of a professional body, 
cannot confer an academic Ph.D in finance-related subjects. An 
actuary is : "One whose profession it is to solve for insurance 
companies, or the public, all monetary questions that involve a 
consideration of the separate or combined effects of Interest and 
Probability, in connection with the duration of human life, the 

average proportion of losses due to fire or other accidents, etc." 
(OED Vol.I)
    
Why do such men confer upon themselves academic degrees? By doing 
so, who are they bluffing and how are they increasing their 
credibility?
    
The BoI has barely improved its performance since the days of 
Benazir Bhutto, the days of the magical MoU that never grew to 
fruition. It now issues the equally barren letters of support 
(LoS).
    
To counter the barbs of the businessmen and to sing the praises of 
this government at the recent meeting in Karachi of the heads of 
multinationals chaired by the prime minister, Akhtar should have 
produced a more convincing 'plant' than Dr Abdul Wahab of the 
Institute of Business Administration, a fish out of water, neither 
a man of commerce nor of industry.
    
Nawaz Sharif and his favourites having rescheduled their loans, 
they are following suit with impunity. The Akhtar Abdul Rahman 
family has applied to Habib Bank for the rescheduling of Rs.400 
million worth of loans which should have been paid back by their 
Superior Textile Mills long ago. It is reported that the mill's 
stuck-up loans from local banks total some Rs.550 million.
    
Does this 'leading industrial family of Pakistan' have resources to 
pay back these loans? Yes. And much more. They are on the verge of 
setting up one of the largest cement plants in the country. The 
project, Pepcon Cement, is expected to produce 4,000 tonnes of 
cement per day  and this at a time when there is a glut in the 
market, when the existing cement manufacturers have formed a cartel 
and voluntarily agreed to cut back production by 30 per cent in 
order to maintain high prices.
    
The recently sanctioned Pepcon project is ostensibly Haroon 
Akhtar's project. Approvals regarding loans and finances will be 
looked into by Humayun Akhtar sitting at his desk at the head of 
the BoI. Forty per cent of Pepcon has to be financed by the 
sponsors themselves and this they hope to raise from their own 
resources or from further bank loans. If the textile mill loan is 
rescheduled by Habib Bank this will only increase the bank's loan 
burden and consequently affect its privatization price.
    
It is no use anyone saying that Mian Sahib's 'niyyet' is 'saaf'. 
The word 'niyyet' is used as there is no single equivalent word in 
English. 'Niyyet' is a combination of clean thoughts, honesty of 
purpose, sincerity and good intentions. Let Nawaz Sharif, with all 
the honesty at his command, reassess his priorities, declare his 
reasons, and cease giving excuses.

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980321
-------------------------------------------------------------------
The moral high ground
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Irfan Husain

THERE comes a time in the tenure of most democratic governments 
when their right to govern is eroded by their own deeds.
    
They may limp on, but as lame ducks incapable of asserting any 
authority, or seriously addressing the issues of the day. With 
Benazir Bhutto, that moment came when the full, sordid details of 

the Surreygate saga became public. She continued as prime minister 
for a year or so, but she was defensive and ineffectual. Nixon was 
wounded by Watergate, and barely clung on to power for a few months 
as his presidency unravelled through a torrent of leaks.
    
This moment arrived for Nawaz Sharif when we learned that a PIA 
flight from Lahore to Islamabad was delayed by three hours as 
scores of passengers waited for his son to board. Such an 
inexcusable and flagrant abuse of power is clearly unacceptable in 
a democracy, especially when we remember Nawaz Sharif's post-
election vow to end "VIP culture."
    
In a free society, there is a tacit agreement between the ruler and 
the ruled whereby the former governs on the basis of the moral 
authority conferred on him through his election by a majority. This 
trust is a fragile thing, easily destroyed by corruption or 
arrogance. There is a certain moral high ground leaders must occupy 
if they are to gain and thus ensure a consensus. In Pakistan, 
unfortunately, politicians take no time at all to lose this key 
element in the effective exercise of power.
    
Take, for example, the embarrassing volte-face the government has 
had over the whole GST business. This was the corner-stone of the 
desperate effort to raise tax revenues above their present stagnant 
level and to document trade and commerce. So what happened? The 
traders flatly refused to pay, despite all the threats that flowed 
out of Islamabad. When the crunch came, neither the eloquent 
finance minister nor the highly paid chairman of the newly named 
Revenue Service could budge the traders.
    
Word has it that when Ishaq Dar, the commerce minister, tried to 
persuade a gathering of retailers, he was flatly told they would 
pay provided the Sharifs and all his businessmen cronies proved 
that they had paid all the taxes due from them. Shock and dismay in 
government ranks. Needless to say, they backed down, and the 
traders have graciously consented to pay a (low) flat rate.
    
Similarly, the government has been able to collect only a tiny 
fraction of loans handed over to the well heeled and the well 
connected by a corrupt and incompetent public banking and financial 
sector. And this despite all the Draconian measures threatened by 
the governor of the State Bank. In India, by contrast, businessmen 
have responded positively to incentives given to them in the shape 
of a waiver of penalties. In Pakistan, however, the Sharifs and the 
Chaudhries, to name only two families from the ruling elite, owe 
literally billions to banks and DFIs. These loans have been 
restructured after their return to power, but how can they demand 
that those outside this magic circle cough up when they still have 
to settle accounts with their creditors?
    
The result of this erosion of respect and trust is that only one 
year into its tenure, the government is floundering in a mess of 
its own creation. It has lost its sense of direction and purpose at 
the same time it has lost its moral compass. Ditched by the ANP and 
threatened by a similar exit by the MQM, Nawaz Sharif suddenly 

finds himself rudderless in uncharted waters. His efforts to raise 
revenues have subsided into irrelevance, and his economic policies, 
such as they were, lie in tatters.
    
His one bold initiative, the attempt at a rapprochement with India, 
is hostage to that country's volatile politics. Internationally, we 
are isolated as never before: we have managed to antagonise Iran by 
our pro-Taliban policies to the point where the press in Tehran 
fulminates against our government every second day. And the brutal, 
daylight murders of several Iranians on our soil by fanatics do not 
help in soothing sensibilities in Tehran.
    
The Kashmir struggle is going nowhere excepting increasing the 
hardship the Kashmiris are enduring. Our support for the Taliban 
may have won them territorial gains, but has certainly not brought 
them legitimacy or international acceptance. The Central Asian 
republics bordering Afghanistan are getting as fed up with our role 
in that war-torn country as the Iranians are. The Chinese are 
distancing themselves as they strive to gain respectability. In any 
case, the rise to power by a new generation of pragmatic, hard-
headed leaders in Beijing means that they are less influenced by 
old ties that mean less and less in a world increasingly driven by 
the dollar.
    
But more than anything else, it is the economy that threatens the 
country with a critical implosion in the near future. And it is 
this key area in which Nawaz Sharif has failed so noticeably, 
despite the fact that this was supposed to be his strong point. 
Indeed people like me voted for him because we thought that being a 
businessman, he might take the economy out of the tailspin Benazir 
Bhutto pushed it into. Unfortunately, he has blown it.
    
So where does he go from here? More to the point, where do we go 
from here? So far, Nawaz Sharif's single success has been the 
unearthing of the previous ruling family's scams. However, even the 
accountability process has been highly flawed: Salman Farooqui, 
Asif Zardari's high-profile henchman, has been allowed to leave the 
country, and rumour has it that his one-way ticket cost him a cool 
50 million. Captain Naseer was reportedly reinstated at somebody's 
intervention, and allowed to retire honourably. Many of the 
fortunes made during Nawaz Sharif's earlier stint remain safe in 
local and foreign accounts, their owners undisturbed by Senator 
Saif's attention. Indeed, his own considerable wealth has not been 
the subject of any inquiry.
    
And so it goes in the Land of the Pure: we keep going from the 
frying pan into the fire. But as time passes, both the pan and the 
fire keep getting hotter.

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980316
-------------------------------------------------------------------
India’s political crisis
-------------------------------------------------------------------
M. B. Naqvi

THE picture of India that emerges from the elections held in 1996 
and 1998 underscores multiple divisions in its public life. These 
polls have prevented any one party from getting a measure of 

popular vote capable of forming a government in New Delhi.
    
A United Front of 13 parties, with the outside support of once a 
powerful national party, the Congress, ruled India from June 1996 
to November 1997  when it collapsed. It was the caprice of the 
Congress under Mr Sita Ram Kesri that brought down the governments 
of Mr Devi Gowda and Mr I.K. Gujral.
    
The present Lok Sabha position is not very different from that of 
the previous one: UF’s overall strength has been cut down to a bare 
93 and the regional parties have grown both in number and their 
tally of seats in the house. The Congress, despite the inspiring 
presence of Sonia Gandhi, is marginally down from 144 to 141. The 
Indian media hype had led the world to expect that the BJP will 
take India by storm. In the event, it could improve its Lok Sabha 
tally by no more than 11 seats  from 166 to 177  while its allies 
boosted its group strength to 254 that turned out to be 240. The 
President of India, K.R. Narayanan, was unable to ask the much-
hyped Atal Bihari Vajpayee to become the prime minister in a BJP-
led government.
    
The BJP’s simultaneous growth and some setbacks in the two recent 
elections need to be assessed. The 1996 election had seen its 
uninterrupted rise since 1984 polls when it could get only 2 Lok 
Sabha seats. In 1989 polls, which agitating for the destruction of 
the Babri Masjid in Ayudhya (and replacing it with a grand Ram 
Mandir on the site) and ceremonially bringing bricks for the 
purpose, it took its tally to 93. Meantime, the BJP intensified its 
Ayodhya campaign by actually demolishing the mosque on Dec. 6, 
1992, causing horrible Hindu-Muslim riots in 1993. In the 1996 
election it grabbed 166 seats on the Hindutva plank  which meant 
virtually Hinduising India.
    
It was this progression that seemed to convince the media that the 
BJP was bound to inherit India. Its gradual rise over a decade and 
a half had been preceded by a massive intellectual effort by its 
propagandists. But in positive terms it could only be called an 
intellectual sleight of hand. What really helped it was the 
realization that Nehruvian secularism of the Congress only tended 
to hide the ugly exploitation of the minorities and the lower 
castes. The Hindu chauvinism was called true secularism  the 
fallacy lying first in supposing that India is a basically Hindu 
land and thus the Hindu ethos is what secularism in India can be.
    
So how do we judge the BJP performance in 1998? Gaining 11 more 
seats is certainly a progress. In states where the BJP governments 
were in power, it has lost much support. It has gained in some 
wholly new areas like Orissa and Karnataka. But what is more 
significant is that it has actually improved its position in Bihar, 
UP and Haryana. This is a strong endorsement of the proposition 
that the Hindu-Muslim problem conflict still remains the number one 
problem in what is called the Hindi-Hindu heartland and that it 
does evoke responses elsewhere.
    
Some observers, after the 1996 polls, believed that the BJP has 
peaked and that because of the rise of caste factor, the BJP and 

its other family members like Shiv Sena, Vishwa Hindu Parishad, 
Bajrang Dal etc. have been checkmated and a decline would set in. 
That decline has not taken place. The slippage noted here have a 
limited significance: what was decisive for the common Indian voter 
was the performance of a party in power. If it has not delivered 
anything of value, it has to be voted out.
    
The communists, CPI(M), have neither grown further nor have 
suffered any losses; they have held on to what they had in West 
Bengal, Tripura and Kerala states. They are the hard kernel of both 
the UF and all secular forces. But their inability to advance into 
the Hindi-Hindu heartland of the north or the peninsular India is 
patent. The Congress retains the support in south of Vindhyachal 
range. The core group of the UF, the Janata Dal, has lost heavily 
especially in Karnataka.
    
Viewed in this context, the current numbers game in the Lok Sabha 
is complex and confusing. The BJP has conceded that it has no more 
than 240 members in the Lok Sabha on which it can rely. The 
president is negotiating with other parties, viz. the Congress and 
the United Front.
    
Internal opinion in both the Congress and the UF is divided on the 
question of forming another United Front government with the 
Congress in the lead. There is too much of bad blood between the 
Congress and the various components of the United Front; the 
Congress role in bringing down first Deve Gowda as prime minister 
and then the government of Mr Gujral last November can scarcely 
endear it to the United Front. Then, many components of the UF, 
viz. The communists, the Telagudesam Party (in Andhra Pradesh) and 
the DMK (in Tamil Nadu) have to go on fighting political battles on 
their home ground against the Congress.
    
Another UF government, if formed, will, however, be as weak and 
wobbly as the one that fell recently. It is hard to see any strong 
government emerging from the 12th Lok Sabha. The present confusion 
has made the president’s task very difficult. He can, in despair, 
ultimately try to persuade major parties or groups not to bring 
down a minority government of either the BJP or the UF or even of a 
new group of smaller parties. The other option may be to hold fresh 
election with the caretaker team of Mr Gujral continuing, though it 
is hard to see another election immediately after this one. The 
crisis of the governance is built into the poll results.
    
Thus the two successive polls held in 1996 and 1998 show that the 
body politic of India is fragmented in a serious manner. While the 
communal identity is still the most important problem in the 
populous areas north of Vindhyachal range, the issues in the south 
have been different.
    
It appears that the regional parties that are basically non- 
communal and otherwise conservative are destined to play a major 
role in Indian politics. No political observer can possibly predict 
that in the immediate future the common voter would feel happy and 
satisfied with any party that governs the states either in the 
north or in the south. All that can be said is that the regional 

parties south of Vindhyachal and the eastern and western 
extremities of India may remain dominated by regionalist parties 
sometime with communal flavour. The battle for Hindu identity 
versus the other demands of modern age will have to be fought and 
decided in the northern plains.

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980318
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Senseless violence
-------------------------------------------------------------------
M.H. Askari

WITH a factional murder or two almost a daily feature and random 
use of firearms in public places, Karachi's gradual slide into the 
sort of lawlessness which prevailed here before the army's 
launching of its Operation Cleanup (June 1992) can no longer be 
regarded as the figment of a morbid imagination.
    
Yet another person, claimed to be its activist by the MQM's 
breakaway faction, was murdered on Monday in the Liaquatabad area, 
resulting in fairly widespread disturbances. Once again, there were 
reports of heavy firing by unidentified persons from rooftops, 
setting up of road barricades, minibuses being set on fire. The 
happenings could not but bring back to mind painful memories of 
what Karachi used to be like until a few years ago. Normality could 
be restored only after the appearance of heavy contingents of law 
enforcement agencies.
    
One has almost lost count of the number of deaths on the streets of 
Karachi by senseless violence. In their meeting with the Prime 
Minister in Islamabad on March 9, an MQM delegation told Mr Nawaz 
Sharif that over 90 of their party workers had been killed during 
the last one year, i.e. since the MQM and PML became partners in an 
alliance in Sindh. Four days later, a top MQM leader in a press 
conference in Karachi spoke of excesses being committed against his 
party activists in Sindh and Punjab.
    
It is widely known that MQM party workers, even those who are 
members of various legislative bodies, cannot freely enter what are 
popularly known as 'no-go areas' comprising Landhi, Malir, Shah 
Faisal Colony, Korangi and the Lines areas of Karachi. The 'no-go 
areas' are a unique feature and one cannot think of such an area in 
any other major city being out of bounds to the adherents of some 
political party or the other.
    
Even more mystifyingly, while there have been official statements 
suggesting that the 'no-go areas' will be eliminated, if necessary 
by use of force by the law enforcement agencies, the chairman of 
the Sindh provincial electoral authority (PEA) has categorically 
stated that no such areas exist in Karachi. Not unexpectedly this 
has infuriated the MQM leaders, one of whom has reportedly said 
that the official was trying "to pull a fast one on the democratic 
circles all over the world." After their meeting with the prime 
minister earlier in the month, the MQM's official delegation had 
also claimed that Mr Nawaz Sharif had himself assured them that the 
issue would be resolved on a priority basis.
    
The federal interior minister, Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, has also 
set, as the expression goes, the cat among the pigeons. He has 

reportedly told a Senate standing committee that during the PPP 
regime the then interior minister, Gen Naseerullah Babar, had 30 
MQM workers killed and quietly buried somewhere in the Margalla 
hills near Islamabad. This has further agitated the MQM leaders who 
have called upon the government to arrest Gen Babar and the PPP 
leader, Benazir Bhutto. Mr Shujaat Hussain later reportedly claimed 
that he was informed of killings by a MQM leader, which reflected a 
rather naive attitude towards a highly sensitive matter. The 
government's decision not to withdraw the Rangers, who have been 
aiding the law enforcement agencies in Sindh since the army's 
withdrawal, has also not helped to pacify the agitated MQM leaders. 
The withdrawal has been one of the party's persistent demands.
    
A random sampling of the news reports about the MQM-PML alliance in 
the governance of Sindh makes a depressing reading. The two parties 
entered into a coalition shortly after last year's elections. It 
was obviously a "marriage of convenience"; neither the PML nor the 
MQM could have joined hands with the PPP  the largest party in the 
Sindh assembly  to form a coalition government. (Ideally, however, 
if somehow both PPP and MQM could put the past behind them, they 
would have been the most natural partners in governance, 
representing as they do the rural and urban Sindh).
    
The MQM has a long list of demands pending since the time they 
joined hands with the PML and which, according to MQM leaders, 
formed the basis of the pre-conditions for their entering the 
coalition government. The demands have remained unfulfilled. 
Objectively speaking, the demands are not all unreasonable. They 
include release of a larger number of MQM workers which, according 
to MQM, continue to be under detention without trial for a number 
of years. The MQM also demands a proper enquiry into the extra-
judicial murder of scores of its activists during the PPP regime 
and it would be recalled that the alleged extra- judicial killings 
had formed a substantial part of the charge- sheet prepared by the 
former President, Farooq Ahmed Leghari, to justify his dismissal of 
Ms Benazir Bhutto's government. Nothing much seems to have been 
done to make amends on this account.
    
In an open 26-page letter addressed to the people of Pakistan, MQM 
leader Altaf Hussain from his self-exile in London, has expressed 
the apprehension that the authorities may be preparing for another 
Operation Cleanup against his party and called upon the PML leaders 
to be aware of the "conspiracies and forces working against the 
PML-MQM pact." He resents the fact that the "agencies" (whom he did 
not name) regard the MQM as unpatriotic and stressed that the 
security of the country lay not only in the hands of the defence 
forces but also of the patriotic people.
    
Information Minister Mushahid Hussain, meanwhile, maintains that 
there were no basic differences between the PML and the MQM. At the 
same time, however, there have been reports quoting "sources" close 
to the Prime Minister, saying that Mr Nawaz Sharif has told the MQM 
that it was "free to part company (with the PML) if it so desires." 

He is also said to have indicated that all of MQM's demands were 
not acceptable and that the MQM should stop pressuring the 
government for their acceptance. The prime minister was also 
obviously extremely unhappy at the MQM's walkout from the joint 
session of the parliament addressed by President Rafiq Tarar and 
conveyed his "anguish" to Mr Altaf Hussain.
    
The consequences of a breakup of the PML-MQM coalition in Sindh can 
have unpredictable consequences, a matter of great concern to 
Karachi and its peoples. The imposition of the governor's rule in 
Sindh, as suggested in certain quarters, will serve no useful 
purpose and in fact only put the clock back.
    
While it is necessary that the authorities should launch an 
intensive campaign to disarm the militants, to whichever faction 
they belong, and unearth clandestine stocks of weapons, the law 
enforcement agencies as they are at present constituted have amply 
demonstrated their incapacity to conduct such an operation. What 
Karachi badly needs is a full-fledged metropolitan government 
consisting of elected representatives of people which should have 
full responsibility to deal with matters such as law and order and 
other pressing local problems. Something like the administration of 
Delhi which functions with a greater degree of autonomy is probably 
the answer to Karachi's ever-aggravating problems.
 
It is a pity that Mr Altaf Hussain or the MQM appear to have taken 
no notice of the offer by Mr Afaq Ahmad, leader of the Haqiqi 
faction for negotiations that could lead to a general disarming of 
the militants in the city and the setting up of what he called "no-
arms areas." The offer was made public at a press conference at the 
Haqiqi's headquarters the other day. A spokesman of the party 
rightly pointed out that the main reason for terrorism was the 
absence of any semblance of tolerance or allowance for dissent, and 
not the mere fact that one faction or the other has arms at its 
disposal. There is nothing on record to suggest that the MQM or Mr 
Altaf Hussain gave any serious thought to the offer. It is clear 
that an expression of acrimony or anger alone could achieve nothing 
for the MQM or Mr Altaf Hussain. Their demand for a proper judicial 
enquiry into unexplained killings of their workers and the release 
of their activists under detention without trial is certainly 
reasonable. However, only if all concerned parties sit together at 
the negotiating table that some positive results could be expected 
to be achieved. At the same time, it is undeniable that some 
Karachi-based PML leaders have been unduly critical of the MQM and 
its leadership and have not demonstrated a sense of camaraderie 
that should be there among coalition partners. This is naturally a 
constant irritant for MQM and its leaders.
    
However, the MQM must also realize that there is a persistent 
feeling that it is consuming too much time in cribbing against the 
PML (even if some of the cribbing is justifiable) and not enough on 
working for the up-lift and development of Karachi specially in 
matters which are within the jurisdiction of its ministers in the 

Sindh government. There is a great deal that can be done in the 
area of the Local Bodies and Karachi's other perennial civic 
problems, such as transport, water, power supply, sanitation, 
provision of health, education and other basic facilities.
    
One would have expected Dr Farooq Sattar, senior minister in the 
Sindh cabinet, to be paying a great deal more of his attention to 
the critical Karachi Mass Transit Project (KMTP), which is designed 
to meet what is probably the city's most basic need. Indeed, there 
is a close link between the people's sense of weariness and 
distress at the absence of a mass transit system and the outbursts 
of impatience and violence which are an endemic feature of life in 
Karachi.

===================================================================
                            S P O R T S 
===================================================================
980316
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Pakistan has definite edge over Zimbabwe
-------------------------------------------------------------------
M. Shaoib Ahmed

As the 1997-98 Pakistan-Zimbabwe Test series is currently under 
way, it is worthwhile to have past results should suffice to show 
Pakistanis upper hand.
    
On their first official tour of Pakistan, Zimbabwe were led by 
wicket keeper batsman Andy Flower. His opposite number Wasim Akram 
failed to recover in time from his fractured thumb, to lead his 
country in the first Test at Karachi’s Defence Stadium, a new Test 
venue. Instead the honour went to his deputy, Waqar Younis who 
single handedly crushed the tourists with an outstanding haul of 
13-135 (6 bowled, 7lbw) in the match.
    
Wasim Akram came back to lead the team for the second Test at 
Rawalpindi Cricket Stadium, another new Test centre. In front of a 
15,000 strong crowd on the final day, the tourists chasing 240 
almost achieved an unlikely win. Half an hour before the tea break, 
they were happily placed at 135-1, only to be routed by the two W’s 
who shared between then nine wickets on the final day.
    
The tourists dream of beating their hosts were thwarted by bad 
weather at Lahore, in the final Test. Fog and bad light restricted 
play on the second day and there was only 21 minutes game possible 
on the third day. Zimbabwe finished with a useful 83 runs first 
innings lead with Waqar finishing with 5-100 to take his series 
tally to 27 wickets. In the time left Pakistan were happy to play 
out for the draw.
    
When the Pakistani party arrived in Zimbabwe more than a handful of 
serious problems stared it in the face. With inconsistent batting 
and Waqar being out of action, the bowling despite Wasim’s return 
seemed uninspiring Zimbabwe picked Henry Olonga, the first black 
cricketer to represent the country for the first test at the Harare 
Sports Club. Olonga (18) had missed the selection against Sri 
Lanka, only because he did not have a Zimbabwean passport. On the 
first day the home side scored 289-3 with an unbroken partnership 
between the Flower brothers, Andy and Grant, who added 247 in 73 
overs. The run-spree continued the following day as a dispirited 

Pakistan attack was taken apart in astonishing style. The Zimbabwe 
score of 544-4 dec. had stunned the cricket world as opener Grant 
Flower (201*) shared two partnerships in excess of two-hundred.
    
The already deflated touring squad received another blow when 
Zimbabwe’s steady bowling and sharp fielding allowed them little 
respite. The first innings total of 322, lifted by injured 
Inzamamul Haq’s brave 71 at number 8, was still short of a follow-
on target. The same batsman was asked to rescue the side in the 
second innings from another mess of 35.5. The match was over on the 
fourth day as Zimbabwe’s first Test victory was recorded. Their 
seamer Health Streak, despite suffering from a septic big toe, 
finished with nine wickets that included his country’s best figures 
of six for 90, in the first innings.

Zimbabwe toured Pakistan in 1996-97 season, when the latter 
asserted its superiority by winning the second and last Test at 
Faisalabad by 10 wickets. The first Test at Sheikhupura was 
dominated by a remarkable innings from Wasim Akram. His unbeaten 
257, his 2nd Test hundred and highest first-class score, was the 
highest score by a number eight batsman in Test history, contained 
12 sixes, a new record for a Test innings, and Akram’s eighth 
wicket partnership of 313 with Saqlain Mushtaq eclipsed Lesely Ames 
and Gubby Allen’s record set in 1931. G. Flower made his 2nd Test 
hundred and Paul Strang first, he also took five wickets to become 
the first Zimbabwean to complete the match double. Zimbabwe lost 
their 3rd Test out of four in a hectic six-week tour as Pakistan’s 
10-wicket victory brought them a series by 1-0.

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980319
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Moin Khan and Youhana stave off defeat
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Qamar Ahmed

BULAWAYO, March 18: Pakistan, in danger of a defeat after four 
wickets had gone down for 80 while chasing 368 to win, finally were 
able to settle for a draw in the first Test against Zimbabwe at the 
Queens sports Club.
    
Their saviours being Yousaf Youhana and Moin Khan who between them 
put on 110 runs for the fifth wicket to salvage Pakistan's rather 
gloomy display on the final day. The two batted with total 
discipline and application that was required after Pakistan were 
dragged into the danger zone by some inept batting and a couple of 
controversial decisions. But Youhana and Moin taking charge of the 
Pakistan innings staved off the danger with some intelligent 
cricket, reaching in the process well deserved half centuries.
    
Youhana made 64 and Moin was unlucky to miss his century by three 
runs but he surely was a satisfied man in the end as he not only 
contributed to a draw but also was the dominating figure even for 
the seventh wicket unbroken stand of 68 runs with Ijaz Ahmed.
    
Immediately after Moin's dismissal play had to be called off as a 
draw, with Pakistan on 258 for 6.
    
Pakistan was, however, fined 30 per cent of their match fee for 
bowling six overs short in the match.

    
The second and final Test will be played at Harare from Saturday.
    
Pakistan had anxious moment's before lunch on the final day after 
they had resumed the day's play at 24 without loss and still 
needing 343 runs to win. The nightwatchman Saqlain Mushtaq had 
added only two more runs to his overnight score when he played a 
rather wild cut off Heath Streak to be out caught at the wicket by 
Andy Flower.
    
Saeed Anwar who had to retire on the fourth afternoon after being 
hit in the groin by Streak then walked in to resume from where he 
had left. His partner Ali Naqvi who never at any time looked 
confident in the middle was, however, the next to go when he drove 
uppishly to backward point and was caught by Murray Goodwin off Pom 
Mbangwa for 13.
    
Saeed Anwar with all the time in the world seemed to have recovered 
well to play a couple of well timed drives on the off side but when 
on 37 he drove a Paul Strang delivery into the hands of short mid-
wicket where Goodwin picked up his second catch of the day.
    
Anwar not sure whether the catch had gone off the ground or from 
his toes had hesitated before being given out by umpire David 
Shepherd. Disappointment was writ large all over his face as he 
left the crease.
    
At lunch Pakistan with 77 for 3 were in danger of losing their way 
and when Inzamam-ul-Haq was adjudged caught at the wicket off 
Streak immediately after lunch, Pakistan were in real danger of 
another collapse.
    
Inzamam attempting to glide one off Streak on the let side may have 
hit his bat on the ground or the ball may have brushed his pad as 
the umpire Ian Robinson took some time to raise his finger. Inzamam 
had once again failed. Yousuf Youhana who played a very responsible 
innings in the first while making 60 showed a lot of maturity to 
keep his end intact and he also kept finding the gaps to keep the 
score rolling. His partner Moin Khan was as much determined to 
survive and the two rarely took any risks as they went past a fifty 
partnership for the fifth wicket.
    
At tea they were still together having shared 68 valuable runs. 
Moin Khan was 31 and Yousaf Youhana 41. Pakistan at 148 for 4 had 
started to look relatively safe but not out of danger. They 
continued to frustrate Zimbabwe as the partnership flourished.
    
Youhana reached his second fifty of the match after tea with 9 
fours having batted for 144 minutes but when 64 he fell in the trap 
as Streak bounced one to him and he hooked to be caught at mid-on. 
He hit 11 fours in his 175 minutes defiant and highly disciplined 
innings. With Moin he had put on 110 runs to take Pakistan to 
safety and a draw seemed inevitable.
    
Moin 48 then took charge and played attacking cricket to get to his 
fifty with 7 fours in 158 minutes. He defended strongly to make 
sure Pakistan do not get into trouble again. At 97, however, he 
played an ambitious sweep to get to his fourth Test century but top 
edged a delivery from Dirk Viljoen to short fine leg and was caught 
by Goodwin.
    
That was the last wicket to fall as the umpires decided to call the 
game off with Pakistan 258 for 6.


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980318
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrifying centuries by Afridi and Elahi
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Samiul Hasan

KARACHI, March 17: Openers Shahid Afridi and Salim Elahi 
demonstrated one of the most ruthless batting performances to set 
up a crushing 170-run victory for Pakistan A in the third and final 
one-dayer against India A at the National Stadium here on Tuesday.
    
Afridi, who burst into fame with a world record 36-ball century 
against Sri Lanka two years ago, played an almost identical knock 
to blast 112 from 70 balls. Elahi played an equally electrifying 
innings of 142 runs from 144 balls.
    
The two pinch-hitters shared in a 201-run first wicket stand in 
just 149 balls to propel Pakistan A to a mammoth 378 for four in 50 
overs after being put into bat on a beautiful wicket.
    
India A, in their turn, made a spirited start to reach 116 for two 
from the first 15 overs. But after that, they played some senseless 
and ill-planned cricket to crash out for 208 in 31.4 overs.
    
Pakistan allrounder Naeem Ashraf removed the top order to finish 
with four for 23 while the spin combination of Arshad Khan and 
Mohammad Husain equally shared four other wickets between them. 
Arshad conceded 57 runs from his 10 overs while Husain bagged two 
wickets for 23 runs from 4.4 overs.
    
With the win, Pakistan also succeeded in making a clean sweep of 
the one-day series after having won the Sheikhupura and Lahore 
games by six wickets respectively. The Indians, who leave home on 
Wednesday morning, return with the satisfaction of having clinched 
the `Test' series 1-0.
    
It was a wonderful display of stroke-play by Shahid Afridi and 
Salim Elahi. They virtually slaughtered the Indian bowlers who 
could only haplessly watch the ball disappear at regular intervals.
    
It was not that the two batsmen took life in their hands and threw 
their bats at every thing. Rather, it was pure clean hitting from 
the duo with almost every ball being driven from the middle of the 
willow. They picked up gaps skillfully and chose the right balls to 
hammer.
    
While Salim Elahi carried his fine form from the earlier two games 
where he hit 44 and 89 not out, Shahid Afridi selected the best 
venue to break the run drought. Every ball he faced was cheered by 
some 1,500 home fans who got their money's worth to the best of 
their satisfaction.
    
Afridi's innings was punctuated with 13 scorching boundaries and 
half a dozen towering sixes. He had reached his first 50 runs from 
just 35 balls with the help of nine boundaries and two sixes. He 
continued his attractive stroke-play by reaching the magical three 
figures from 65 balls with 13 hits to the fence and four over the 
fence.
    
While every bowler suffered a rough treatment at the hand of 
Afridi, India's international spinner Sairaj Bahutale was the 
biggest sufferer when the Pakistan star hammered him for three 
sixes, including two off successive balls before falling in the 

same over to the same bowler.
    
However, it was Salim Elahi who impressed the jury and won the Man-
of-the-Match award. Elahi's polished run-a-ball 142 was laced with 
12 gorgeous boundaries.
    
He scored his first 50 runs from 47 balls with eight boundaries 
while needing another 58 balls for the next 50 runs that included 
three boundaries. His innings was more classical and text book one 
in comparison to Afridi as all of his shots were carpet ones except 
for a few.
    
DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS
980315
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Pakistan hockey team back from Holland
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Walter Fernandez

KARACHI, March 14: The Pakistan hockey team returned home in the 
wee hours of Saturday morning from Amsterdam.
    
The team had proceeded to the Netherlands capital to play two 
charity matches on March 8.
    
The charity games were organised by the Dutch Hockey Association to 
raise funds for the Darul Sukun, a city based institution catering 
to the needs of the mentally handicapped children.
    
The institution is run by a Dutch nun Sr. Gertrude Lemmens, sister 
of the late Manseiur Salasius Lemmens, Rector of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral.
    
The matches for the Dutch Hockey Association were coordinated by 
former world penalty corner wizard Paul Litjens.
    
In the first match played in two degree Celsius under floodlight, 
the reigning Olympic champions The Netherlands swamped the current 
world champions Pakistan by four goals to two.
    
Both Pakistan's deficit reducers were slammed home by Karachi-born 
left winger Asif Ahmed Khan in the second half.
    
In the second encounter, Pakistan brushed aside The Netherlands by 
five goals to two. Incidentally, The Netherlands team comprised a 
majority of players from their Junior World Cup squad.
    
The Pakistan hockey team had proceeded to Amsterdam immediately 
after the conclusion of the first leg eight-Test hockey series 
against India being played on home and away basis.
    
Pakistan won the first Test by outclassing India at Peshawar by 
four goals to one. In the second played at Rawalpindi, Pakistan 
conjured up a narrow two goals to one victory. 
    
Then India staged an impressive turnaround by beating Pakistan by 
four goals to three in the third Test at Lahore. And in the fourth 
contested under floodlight at Karachi, India once again defeated 
Pakistan by two goals to nil to square the first leg at two games 
apiece.
    
The second leg of the series is slated to begin with the fifth Test 
at New Delhi on March 19. The sixth Test will be held at Jalandhar 
on March 21, the seventh at Hyderabad (Deccan) on March 23 and the 
final Test at Chennai on March 25.
    
The Pakistan team will then play an exhibition match at Bangalore 
for the Indian Players Welfare Trust before returning home via New 
Delhi.

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