------------------------------------------------------------------- DAWN WIRE SERVICE ------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 19 September 1998 Issue : 04/37 -------------------------------------------------------------------

Contents | National News | Business & Economy | Editorials & Features | Sports
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CONTENTS ===================================================================
NATIONAL NEWS + Pakistan to sign CTBT if sanctions withdrawn + Pakistan preparing for mass production of Ghauri: US paper + Iran-Afghanistan border situation tense: Pakistan to stay neutral + Massive power failure brings Karachi to a halt + MQM-Govt talks remain inconclusive + Administrative reshuffle in Balochistan + Expats seek SC relief on FCAs freeze + New public transport scheme in a month: PM + Drugs with identical names playing havoc with patients lives + IMF unlikely to meet $3bn ESAF needs --------------------------------- BUSINESS & ECONOMY + Tax revenue target may be lowered, says Moin + CBR accepts fixed sales tax deposits by 10,230 industries + Non-payment of dues: PSO stops supplies to WAPDA + $3.2 billion frozen FCY deposits encashed + Investors avoid long positions as KSE index declines + Mini steel mill near Quetta suggested + Pakistan enters Gulf market via mutton export + Direct taxes collection up + Dar rules out further devaluation of rupee + FIA cracks down on illegal money changers --------------------------------------- EDITORIALS & FEATURES + Absolute! Ardeshir Cowasjee + My way Irfan Husain + Agenda for change Imran Khan ----------- SPORTS + Asghar punches his way into lightweight final + Yousuf takes on Saleh in Latif Masters final + Pakistan beat India in third Sahara Cup match

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NATIONAL NEWS
980917
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Pakistan to sign CTBT if sanctions withdrawn
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Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, Sept 16: Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz said on Wednesday 
that Pakistan would not sign the CTBT until all economic and other 
sanctions against it were lifted.
    
Winding up the three-day debate on the treaty in the joint sitting 
of parliament, the foreign minister said Pakistan would not sign 
the CTBT under any pressure and would take into account the 
national interests before signing it.
    
"Referring to the reservations expressed by the MQM, JUI(F) and 
some treasury bench members vis-a-vis the CTBT, the foreign 
minister said the signing of the treaty would not have any adverse 
effect on Pakistanís nuclear capability.
    
During Wednesdayís debate most of the parliamentarians from the 
treasury benches, MQM and JUI(F) took part. Most of the speakers 
expressed strong reservations over the treaty. Some of them 
supported the signing of the treaty on the condition that it would 
not be detrimental to national interests.
    
The foreign minister assured the legislators that the proposals and 
suggestions given by them during the debate or by the opposition 
during briefings and press conferences would guide the government 
in deciding on the issue.
    
During the winding-up of the debate, the foreign minister did not 
allude to Kashmir in the context of signing of CTBT. The treaty, he 
said, banned only nuclear detonation but did not restrict 
simulation tests with the help of computers. He said that Pakistan 
had itself imposed unilateral moratorium on nuclear tests. However, 
he warned that if India conducted nuclear test, Pakistan would be 
compelled to respond by carrying out tests.
    
The foreign minister said that Pakistanís prime concern was to 
maintain strategic balance in South Asia.
    
On Kashmir issue, Sartaj Aziz said that without resolving the 
Kashmir issue, durable peace could not be established in the 
region. He noted that recently, many countries had raised the 

Kashmir issue identifying it as a flashpoint in the region that 
could trigger a regional war. The government, he said, was keen on 
finding a meaningful solution to the Kashmir dispute.
    
Talking about sanctions against Pakistan, the foreign minister said 
that there was no justification for imposing economic and other 
sanctions.
    
In his speech the foreign minister referred to the reservations 
expressed by the opposition parties vis-a-vis CTBT and the point of 
view of Sen Dr Abdul Hayee Baloch who had talked about peaceful co-
existence. He said that the government respected these views. 
Referring to Sen Ajmal Khattakís viewpoint who also advocated 
peaceful co-existence during his speech, the foreign minister said 
that despite the oppositionís walkout from the joint sitting, the 
government gave consideration to their proposals put forward at the 
news conference.
    
He thanked the opposition members for their suggestions and also 
made a mention of opposition leader Benazir Bhuttoís statement in 
which she had supported the signing of the CTBT.
    
The foreign minister held out an assurance that the government 
would not take any hasty decision on the issue.

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980915
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Pakistan preparing for mass production of Ghauri: US paper
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Shaheen Sehbai

WASHINGTON, Sept 14: Pakistan has acquired several shipments of 
weapons material for mass production of the Ghauri missile after 
its May nuclear tests, a report citing findings of satellite spying 
by US agencies over Pakistan said on Monday.
    
"Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) in Kahuta, received the shipments 
in mid-June, according to US officials familiar with secret 
intelligence reports circulated to senior Clinton administration 
officials last month,"the Washington Times reported in a story by 
Bill Gertz, the reporter who frequently uses secret CIA reports for 
his stories on nuclear and missile issues.
    
"North Korea delivered several shipments of weapons material to 
Pakistan this summer, including warhead canisters for the Ghauri 
missile. Pakistanís premier nuclear weapons development centre, 
Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) in Kahuta, received the shipments 
in mid-June," the paper said quoting US officials familiar with 
secret intelligence reports circulated to senior Clinton 
administration officials last month.
    
It said the reports highlighted the close cooperation between North 
Korea and Pakistan on missiles and raise new worries among US 
officials that Pakistan is developing nuclear warheads for the 
Ghauri missile.
    
Other reports indicate Pakistan is moving ahead rapidly with plans 
to develop weapons-grade fuel for nuclear weapons from several 
facilities, it said.
    
According to one intelligence report, satellite spy photographs 
revealed increased activity at the KRLís missile production and 
assembly plant. The report concluded that the activity was a sign 
that "Pakistan is currently producing more Ghauri missiles," one 
official said.
    
A storage facility for the missiles was photographed by US spy 
satellites less than a mile from the Kahuta assembly plant, 
according to the officials.
    
A CIA spokesman declined to comment on the shipments, details of 
which were compiled from several types of US intelligence 
collection systems.
    
According to the officials, aircraft containing the warhead 
canisters and missile production components were spotted in 
Pakistan. The shipments appear linked to further production of the 
Ghauri, they said.
    
A July 29 report by the congressional commission on missile threats 
headed by former Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the Ghauri 
is a version of the North Korean Nodong missile, with a range of 
800 miles. "We believe Pakistan has acquired production facilities 
for this missile as well,"the reportís authors concluded.
    
Pakistan also has nuclear weapons fuelled with highly enriched 
uranium, and it recently completed a nuclear reactor "that could be 
used for the production of plutonium,"the report said.
    
"North Korean-Pakistani missile cooperation dates to the early 
1990s, and it is continuing, it is significant and it does pose a 
threat to stability in South Asia,"a specialist on the North 
Korean missile programme, Joseph Bermudez, who has written 
extensively on the issue for the military trade publications, told 
the Times .
    
The commission report also said Pakistanís missile infrastructure 
is "more advanced than that of North Korea"and "developed quite 
rapidly"with technical help from China and North Korea.
    
"Pakistan currently possesses nuclear-capable M-11 [short-range 
ballistic missiles] acquired from China, and it may produce its own 
missile, the Tarmuk, based on the M-11."
    
US officials said a test firing of the new Tarmuk missile is 
expected in the next several weeks. State Department has already 
announced sanctions on KRL and a North Korean missile manufacturer 
for violating US export laws related to the Missile Technology 
Control Regime.

State Department identified Changgwang Sinyong Corp., also known as 
the North Korea Mining Development Trading Corporation/ Bureau, as 
the missile component supplier that provided the goods to Pakistan. 
US officials believe the entityís name is designed to obscure the 
companyís covert missile sales.
    
According to a US intelligence report obtained by The Times , the 
Changgwang Sinyong Corp. obtained special "maraging steel"from 
Russia last year for Pakistanís missile programme.
    
The "top secret"intelligence report identified Kang Tae-yun, the 
North Korean economic counsellor in Pakistan, as well as the local 
representative of Changgwang Sinyong, as a key figure in the deal 
with an unidentified Russian company.
    
Maraging steel is an ultrastrong corrosion-resistant alloy that can 
be easily machined and welded. It is a key component of high-
technology missile fuselages and nose cones.
    
Pakistanís Tabani Corp., which has close ties to KRL, sent a 
delegation to Moscow in February to discuss purchases of mass 
spectrometers, lasers and carbon fiber-all high-technology goods 
with weapons applications, according to another intelligence 
report.

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980919
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Iran-Afghanistan border situation tense: Pakistan to stay neutral
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Hasan Akhtar

ISLAMABAD, Sept 18: Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz said here on 
Friday the threat of a border flare-up between Iran and Afghanistan 
remained unabated. He was addressing a news conference on return 
from Tehran after talks with Iranian leaders.
    
The foreign minister flew for a day on Thursday to the Iranian 
capital to deliver a message from Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for 
Iranian President Mohammad Khatami and to hold talks with some 
other Iranian leaders. Incidentally, Mr Khatami was out of the 
country.
    
Mr Aziz said he sought to assure Iranians of Pakistanís non-
partisan interest in the Afghan-Iran crisis, but the Iranian 
leaders reiterated allegations of Pakistanís military support to 
the Taliban. "I assured Iranian leaders that Pakistan will remain 
neutral in case of hostilities between Iran and Taliban."
    
Mr Aziz said he rejected the allegation and told Iranians that the 
charge against Pakistan was "completely untrue".
    
The foreign minister, who met Iranís First Vice-President, Mr Hasan 
Habibi, and Foreign Minister Kamal Kharrazi for a total of about 
four hours during his flying visit to Tehran, said he had 
emphasized that it was most important to defuse the border tension. 
"A conflict would have a devastating effect on peace in the entire 
region"he told the Iranians, adding that it was most important to 
avoid such an eventuality.
    
In a written statement at the end of the news conference, Mr Sartaj 
Aziz rebutted the Iranian allegation of Pakistanís involvement in 
the Taliban military operations and said he had told the Iranian 
leaders that "if there is any evidence (with the Iranians) about 
it, that should be shared with us".
    
He informed the Iranians that Pakistan would be willing to 
establish a joint commission "to determine the nature and level of 
external interference in Afghanistan".
    
The Iranians made no response other than to tell him that they 
would "think" about it. Mr Aziz explained that there might be some 
"confusion" about Pakistanís involvement because it had been 
engaged in the past in Afghan military resistance against the 
Soviet military intervention and had been providing support to 
whoever was in the saddle in Kabul from 1990 to 1995.
    
Answering questions from journalists, the foreign minister declared 
it was Pakistanís "policy decision"to stay neutral if armed 
hostilities broke out between Iran and Afghanistan.
    
He, however, believed that a war between Iran and Afghanistan was 
not imminent or immediate, but, he said "I wonít say the threat has 
disappeared".
    
It would be a serious matter if the Iranians crossed the 
international frontier with Afghanistan, he added.
    
Mr Aziz hoped that Pakistanís efforts to defuse tension with Iran 

would be reinforced next week by the expected meetings of the "six 
plus two"(comprising countries in Afghanistanís periphery, 
including Pakistan, Iran, Russia and the USA) and efforts by some 
other nations and the OIC.
    
The foreign minister reiterated Pakistanís condemnation of the 
killing of Iranian diplomats in Mazar-i-Sharif and said the UN 
secretary-general had already indicated that a UN mission would 
soon be set up to investigate charges of the diplomatsí killings, 
the Bamiyan genocide and conditions of prisoners in Afghanistan.
    
He hoped these steps would induce Iran to lower its threat.
    
He said five more Iranian prisoners were expected to be released 
soon as the Pakistan ambassador would visit to Kandahar on Saturday 
to secure their release. The foreign minister expressed 
satisfaction at the outcome of the talks in Tehran as it had helped 
in "exchange of views".

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980916
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Massive power failure brings Karachi to a halt
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Shamim-ur-Rehman

KARACHI, Sept 15: A massive and unprecedented power breakdown 
around 2am on Tuesday plunged this city of over 12 million into 
darkness, bringing industrial production to a grinding halt for 
over 16 hours and depriving millions of wage earners of their 
livelihood as mercury shot up to 39 degree centigrade.
    
While the KESC officials were caught napping, the massive power 
breakdown forced the harried people out of their beds in the middle 
of the night.
    
The KESC spokesman claimed that a major portion of the affected 
areas were "normalized",  but desperate phone calls at the Dawn 
office showed that KESC claims were exaggerated and in many areas 
power supply had not been restored till our going to press.
    
Although the knockout punch came at 2am, power supply started 
playing hide-and-seek in many areas after sunset on Monday.
    
Power breakdown and voltage fluctuation were reported from parts of 
Clifton and Defence areas around seven in the evening. At 2am when 
most of the people had just gone into deep slumber, their dreams 
were shattered and they were forced out of their bed from 
suffocating heat.
    
At this time when the KESC system was absorbing the load of 1400mw, 
the KDA-Jamshoro circuit providing 300mw tripped, initiating a new 
ordeal for Karachiites who had not yet recovered from the deepening 
water crisis.
    
A KESC spokesman said due to "load rejection",  Under Frequency 
Relay (UFR) operated to shed about 250 mw. As a result KESCís Bin 
Qasim thermal power stationís unit No 6 tripped simultaneously. 
Units 1, 3 and 5 still withstood the jolt.
    
The other units of KESC generating system also tripped as they 
could not cope with the system load at that time.
    
Since the Jamshoro circuit could not be switched on due to some 
technical problem, experts tried to back feed the system from the 
132kv Kalo Kohar circuit, Gul Ahmed and Tapal power stations and 
the site gas turbine.

On the first stage, Civil Aviation, Malir, Landhi, Korangi Town 
Site, Lyari, Mauripur West Wharf and Ellander Road stations were 
energized gradually and important feeders were switched on one by 
one at 5am, the KESC claimed.
    
But the Site gas turbine, Gul Ahmed and WAPDA were the circuits to 
be switched on first by the morning. Bin Qasim, KANUPP and ĎCí 
Korangi Power Station take time in synchronizing after tripping.
    
The part of the city which could be switched on through the SITE 
gas turbine, Gul Ahmed and WAPDA import, was "normalized"by 9am, 
claimed the KESC spokesman, adding that the "synchronization 
process of the entire system was completed by 10am".
    
But investigations showed that the power supply was restored to 
limited areas by 11.30am and after that the load was gradually 
increased.
    
But still many areas, where the KESC had claimed that power supply 
had been restored, were without electricity due to what KESC 
officials kept describing as "local faults."
    
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980919
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MQM-Govt talks remain inconclusive
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Nasir Malick

LONDON, Sept 18: The first round of talks between Mohajir Qaumi 
Movement (MQM) and Provincial Coordination Minister Chaudhry Nisar 
Ali Khan on the issue of MQMís rejoining the Sindh government 
remained inconclusive on Friday and MQM leaders said there was 
still a long way to go.
    
"We have still a reasonable distance to cover,"MQM leader M. Anwar 
told reporters after the talks which ended around 2030 GMT (0030 
PST).
    
The second round will be held on Sunday. The dayís break has been 
made to enable the provincial coordination minister to consult 
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on various issues.
    
Chaudhry Nisar Ali has flown into London to hold emergency talks 
with the MQM leadership to save the falling Muslim League 
government in Sindh.
    
However, MQM chief Altaf Hussain distanced himself from these talks 
and left it up to the MQM Rabita Committee members to decide 
whether or not to rejoin the Sindh government which is facing a no-
confidence motion in the Assembly.
    
Mr Altaf Hussain held an informal meeting with the minister before 
the talks at MQMís International Secretariat in north-west London. 
He later told reporters that the issue of re-joining the government 
was not discussed during his meeting.
    
The Rabita Committee members, who held four-hour-long talks with 
the Chaudhry Nisar included Rabita Committee members Anis Ahmad 
Qaimkhani, M.A. Jalil and Anis Ahmad, advocate. They were assisted 
by Senator Mustafa Kamal, Mohammad Anwar, chief organiser of MQM UK 
& Europe and Tariq Mir, joint chief organiser.
    
The visit of Chaudhry Nisar Ali is attributed to the objective of 
saving the government in Sindh.
    
A no-confidence motion against Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi, 
moved by opposition Pakistan Peopleís Party, is scheduled to be 
discussed on 23th and Chaudhry Nisar Aliís had apparently come here 
with two clear objectives  either to convince the MQM to rejoin 
the provincial government or at least stop lending its support to 
the no-confidence motion.
    
Briefing reporters after the first round of talks, Chaudhry Nisar 
Ali said that he explained governmentís viewpoint on various issues 
which were raised by the MQM members.
    
"They (MQMís) told me that they had quit the government because of 
the non-implementation or very slow implementation on some points 
of the accord."
    
However, he said that he did not agree with the MQMís claim. "On 
our side some think that we have been giving too many concessions 
to the MQM and had been accepting their every demand."
    
He said that another major hurdle in the progress of talks had been 
the clearance of no-go areas in Karachi. "I explained to them the 
government view point on this issue."
    
Chaudhry Nisar said that MQM leaders also told him that one reason 
for quitting the government had been that they were not made equal 
partners in the Sindh government nor were they taken into 
confidence over the law and order situation in Karachi. "The MQM 
told me that it was because of this reason that their presence in 
the provincial cabinet was proving counter- productive for them".
    
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980919
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Administrative reshuffle in Balochistan
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Correspondent

QUETTA, Sept 18: In another round of administrative reshuffle on 
Friday, the provincial government posted and transferred some more 
senior officers, including secretaries, commissioners and deputy 
commissioners.
    
According to a notification issued here, secretary education Ahmed 
Bukhsh Lehri has been transferred and posted as commissioner Zhob 
division while Anwar Zahri, commissioner Zhob, has been asked to 
report to the services and general administration department. Syed 
Mohammed Hamid, commissioner social security institutions, will 
take over as new secretary education while former secretary finance 
Ata Jaffar has been posted as secretary forest in place of Nazar 
Hussain Mahar who has been made an OSD.
    
Commissioner Kalat, Munir Ahmed Badani, has been appointed member 
Balochistan Public Service Commission while Capt Naiz Mohammad 
Jaffar will take over as commissioner Kalat division. Another 
senior officer Mohammad Farooq Jogezai has been appointed 
commissioner, social security institutions, Balochistan.
    
Member, Public Service Commission, Balochistan, Mohammad Iqbal, has 
been asked to report to the education department while another 
member of the BPSC, Syed Masood Ahmed, has been made an OSD.
    
Mohammad Idris Baloch, director-general BIAD will serve as member, 
Balochistan Public Service Commission.
    
Director-General, Social Action Programme, Nahad Pervaiz, will take 
charge of secretary, industries while Javed Ahmed, additional 
secretary, planning and development department, will be the new 
director-general of SAP. Ejaz Munir, deputy secretary, S&GAD has 
been asked to take charge of DS chief ministerís secretariat.
    
Deputy commissioner, Nasirabad, Hafiz Shah Ali, has been asked to 
report to S&GAD. He will be replaced by Abdul Manan Kakar. Akbar 
Baloch has been appointed deputy commissioner Sibi vice Amir Khan 
Tareen, who will now take over as deputy secretary, forest 
department. Ata-ur-Rehman, OSD, has been appointed deputy 
commissioner Awaran, vice Aziz-ud-Din, who has been asked to report 
to forest department for further posting.
    
Earlier, Agha Nayyar whose services had been placed at the disposal 
of Balochistan government by the federal government on the request 
of the former has been appointed principal secretary to the chief 
minister.
    
Balochistan government has also sought the transfer of four other 
senior officers to Balochistan  Major (retd) Ashraf Nasar, Mr 
Ghausuddin, Mr Nasiruddin and Major (retd) Nadir Ali who had 
served in Balochistan for many years.

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980918
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Expats seek SC relief on FCAs freeze
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Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, Sept 17: Foreign currency account holders residing in 
European countries, with Pakistani and non-Pakistani origin, 
petitioned the Supreme Court on Thursday for the recovery of their 
funds "frozen"on May 29 last.
    
The petition was filed directly in the Supreme Court from the 
platform of the Association of Foreign Currency Account Holders, 
which claims to have over 7,000 members residing in the UK, Norway, 
Germany, Denmark and the US.
    
The association, which filed the petition through prominent 
Pakistani-American constitutional jurist Barrister Dr Farooq Hasan, 
hinted to the apex court that if their grievances were not 
redressed, they would be free to approach the international forums 
like the International Court of Justice for the recovery of their 
"frozen funds."
    
Dr Hasan, counsel for the petitioner association, told Dawn that 
"no country can expropriate the property of such people or violate 
guarantees expressly or impliedly given to such people under the 
doctrine of the minimum international standards."
    
The petition has impleaded the Federation of Pakistan, through 
secretary of finance, the State Bank of Pakistan, Habib Bank of 
Pakistan through its president, Citibank through its president, 
Allied Bank through its president, National Bank of Pakistan 
through its president, United Bank through its president, as 
respondents.
    
The petitioners stated that the government decision of May 29, 
1998, to put restriction on the withdrawal of the foreign currency 
accounts, whether maintained by residents and non-residents, was a 
totally unlawful step, and had disastrous consequences.
    
The petitioner association contended that it was morally and 
legally shocking that the very people who had been asked from time 
to time to deposit their hard-earned savings in Pakistan were 
cheated and defrauded. "A state is a moral institution and when it 
acts in this manner it is utterly shocking to mankindís 
conscience,"it stated.
    
The actual effect, the petition stated, was the forceful and 
illegal expropriation of the property of the account holders since 
May 29, which had affected their lives by depriving them of their 
right to use their own money.
    
It is further stated that the governmentís decision of May 29 also 
violated the well-established rules of international law and 
resolutions of the UN. Under the international law when a state 
admits foreign nationals or residents of other states, it is bound 
to protect their property which, in particular, cannot be 
expropriated or de facto confiscated, temporarily or otherwise, 
they argued.
    
"In case of non-redressal by the relevant legal fora of the state 
responsible for such tortuous action, under the doctrine of state 
responsibility, the said state is subject to international claims 
by the national or resident state of the victim",  the petitioner 
association warned. It stated further that international financial 
bodies, such as the IMF and the World Bank, were also under an 
obligation to examine such shocking dereliction of the "offender 
state."
    
The petitioners stated that the Association of Foreign Currency 
Account Holders in Pakistan was established in London on Aug 8, 
1998, at a meeting held at St.Georgeís Hotel Victoria. Its members 
are expatriates, that is, British, US, or citizens of other 
countries who were original natives of Pakistan. Masoodul Hasan, a 
British national, was elected president of the association.
    
The petitioner association contended that its members were outside 
the purview of the impugned legal instrument and hence entitled to 
free transaction from their deposits held in foreign currency 
accounts.
    
"It is up to the wise discretion of this court whether it would 
like to adjudicate the grievances of the petitioner by relying on 
the principles of international law. The petitioner sincerely hoped 
that it does not have to invoke these remedies since it invested 
funds in Pakistani banks in the face of clear guarantees, given as 
sovereign state, to its foreign residents and nationals under the 
laws mentioned above."
    
Dr Hasan, while talking to Dawn, said the apex court had been 
approached after the expiry of August as the accounts had not been 
freed as was contemplated in the State Bank circular 12/98.

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980918
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New public transport scheme in a month: PM
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ISLAMABAD, Sept 17: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz Sharif has 
directed the ministry of communications and banks that a 
comprehensive scheme be formulated for revamping public transport 
system and report to him in a month.
    
He was addressing a gathering of Yellow Cab Federation 
representatives here on Thursday.
    
The prime minister announced that a new scheme would cover urban 
transport, inter-city transport and goods transport.
    
He asked all authorities concerned to devise the scheme within one 

month, which should be based on strategy to activate local vehicle 
manufacturing industry.
    
Chairman Yellow Cab Federation, highlighted the problems being 
faced the yellow cab owners and drivers.APP

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980918
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Drugs with identical names playing havoc with patients lives
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Azizullah Sharif    

KARACHI, Sept 17: Identical medicines and injections have been 
playing havoc with patients, but there is nobody to check and 
document these mishaps.
    
According to a Dawn survey, there are several drugs which either 
look alike or their names sound alike and there have been cases 
where such drugs due to their wrong administration not only 
resulted in painful reactions to patients but even caused deaths in 
some cases.
    
As medical stores keep drugs of a company in one shelf for their 
convenience, the chances of picking wrong remedy because of close 
physical appearance cannot be ruled out as most of pharmacies do 
not employ qualified salesmen.
    
Only recently a person in the ENT department of JPMC lost his life 
when he was administered Tracrium instead of Transamine.
    
In another case, a lady was wrongly administered Tracrium instead 
of Transamine at Sobhraj Maternity Hospital. She was, however, 
saved luckily owing to timely provision of emergency care.
    
According to Prof Dr Aleem A Kadar of JPMC, one of his patientís 
eyes were saved as it was timely detected that the medicine the 
patient had brought was not liquifilm but duofilm.
    
Had the patient poured in duofilm in his eyes, both of his corneas 
could have been damaged, he added.
    
PMAís honorary secretary Dr Sher Shah Syed said: "The PMA is very 
much concerned about incidents which have been reported in some 
government and private hospitals in the recent past and is 
collecting data. The details would soon be made public,"he said.
    
The medicines which sound alike include Abocin and Abocain; Mervan 
and Mervain; Liquifilm and Duofilm; Parlodal and Panadol; 
Mucosolvan, Maxolon and Muscholine, the sources said.
    
About Mervan, doctors said, it is prescribed in arthritis while 
Merivan is given for thinning blood and is also commonly used for 
killing mouse.
    
Regarding Mucosolvan, Maxolon and Muscholine, it was stated that 
the first drug is given for the secretion of phlegm, the second one 
is an anti-vomiting drug while the third is given to patient prior 
to conducting a surgery.
    
The drugs which have a similarity in their packings, colours and 
closer physical appearance are as follows:
    
Injection Omnipen-N (250 mg); inj. Omnipen-N (500mg) and inj. 
Penidure LA (1,200,000 units); inj. Abocaine and inj. Zantac; 
capsule Feldene (10mg) and capsule Feldene (20mg); inj. Licacin 
(250mg) and inj Licacin (500mg); inj. Solu-Cortef (100mg) and inj. 
Solu-Cortef (250mg); tablet Aldomet (250mg) and tablet Flagyl 
(400mg); injection Cidomycin (20mg) and inj. Pavulon (4mg); inj. 
Serenace and inj. Lasix; tablet Ventolin (2mg) and tablet Dicofen 
(50mg); Inderal tablet and Incidal tablet (anti- allergic).
    
According to him, there could be several types of medication 
errors. Among them are incorrect drug selection, failure to 
administer the correct dose, administration at wrong time, right 
drug to wrong patient, administering the dose less or above than 
the stated dose, injection given instead of tablet, expired or 
colour changed drug, inappropriate patient behaviour regarding 
medicines.
    
Similarly, if an intravenous injection is administered very fast, 
it can result in severe reaction, he said quoting the example of 
Vancomycin which if administered very fast, can cause Red Man 
Syndrome in the patient.
    
He was of the opinion that the drug manufacturers and the ministry 
of health should involve physicians, paramedics and pharmacists in 
taking decisions about drug names, their labelling and packaging. 
Besides "look alike or sound alike trade names"must be avoided.
    
He opined that the pharmacist support should be made available to 
the prescriber and nurses. Besides, drugs should be used with 
auxiliary labels such as Ďmust be dilutedí and Ďfor external use 
onlyí, etc. wherever needed, he suggested.
    
He said patients could also play a vital role in avoiding the 
chances of medication errors by asking questions about any 
procedure and treatment they receive.
    
Advocating the need for creating an awareness among the healthcare 
professionals about the severity of the medication errors, he said 
all medication errors be documented and reported to one 
body/authority so that this data can be used for future training of 
people.

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980919
-------------------------------------------------------------------
IMF unlikely to meet $3bn ESAF needs
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ihtasham ul Haque
    
ISLAMABAD, Sept 18: The visiting IMF mission held wide-ranging 
talks with the prime ministerís advisor on finance, Dr Hafeez 
Pasha, here on Friday  over a new ESAF/EFF arrangement of three 
billion dollars.
    
Later Dr Pasha and Commerce Minister Ishaq Dar called on Prime 
Minister Nawaz Sharif and apprised him about what is generally 
being described as the "IMF vision"of resuming Pakistanís 
assistance with a lot of new strings.
    
Pakistan was informed that the IMF was unlikely to enter into a 
fresh ESAF/EFF agreement to offer three billion dollars. Instead, 
Islamabad was told that there was a possibility of stretching the 
previous 1.5 billion dollars ESAF/EFF to 1.8 billion dollars or a 
maximum of two billion dollars and that too with new 
conditionalities.
    
The sources said Dr Pasha and Mr Dar had informed the prime 
minister that the IMF was now ready to bail out Pakistan, provided 
Pakistan was prepared to levy across-the-board general sales tax 
(GST) and start taxing agricultural income.
    
They said the IMF also did not believe that the disparity between 
the official rate of Rs 46 to a dollar and the kerb market rate of 
55 could continue for a long period and that a serious 
consideration should be given to "new adjustments".
    
Sources said initial talks between Mr Pasha and the head of the IMF 
mission, Mr Furtado, would end next week.
    
Later, Mr Paul Chabrier, head of the Middle East department or 
someone equal to his position, will visit Pakistan to finalize 
arrangements for concluding the agreement.
    
The IMF mission has also asked the Pakistan authorities to give a 
serious thought to recurring revenue shortfalls.


=================================================================== 
 BUSINESS & ECONOMY
980915
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Tax revenue target may be lowered, says Moin
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Muhammad Ilyas

ISLAMABAD, Sept 14: The tax revenue target for 1998-99 may have to 
be revised down owing to the sluggishness of imports, the Chairman, 
Central Board of Revenue, Moinuddin Khan told Dawn here on Monday.
    
He said that the receipts of direct taxes and sales tax over the 
past 10 weeks had been in conformity with the target. While in 
1997-98, the shortfall had been more steep in respect of customs 
and sales tax than in other departments of taxation, the past two 
months had seen good performance in collection of sales tax, too.
    
As regards the customs duty, for which the target for the current 
year was Rs88.9 billion, there had been a shortfall of 
approximately Rs5 billion, so far. This means that the total 
collection under the head "customs"by the middle of September 
would be Rs12 billion instead of Rs17 billion, as per the annual 
target. This may affect the accrual from import-related sales tax 
also.
    
The CBR Chairman said this was because the imports in the first two 
months of the year had dropped by a sharp 17.21 per cent. "There is 
a serious shortage of foreign exchange and, moreover, there is no 
demand for imports from the industry,"he remarked.
    
Asked about the levy of general sales tax, Khan said that it would 
be imposed within the next couple of days. Refusing to elaborate 
how and in what shape it would materialise, he said with an 
enigmatic smile, "You will see."
    
His attention was invited to the recommendations of the Commission 
on Tax Reforms headed by Saeed Ahmed Qureshi, former Deputy 
Chairman, Planning Commission, the CBR Chairman said the GSP will 
be levied initially in 12 cities. The proposal, if implemented, 
Khan remarked, would have created a lot of problems in its 
implementation. The traders would have resorted to providing 
receipts from other cities to evade their sales tax levy, he added.
    
On the question about the reason for introducing GST at the level 
of shops with a minimum annual turnover of Rs5 million. He replied 
this was done in view of the problem of infrastructure such as the 
electronic cash register. The government has already exempted their 
import from customs duty, but so far there had been very poor 
response, he added.


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980916
-------------------------------------------------------------------
CBR accepts fixed sales tax deposits by 10,230 industries
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, Sept 15: The Central Board of Revenue has accepted sales 
tax at fixed rate by 10,230 industries in 26 industrial sectors 
even after the clear Finance Bill 1998 order that there would be no 
fixed tax for any industry in 1998-99.
    
About 1800 industrial units previously falling under the category 
of the sectors depositing sales tax at fixed rate, have not paid a 
penny but there is no action in sight.
    
These non-payee corporate sector members paying FST by the end of 
1997-98 financial year, have paid Rs76.363 million in the two 
months of the current financial year (July-August). Last year, 
these units had paid Rs980.86 million. 
    
The CBR had clarified, in a statement issued on July 16, that: A 
decision will be taken regarding the revival or otherwise of the 
Fixed Sales Tax Scheme for the 12000 industrial units by the 
federal government and not the CBR. The CBR wishes to clarify that 
no decision has been taken with regard to FST.

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980917
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Non-payment of dues: PSO stops supplies to WAPDA
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Correspondent

MULTAN, Sept 16: Pakistan State Oil has turned down the request of 
WAPDA for the resumption of supply of furnace oil to the thermal 
power stations of Muzaffargarh, Multan and other areas and said 
that the supply will be resumed only after WAPDA arranges full 
payment of arrears of Rs 11,000 million. As a result of this 
disruption of supply from PSO, thermal power stations of Multan, 
Piran Ghaib, Muzaffargarh and Guddu are lying closed.
    
In the meantime, Sui Northern Gas Pipeline Ltd has served a notice 
to WAPDA authorities for payment of Rs 3,000 million forthwith 
otherwise, supply of natural gas to thermal power stations and 
colonies of staff will remain suspended till the clearance of dues.
    
Sources said that SNGPL and PSO have referred their cases to the 
Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure the recovery of dues from 
WAPDA.
    
WAPDA authorities said only one unit of 220 megawatt was being run 
in Muzaffargarh to meet the consumption with the existing stock of 
furnace oil.
    
They further said that power consumption had fallen down because 
domestic and commercial consumers were using power very sparingly 
and a number of industrial units had been closed, while many 
industrial units had established their own power generating units.
    
TAXES GALORE: Chamber of Small Traders demanded withdrawal of an 
increase in power tariff, levy of additional surcharge, surcharge, 
excise duty and income tax on power bills, revised rate of Sui gas.
    
Addressing a press conference here on Tuesday Khawaja Muhammad 
Shafiq and Hakim Mehmood Khan said that Municipal Corporation had 
increased the octroi duty by 30 per cent and district council had 
increased exit tax by 100 per cent, property tax stamp duty, 
professional tax were increased tenfold as a result of which they 
were on the verge of quitting business in sheer exasperation.
    
They warned that traders would observe countrywide strike if prime 
minister did not redress their grievances in the meeting of the 
traders and the government taking place on Sept 16 on the issue of 
general sales tax, self-assessment scheme.
    
CONCERN OVER PEST ATTACK: Pakistan Small Land Holders and Farmers 
Association chairman Syed Ishtiaq Jafari has expressed concern over 
the pest attack on cotton crop and apathetic attitude of 
Agricultural Task Force and gross mismanagement of Pest Scouting 
and Management Department.
    
In a press statement he also demanded an inquiry into the supply of 
defective cotton seed which might deplete per acre yield.

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980917
-------------------------------------------------------------------
$3.2 billion frozen FCY deposits encashed
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Reporter

KARACHI, Sept 16: During the last two weeks, some $200 million 
worth of frozen foreign currency deposits were converted into 
rupees, senior bankers told Dawn on Wednesday. This increased the 
total amount of conversion from $3 billion on Sept 2 to $3.2 
billion on Sept 15.
    
Consequently total frozen foreign currency deposits came down from 
about $11 billion on May 28 to $7.8 billion on Sept 15.
    
The conversion at the rate of Rs 46 per dollar has created Rs 147.2 
billion worth of rupee funds which is equal to about 13 per cent of 
the total bank deposits. But only a part of these funds have been 
redeposited with the banks and the lion share has been invested in 
other areas including real estate, currency and stocks.
    
Up to Aug 8, $2.5 billion worth of frozen foreign currency deposits 
had been converted into rupees and only $700 million worth of these 
deposits were encashed during the last 38 days.
    
The pace of conversion started decelerating since July 21 when the 
government withdrew the deadline of Aug 31 set on May 28 for the 
conversion of FCY deposits.
    
Another factor that slowed the pace of conversion is that the 
holders of frozen foreign currency deposits can still earn profit. 
    
The State Bank has allowed the banks to accrue profit on the frozen 
FCY deposits as usual in foreign currency. But the holders of these 
deposits can get it in rupees only.

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980919
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Investors avoid long positions as KSE index declines
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Reporter

KARACHI, Sept 18: Stocks finished the weekend session on an easy 
note as investors were not inclined to hold long positions owing to 
some discouraging news from the economic front and took profits at 
the available margins. The KSE 100-share fell 13.36 points eroding 
another Rs 4 billion from the market capitalization.
    
Bulk of the selling was confined to most of the market leaders as a 
formidable section of leading operators sold in a bit haste on 
prediction that the current bull-run was overdone.
    
"The market could resume its upward drive by next week as by that 
time the outcome of aid talks with the IMF team will be known,"
some others said.
    
"The expectation of signing of the CTBT, which pushed the index by 
105 points last week, seems to have been delayed for an indefinite 
period and those who had made anticipatory buying, anticipating a 
sustained bull-run, sold in a haste, causing snap reversal,"they 
added.
    
The selling in part was also attributed to weekend considerations 
as jobbers and short-term dealers took profits at the available 
margins fearing further erosions.
    
The index shed another 13.36 points at 1,056.74 as compared to 
1,070.10 a day earlier as the weakness of the leading base shares 
spilledover to other counters. The market capitalization also 
shrank by Rs 4 billion to Rs 301 billion.
    
Talks with the visiting IMF delegation for the resumption of aid 
are said to be in an advance stage but as it is tied to the signing 
of the CTBT, investors doubt any positive nod during the current 
parleys, dealers said.
    
Perception triggered sellstops both from the bargain-hunters and 
speculative traders but foreign investors held on to their 
positions apparently awaiting further developments in regard to 
talks with the IMF team, they added.
    
Dividend news from the leasing sector were fairly encouraging but 
they came at a time when investors were worried over some other 
negative developments both on the financial and political fronts.
    
Leading gainers were led by Dawood Hercules and Lever Brothers, 
which posted gains ranging from Rs 14.58 and Rs 44.00, while 
Dreamworld and PSO, which fell by Rs 3.00 to Rs 4.20, were among 
the prominent losers.
    
Trading volume fell further to 76 million shares from the previous 
89 million shares as losers maintained a strong lead over the 
gainers at 80 to 22 with 40 shares holding on to the last levels.
    
PTCL topped the list of most actives, off 45 paisa at Rs 25.95 on 
40 million shares, followed by Hub-Power, lower 35 paisa at Rs 
14.40 on 25 million shares, FFC-Jordan Fertilizer, easy five paisa 
at Rs 13.95 on 3 million shares, ICI Pakistan, off 45 paisa at Rs 
12.30 on 2.131 million shares, and MCB, off 80 paisa at Rs 17.20 on 
0.981 million shares.

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980918
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Mini steel mill near Quetta suggested
-------------------------------------------------------------------
S. Azam Ali

QUETTA, Sept 17: Pre-investment feasibility study on the discovery 
of 100 million tons of iron ore deposits in areas of Pachinkoh and 
Chigendik in Chagai district of Balochistan suggests setting up of 
a mini steel mill at Quetta.
    
Discovery of the deposits by the Geological Survey of Pakistan has 
been followed by geophysical survey by China, metallurgical study 
by Japan, test by M/s ARMCO of the United States and finally the 
feasibility study by M/s Engineers and Consultants of USA. All 
these amply prove that Chagai iron ore reserves can be used by 
Pakistan Steel Mills Karachi.
    
Director Geological Survey of Pakistan, Mr Abdul Latif Khan when 
contacted by Dawn here on Thursday confirmed potential of 100 
million tons of reserves of iron ore with proven reserve of 50 
million tons of good metallurgical grade ore having 50 per cent 
iron (FO) content.
    
Chigendik iron ore can be upgraded to 66.5 per cent and Pachinkoh 
ore to 64.10 per cent of total iron ore. 
    
Pakistan Steel is trying to develop these deposits to make use of 
indigenous ore.
    
Meanwhile, pre-investment feasibility study report by the American 
firm, Engineers and Consultants Inc, under the aegis of Asian 
Development Bank, with the four-point proposal is awaiting approval 
of the federal government for final decision on Chagai iron ore 
reserves in the following forms: iron ore concentrates; iron oxide 
pellets; direct-reduced iron pellets and iron ore oxide pellets 
partly as blast furnace and partly as direct-reduced iron as 
electric furnace charge.
    
Mini steel mill proposed by the American firm could produce 250,000 
tons of billets. It would use direct-reduced iron pellets based on 
Chagai iron ore alongwith steel scrap. 
    
It would use natural gas as reducing agent. Quetta where mini steel 
mill is proposed to be set up, has sufficient natural gas, 
electricity and water.
    
Alternatively, American consultants have suggested that 250,000 
tons per year of concentrates from Chagai iron ore could be 
supplemented by 100,000 tons per year of concentrates from gold 
copper Saindak project to provide a total of 350,000 tons per year. 
This could be converted to direct-reduced pellets and charge along 
with steel scrap to a new electric furnace, producing billets.

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980918
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Pakistan enters Gulf market via mutton export
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Parvaiz Ishfaq Rana

KARACHI, Sept 17: Pakistan entered mutton market of Gulf by 
exporting two separate consignments of the chilled commodity 
weighing five tons each. The consignments were air lifted to 
Muscat.
    
A spokesman of the company told Dawn that they have earned 
substantial amount of foreign exchange on the consignment.
    
There is a strong demand for mutton and beef in the Gulf and in 
Middle East which is being met through import of live animals and 
chilled meat.
    
"We plan to export up to 100 tons of mutton per month to Saudi 
Arabia, UAE and other Gulf states where monthly demand for mutton 
and beef is up to 340 million tons,"said Tariq Mahmood Butt of the 
exporting company.
    
Pakistani exporters so far could not tap the Middle East and Gulf 
markets because of a ban.
    
However, the current policy allows exports and the government 
expects to earn huge foreign exchange after it has lifted all sort 
of duties, including that of customs.
    
Presently, Middle East and Gulf markets are dominated by Australian 
exporters for the supply of live animals whereas chilled mutton and 
beef is mostly coming from India.
    
"We would be facing uphill task in competing and getting our share 
of the market particularly with Indian exporters who had been in 
the market for long,"said another exporter.
    
Nonetheless, Pakistani exporters would be having an edge of lower 
airfreight because of proximity and a little extra efforts from 
their side could bring in good results. Even then the government 
should initially allow concessional freight charges and should fix 
air cargo space for export of beef and mutton so that regular 
supplies are maintained which is essential for high-turnover and 
perishable consumersí goods.
    
The main objective of the government for liberalizing the export of 
live animals, beef and mutton is to encourage investment in 
development of feed lots in the country, Tariq Butt said.
    
"We would like to take full advantage of the government policies 
and develop a dairy farm near our existing feed lot situated in 
Moosa Goth Razzakabad, near National Highway,"Steve Meerwald, 
General Manager, Wellard Rural Exports told Dawn who was recently 
in city to prepare a feasibility report for future investment.
    
Wellard Rural Exports of Australia in collaboration with P.K. 
Livestock and Meat of Pakistan during last two years imported over 
75,000 sheep and 350 cows and developed a feed lot by investing 
over $5 million.

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980918
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Direct taxes collection up
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ikram Hoti

ISLAMABAD, Sept 17: The Central Board of Revenue has recorded a Rs 
1.45 billion improvement in collection of direct taxes in the first 
two months of financial year 1998-99 over what was collected under 
this head in July-August, 1997.
    
The total amount of direct taxes collected in July-August, 1998, is 
Rs 9.2 billion. Last year, in these two months, the total direct 
taxes collected were worth Rs 7.75 billion.
    
The total target of collection of direct taxes set for the 
financial year 1998-99 is Rs 115 billion and the monthly target 
deduced is Rs 9.7 billion. The CBR was supposed to collect Rs 19.4 
billion under this target.
    
The shortfall in collection of direct taxes this year in the first 
two months is Rs 10.2 billion. However, the CBR officials claim 
that the actual target of collection of direct taxes set for the 
first quarter of the financial year 1998-99 is Rs 24 billion, and 
thus the target set for the first two months comes down to Rs 16 
billion.
    
Even by that reduced target, the CBR was supposed to collect Rs 6.8 
billion more than what it has collected under this head in July-
August.
    
The CBR officials also say that the actual target of Rs 115 billion 
set for the direct taxes is to be cut down by at least Rs 3 billion 
for the first quarter of the current financial year. They argue 
that if that is effected the CBR would have to collect Rs 7 billion 

a month and Rs 14 billion for July-August period. Thus the actual 
shortfall would be Rs 4.3 billion and not Rs 10 billion or Rs 6.8 
billion.
    
The Income Tax senior officials are indicating that a downward 
revision for all the federal tax targets is on the anvil. The CBR 
chairman has already said in clear terms that the present target of 
taxes set in the federal budget 1998-99 is not collectible under 
the prevailing circumstances of slump in the market and poor 
imports of raw materials and machinery.
    
He has also indicated in a number of his comments on the current 
targets that "unrealistic"targets have been set in the past 
without keeping in view the potential of the market.
    
The Income Tax senior officials say that the corporate sector 
(companies) have been recording a significant downswing in their 
incomes, while the amounts collectible under Wealth Tax and Capital 
Value Tax have also not been improving as per the current targets. 
They do not hope that the situation would improve during the next 
quarter of the financial year 1998-99. Supplementing this view, the 
CBR officials indicate that the overall tax target would be cut 
down from the budgeted Rs 338.2 billion to somewhere near Rs 315 
billion. This would help the Income Tax side to gain a Rs 10 
billion downward revision.

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980916
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Dar rules out further devaluation of rupee
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Correspondent

ISLAMABAD, Sept 15: The Minister for Commerce, Mohammad Ishaq Dar 
here on Tuesday categorically ruled out any further devaluation of 
Pakistani rupee irrespective of what the International Monetary 
Fund may demand.
    
Addressing a press conference, he insisted that all the 
fundamentals of economic situation were right and nothing had 
happened since the last devaluation in April to warrant yet another 
devaluation. He said he had been authorized to make this statement 
by the prime minister who also holds the portfolio of finance 
minister and also as a member of the government team engaged in 
negotiations with the IMF review mission.
    
He said the on-going talks with the IMF mission which would be 
joined today (Wednesday) by its head, Antonio Furtado, are aimed 
not only to revive the suspended ESAF/EFF programme but also to 
obtain a more long term loan. So far, only junior members of the 
mission have been holding discussions with a view to gathering data 
about the economic situation. Substantive talks would be held with 
Furtado.
    
The minister, however, denied that the negotiations with IMF were 
tied with the question of signing of CTBT.
    
Pakistan expected enhancement of loan arrangements with IMF, 
particularly as it had suffered a huge lose as a consequence of 
IMFís decision to withhold its third tranche. Pakistan had expected 
to receive $1.9 billion but couldnít get it because of the 
suspension of its loan programme. This had brought Pakistan to the 
situation of what Dar called "engineered default". IMF was willing 

to negotiate both the revival of the old programme and also a new 
programme, Dar stated.
    
When his attention was invited to the 18 points agreed upon with 
the Paris Club by a Pakistani team comprising the then finance 
minister and Moin Afzal, the Finance Secretary, the commerce 
minister said that some of these points were not found to be 
conducive to the national interest. Among these was the decision to 
unify to exchange rate which was tantamount to devaluation.
    
In reply to a question he said, the question of whether and when 
Pakistan would approach the Paris Club and the London Club for 
rescheduling of debt repayment, would depend on the outcome of the 
current negotiations with IMF. These talks would possibly last till 
Sept 25 or 26, and then the IMF Executive Board would require 
another two to three weeks to arrive at a decision. Only after that 
a decision would be made as to whether to go to the Paris Club 
and/or London Club, Dar added.
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980915
-------------------------------------------------------------------
FIA cracks down on illegal money changers
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Reporter

LAHORE, Sept 14: Federal Investigation Agency on Monday started a 
crackdown against the unregistered money changers through out the 
country to put an end to speculations regarding foreign exchange.
    
In Lahore seven persons were arrested from infront of duty free 
shop by FIA Lahoreís State Bank Circle. The arrests were made in 
contravention of the provision 4 of Foreign Exchange Regulation Act 
1947.
    
The provision-4 of the Act reads,"except with the previous general 
or special permission of the State Bank of Pakistan, no person 
other than an authorised dealer shall in Pakistan and no person 
resident in Pakistan other than unauthorised dealer shall outside 
Pakistan, buy or borrow from or sell or lend to or exchange with 
any person not being an authorised dealer any foreign exchange".
    
The government had extended the date to Sept 31 for the 
unregistered money changers to get themselves registered with the 
State Bank. Earlier the date was fixed to the first week of 
September.
    
Other than regulating the foreign currency business, through this 
operation, the government had also conveyed a message to 
unauthorised, unregistered and unscrupulous elements to stop 
speculation, said a highly placed FIA official.
    
The official said that the sharp rise in the US dollar was un-
natural. How could the difference be of Rs 20 between the State 
Bank rate and open market rate, he said.
    
The official said that the money changers were intimated of this 
operation and the US Dollar rate came down to Rs 56 from Rs 66 in 
the open market in a period of one week.
    
Once again bankers were remembered in the corridors of FIA for 
their involvement in the unnatural rise in foreign currency rates. 
This time bankers from private sectors were talked about.
    
The seven boys arrested in the city were- Zeeshan Butt, Abid 
Mahmood, Shahid Nadeem, Mohammed Yawar, Khalid Mahmood, Mohammed 
Asif, Mohammed Faheem.
    
Two persons were released by FIA, Lahore. One was a mason who was 
passing from that road while the other had come to get the money 
changed.
    
Reportedly, the authority to arrest unregistered money changers had 
recently been rescheduled in the FIA State Bank Circle.

Back to the top
=================================================================== 
 EDITORIALS & FEATURES
980913
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Absolute!
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Ardeshir Cowasjee

"ABSOLUTE: In quality or degree  perfect. Free from all 
imperfection or deficiency; complete, finished, consummate. Of 
degree : complete, entire, in the fullest sense."
    
Such is the degree of the moral bankruptcy of those who sit in our 
parliament. The latest manifestation, the prime ministerís two-day 
trip to London at our expense, in the prime-ministerial special jet 
which supposedly had been returned to serve the nation.
    
His reason for the sudden flight: to express his concern about the 
health of the ruler of the UAE, Sheikh Zaid. If this be so, why 
carry with him Begum Kulsoom Nawaz Sharif, Miss Asma Nawaz, friends 
F. Mehmood and Rahila Isa, Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz and wife, 
military secretary Brigadier Javed Iqbal, personal physician 
Brigadier Masood Siddiq, protocol chief Farooq Ubaid, an unnamed 
assistant, chief of security Pervez Rathore, press secretary Rao 
Riaz Hussain, personal secretary Qamruzzaman, valet Shakil, three 
un-named guards, four staff members, and two pressmen?
    
The real reason, some say, is that he went to see Altaf Hussain as 
he badly needs numbers to push through his 15th Amendment (that is, 
if he is as serious about it as he leads us to believe), Altaf 
having announced that he will no longer talk to the likes of 
Chaudhry Nisar, Saifur Rahman, Chaudhry Shujaat, who cannot deliver 
what they promise. Others say, his visit involved a private family 
matter, which is no longer private as he used state apparatus. For 
either of these reasons, or the declared excuse, he had no need to 
carry with him an entourage of twenty-four ( "Tussi ve sadey naal 
challo").
    
It is the duty of the leader of the opposition to criticize such 
wasteful expense, and it is comical when the leader raves about it 
after she herself, as prime minister, behaved in a far more 
extravagant manner, her free trips being more numerous.
    
Benazir Bhutto insists on embarrassing us, oblivious of the disdain 
and the sniggers aroused here and abroad by her protestations of 
innocence. Recently, when the Bow Street magistrate in London was 
asked by her lawyer to grant an injunction preventing disclosure to 
the government of Pakistan of her holdings in Britain, he 
questioned: "Would the learned counsel tell us what his client has 
to hide? If there is nothing to hide, the learned counselís client 
should welcome complete disclosure by Her Majestyís Government to 
the government of Pakistan regarding her finances,"and declined 
her request.
    
Nawaz Sharif and his government are steadily taking us deeper into 
the mire. First came the Ďbumí (as it is affectionately known), 
long after our expert had told us that he has the capability to 
nuke 27 Indian cities at one go, time and time again, and reduce 
them to ashes. Using this as an excuse, the government saved itself 
by declaring an unnecessary ĎEmergencyí, telling lies, spending our 
dollars, and depriving us of our fundamental rights. On top of it 
all, someone among our rulers and their cronies surreptitiously 
sent out of the country 200 million dollars between the time the 
government enforced the freeze and the bank opening time the next 
morning. The government has in its possession a full tally of who 
sent out what and through which bank. The governor of the State 
Bank even declared that the money whisked away will be ordered to 
be brought back, and the remitters and the banks concerned 
penalized. This has not been done and the people now justifiably 
hold that the guilty were insiders.
    
Nawaz Sharif then floated the Kalabagh Dam scare and the stupid 
opposition, rather than saying Ďgo build it if you can without 
having the money you need to build it,í flared up, ranted and raved 
senselessly.
    
Then came the cruise missiles. Again the government lied to us. We 
were told that it had not acquiesced. Did it not realize that by 
thus stating it had admitted that it was unprepared, that it had no 
intelligence forewarning? The Americans, knowing our stupidity and 
fearing that someone may press the wrong button, informed the 
government what was happening while the missiles were flying over 
the country.
    
This event was closely followed by the announcement of the tabling 
in the Assembly of the Fifteenth Constitutional Amendment Bill. 
This upped the hype, exacerbated the sectarian strife already 
eating into us because of all the discriminatory laws that exist. 
To gain support, Nawaz Sharif summoned and addressed a gathering of 
learned divines, asked them to go out into the streets and spread 
the message, and told them that the forces of the government would 
back them in their crusade. Does Nawaz Sharif not realize that to 
incite a civil war of sorts is a grave offence?
    
Having undermined the judiciary as he has, what hope have the 
thousand or so of our people in jail on the charge of having 
intoned ĎBismillah-ur-Rahman-ur-Rahimí or of having had the phrase 
engraved on a tombstone, who are unable to even get bail? What hope 
have the uncounted others, such as Akhter Hameed Khan and many good 
men, who under the blasphemy laws are summoned on frivolous charges 
to appear before lower courts in various remote areas of the 
country?  Mushahidsaab tells us each day that the Kashmir issue is 
being kept alive, that it is festering, rather than being put on 
the backburner. Do people not know that all we are doing by sending 
in Ďfreedom fightersí is killing more and more men, women and 
children of the same faith? Our men are sent out to various 
international forums to ask for help to settle the Kashmir issue. 
Out of sheer courtesy, the host countries agree to give their 
support. This news is disseminated as if it is a great 
breakthrough. We will make no headway on the Kashmir front until we 
are strong. As things are, it is unlikely that this will be the 
case in even the distant future.
    
As for the difficult terrain of the playing fields of the Great 
Game, what has this country gained from the Pakistan and US 
inspired and supported guerilla war against the Soviets? Nothing 
for the country, but much for the pockets of the few top men 
involved. Who are the Taliban? Where were they born and nurtured? 
Who now finances them? Why and for what and to whose gain? Are we 
not raising a rebel rabble force to meddle in the internal affairs 
of another country? When the crunch comes, as it soon may, this 
Ďtigerí, when forced back into the weakest bordering territory of 
Afghanistan which is the country that spawned them, may well chew 
us all up and swallow us.
    
Coming home to Karachi, we read every day of killings related to 
political enmity. Life has ceased to have value. This province has 
an incompetent chief minister in Liaquat Jatoi who is incapable of 
holding a government together. Granted, he is forced to deal with a 
nasty greedy coalition, but that was always on the cards. Nawaz 
Sharif made a Ďhigh-poweredí peace-keeping committee of sorts, 
chaired by Jatoi, which amongst others included a couple of federal 
Chaudhrys, the landlubber Master Mariner, the chief secretary of 
Sindh, the home secretary of Sindh, the IG Police of Sindh and the 
commander of the Rangers. A diverse committee, its members working 
in diverse places and thus with an inherent difficulty in 
assembling all together at any given time.
    
Very sensibly, this committee formed a sub-committee of men on the 
spot who matter, chief secretary Zubair Kidwai, home secretary 
Wajid Rana, IG Police Aftab Nabi, Rangers chief Major General 
Imtiaz Shameem. A strange combination of luck and sympathy willed 
the providence to ensure that each of these four are competent, 
efficient and able men, capable, if left free to work together, of 
bringing about a semblance of peace and tranquillity to this 
troubled city. This was not in the interests of power-seekers and 
money-makers, so the chief minister ordered that the sub-committee 
cannot meet unless it is he who presides over and directs the 
meeting. Thus, it now stands suspended with the chief minister 
hell-bent on ridding himself of the chief secretary and the IGP. 
Jatoi is trying to bring in pliant Salik Nazir Ahmad as his CS. 
Why?
    
In the frying pan right now is the CTBT, the latest point of 
contention. Despite noises to the contrary, it will be signed, as 
will the ABC, the XYZ and anything else the US asks us to sign. 
There will be further devaluation every couple of days, and one 
fine morning we will find that the rupee has been officially 
devalued. No new fish, big or small, will be brought into the tax 
net and those of us in it will be taxed to the hilt. We are 
courting recession, unemployment and perhaps even famine.
    
Absolute disaster? But which man in Islamabad realizes that moral 
bankruptcy can only breed every other possible sort of bankruptcy?

DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS
980919
-------------------------------------------------------------------
My way  
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Irfan Husain

THE downside of writing a weekly column is that one is caught on a 
treadmill, forever reacting to events without being able to step 
back and look at the bigger picture.
    
So it is no bad thing to occasionally get cornered by articulate 
critics who force you to re-examine the relevance and value of your 
output. This happened to me last week when my friend Sami Mustafa 
invited me to meet a small group of his associates to take stock of 
the current situation over lunch. Normally I politely decline such 
invitations as I doubt if anybody is going to add significantly to 
what appears in the press. Also, I find that heavy talk inhibits 
the free flow of gastric juices. But I have a lot of respect for 
Sami who is a serious person and has devoted much time and effort 
in trying to raise standards in education and governance.
    
We all agreed that the press in Pakistan is at liberty to publish 
almost anything it wishes to. I did not voice my private 
reservations about the editorial blue pencil because I didnít want 
to shatter the groupís illusions, but it is a fact that Pakistan 
today has the freest press in the Muslim world. Which isnít saying 
too much, I suppose, given the despotic nature of most regimes in 
Islamic countries. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that journalists 
in Pakistan today can write about pretty much any subject, and 
criticize anybody they want to.
    
Under these fortunate circumstances, the group wanted to know why 
all the major columnists (whose well-known names I will not mention 
here) were so pessimistic about the situation. Why so much gloom 
and doom? Surely there were positive elements, even in the current 
scenario. While I was flattered to be included in such august 
company, I could not honestly identify any bright spots to write 
about. Individual efforts and private collective initiatives, yes  
and I have written about many of them in the past. But no trends 
that promote optimism.
    
One member of the group  let me call him T.A.  pointed out that 
in material terms, the average Pakistani was better off today than 
he was twenty years ago. Although the educational system may be 
near collapse, more children were at school than ever before, with 
even working class parents sending their kids to private English-
medium schools. There were many more cars and motorcycles on our 
roads, more TV antennae visible over the roofs of low-income 
houses, and despite all the talk of economic meltdown, the shops 
were still full.
    
So why all the pessimism? The fact is that the perception of the 
average Pakistani today is that he is not better off; indeed, he 
nostalgically recalls "the good old days."The group felt that this 
paradox could be explained by the negative attitude of the press. 
Readers have been brainwashed into believing all the nihilistic 
columns that kept appearing day in and day out, and simply do not 
accept that some positive things were also going on.
    
My personal experience after nearly three decades of freelancing 
under different guises is that not many people bother too much 
about opinion pieces like this one. Some of them cause a brief 
flutter of interest or titillation among readers, but governments 
are largely oblivious to the views of the chattering classes. It is 
my firm belief that if op-ed pieces and editorials stopped 
appearing tomorrow, the heavens would not fall. Indeed, the only 
people who would be directly affected are hacks like me and the 
anonymous editorial writers.
    
Despite my cynical and irreverent attitude towards the power of the 
press, Sami and his friends were convinced that journalists are 
largely to blame for the general despondency and malaise that are 
so widespread in contemporary Pakistan. I held that our corrupt and 
inefficient leaders are the ones responsible for the mess we are 
in, and journalists merely report what they see around them. 
Columnists give their own interpretation of events; they do not 
cause them to happen.
    
Despite this difference of opinion over the effect the press has on 
public perceptions and morale, I think the criticism that opinion 
pieces in recent years have tended to be fairly gloomy is fair. The 
performance of each government has come in for scathing attacks 
from the day it has been inducted. Granted that our venal and ham-
fisted politicians make easy targets as they charge around the 
corridors of power like bulls in the proverbial China shop. But 
they donít get much of a break from the press, unless, of course, 
journalists are firmly in one camp or the other, for one reason or 
the other.
    
Although Sami and his friends and I parted company after agreeing 
to disagree, I have been thinking about the conversation for the 
last week. What is the purpose of the press? To inform readers and 
to present them with different points of view. And how about the 
role of independent columnists like me? I see myself as a sniper 
who takes pot shots at the crass, grabby people who have seized 
control of our destiny. I take particular delight in deflating the 
pompous, and exposing the crooked. And every now and then, I enjoy 
doing an offbeat piece for the sheer pleasure of it, without caring 
too much if it serves a useful social purpose; and here, I must say 
the editor indulges me in my occasional flights of fancy.
    
Ultimately, I think I am too much of an anarchist at heart to 
conform to any particular ideology or party. I must confess to a 
certain amount of relish in my weekly public outing, and I cannot 
always burden it with a heavy message. I usually go with the flow, 
and if Sami and his friends donít like it, Iím afraid that I am too 
old to change my style or my approach at this point. This is not to 
imply that my computer keyboard is not at the service of a project 
that strikes me as innovative and helpful to other people. Indeed, 
lost causes and underdogs are my particular weakness. But I donít 
think it is the job of independent columnists to write articles in 
praise of government policies as there are enough people and 

departments already engaging in this PR exercise. As I see it, our 
task is to be constantly critical and keep our rulers on their 
toes. We may not always succeed, but we must give it a good try.
    
So all in all, this was not the best lunch I have ever had. In 
fact, at the risk of sounding ungracious, the sandwiches had 
virtually no filling at all.

DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS
980917
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Agenda for change
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Imran Khan

THERE is great depression in Pakistan today. We have a government 
that has lost the trust of every section of the Pakistani 
population by consistently betraying them. Because of its economic 
mismanagement and poor governance that has brought us on the verge 
of complete collapse, it is about to compromise on our security by 
signing the CTBT unilaterally.
    
All our institutions have virtually ceased to function. As a 
result, the law and order situation is out of control, especially 
in Karachi. The federation is under great danger as the Nawaz 
government accumulates more power at the Centre to compensate for 
its dismal and disastrous performance. The 15th Amendment, if 
implemented, would mean the end of democracy. The foreign policy is 
in tatters with Iran and Afghanistan on the verge of war and the 
latter accusing Pakistan of undermining its interests in 
Afghanistan.
    
Amidst our greatest economic crisis the government has no policy 
except borrowing expensive short-term loans (11% from the IDB) 
while it has already mortgaged the future incomes of PIA, PTCL and 
the earnings of Pakistani workers abroad.
    
To cover up its inadequacies, the Nawaz government has launched a 
PR blitz at the taxpayerís expense. Hundreds of thousands of rupees 
are spent daily by the oppressed people of this country to project 
Nawaz Sharif on TV and newspapers to prop up his sinking image.
    
I feel the only way out of this quagmire is to set up a ĎReform 
Governmentí, through the doctrine of necessity with a two-point 
agenda  Ehtasab and reforming and strengthening institutions.
    
Our democratic system has lost its self-corrective process. The 
political mafias have worked out this system, and elections now 
will only perpetuate our misery. Four governments have been removed 
on corruption yet the same people were returned to the assemblies.
    
Our political system must separate the executive from the 
legislature. This could be done through an amendment in the 
Constitution. Our constitutional lawyers can work out the details 
of a new system with due safeguards against one province dominating 
the others. Moreover, to keep out the corrupt, Article 62 has to be 
strictly enforced.
    
Secondly, a ruthless Ehtasab of all those who have been in power 
since 1985 needs to be conducted. No government can mobilize the 
people unless it brings these looters to justice; and without 
public mobilization no reform is possible. We will get substantial 
amounts of money from the crooks, and this will give us a breathing 
space before the reform process starts paying its own dividends. 
The greatest benefit of Ehtasab of the powerful will be to 
encourage virtues like honesty, hard work, decency, merit and 
accountability. Corruption has destroyed the moral fabric of our 
society and because hard work and honesty does not pay, it is 
causing a massive brain drain from the country. Honest people are 
considered fools, especially those who pay their taxes and donít 
give bribes to get things done.
    
A major reform would be decentralization and devolution of powers 
from the Centre to the provinces and down to the local government 
level. There can be no participation of the people in the 
government unless the local bodies are reformed and empowered. In 
Switzerland, one of the most successful democracies, the Cantons 
(local governments) are almost autonomous units. In the West over 
40% of the government spending takes place through the local 
government while in Pakistan it is less than 1%. The local 
governments should have plenty of autonomy and they should control 
schools, hospitals, roads, sewerage, the administration, and, 
especially, the police stations. Not only will this system 
eliminate feudalism once and for all (along with the implementation 
of the 1973 land reforms) but it will also allow the common people 
to share power for the first time in our history.
    
To reform, the government should start a programme of lining the 
canals as soon as possible and build farm to market roads. Not only 
will this create employment and stimulate demand but we can also 
increase our water resources by 33%.
    
The next reform is the most crucial for our economic survival. It 
is that of the income-tax department. Unless we collect revenues we 
cannot remain a viable country any more, given the level of our 
debt-servicing. The CBR or PRS should be computerized and the human 
element needs to be reduced. Salaries should be increased and 
bonuses be given for higher collection. Uganda increased its tax 
revenue by 600% by raising salaries and bonuses of the income tax 
department plus punishing the evaders. Peru set up a completely new 
department to get better results because the old one had been 
corrupted beyond repair.
    
One thing, however, is clear and this was confirmed by a study of 
the South Korean and Malaysian tax experience  that it is 
impossible to collect taxes if the people are not willing to 
cooperate. In order to mobilize the people, a tax culture has to be 
created.
    
First taxes have to be lower, fewer and equitable. The burden of 
taxes must fall on those who have the ability to pay, as happens in 
all civilized countries. In Pakistan, the poor have always 
subsidized the rich. Secondly, the people must feel that their 
taxes are not going to finance the extravagant lifestyle of our 
ruling elite. Why should the people pay for Nawazís press 
propaganda or for the building of roads, canals, and utilities for 
his Raiwind palaces or for that matter his recent holiday in the 
Maldives and the trip to London?

Third, the people must feel the benefit of their taxes. This will 
only happen if a substantial amount of their taxes is spent through 
their local government and benefits them directly. Fourth, the 
leadership must set an example by paying taxes. 
    
The entire National Assembly three years ago paid half as much as a 
lawyer from Karachi, Mr Khalid Ishaque, alone. Moreover, all 
"benami"transactions should be abolished. All incomes, including 
agricultural, should be taxed at the federal level.
    
Most importantly, all money whitening schemes and exemptions that 
the ruling elite have given themselves have to be abolished 
immediately. Top tax evaders should be given exemplary punishments. 
Finally, smuggling can be drastically reduced if it is attacked at 
the retail level. This step alone can enhance revenues 
substantially. I have no doubt that a determined government with a 
strong political will can more than double the revenues.
    
The next crucial reform is to free the people from the clutches of 
the bureaucracy. It has to be drastically reduced as per the 
recommendations of the 1991 Civil Service Commission. Experts 
should be hired from the market to improve efficiency. In New 
Zealand, government department posts are advertized internationally 
and, they are performance-oriented. Margaret Thatcher in the 80ís 
gave targets and bonuses and achieved tremendous results. Some 
departments that failed to perform were abolished; others improved 
their results dramatically.
    
The bureaucratic salary structure needs to be reviewed. Rather than 
give perks that are inefficient and extremely costly, a proper 
living wage needs to be paid. After that the corrupt should be 
punished severely. Merit must be awarded with promotions and better 
salary packages (in line with the private sector). An independent 
body with a set tenure to investigate corruption in government 
departments (like the National Audit Commission set up by Margaret 
Thatcher in the 80ís) needs to be established. Transparency is a 
must in government departments and this should be imposed through a 
freedom of Information Act. The electronic media should be freed 
from government control to be a check on the executive  as happens 
in the West.
    
Privatization is urgently needed. However, in our present 
situation, we are unlikely to get much for our national assets. So 
I suggest we privatize the management (as was done with the Coal 
Board in U.K. in 1980). PIA could immediately become profitable. 
Certain key industries like WAPDA can actually be handed over to 
the public through a voucher scheme as has been done in 
Czechoslovakia, while the management is given to professionals. 
   
This restructuring is going to be extremely painful in the short 
run. Therefore, a safety net for the unemployed will have to be 
provided and ĎLangarsí will have to be opened in most cities.
    
Judicial reforms are also crucial. Rather than giving justice to the weak
it protects the powerful mafias. The judiciary also needs 
to be decentralized. I believe that 80% of the cases can be solved 
at the local government levels, as happens in successful systems. 

The cases going to the higher courts should not take more than six 
months. The judiciary has to be independent of the executive and 
the salaries of the judges need to be raised substantially. Above 
all, the judiciary must protect the people from the excesses of the 
executive.

Finally, no country can progress without education. Local 
government reforms will help primary education but we need to 
declare an education emergency in the country, so serious is the 
problem. The syllabus needs to be drastically changed to the 
demands of the country and the 21st century. Plus it needs to be 
standardized so that we should not have one system for the masses 
and a different one for the elite. We need to improve the quality 
of our universities, especially encouraging research, which is non-
existent at the moment.
    
It is clear that Pakistan cannot go on much longer with the unjust, 
mafia-controlled decadent system. We can sink with the system or 
take the path of radical reforms and progress towards an 
independent and self-respecting nation. The people of Pakistan are 
dynamic and capable of huge sacrifices (they will even eat grass) 
provided they trust the government and believe that there is light 
at the end of the tunnel. 	


===================================================================
SPORTS
980919
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Asghar punches his way into lightweight final
-------------------------------------------------------------------

KUALA LUMPUR, Sept 18: Canada and England destroyed African hopes 
of a gold medal safari as the Commonwealth Games boxing finalists 
were decided here on Friday.
    
Amid Ghanain claims of bias, the impressive Canadians produced six 
finalists and England four, while the Africans who boasted before 
the Games of being the modern boxing force were reduced to five 
finalists from four nations.
    
But boxing, devoid of superstars in the league of Ato Boldon and 
Susie OíNeill, failed to draw people to the remote 12,000 seat 
Melawati stadium.
    
About 400 people, mainly from overseas with pre-paid tickets, 
watched the bouts, briefly boosted by 400 local Games volunteer 
workers who watched two Malaysians fight early and then left well 
before the one boxer near international recognition stepped into 
the ring.
    
The imposing England super heavyweight Audley Harrison, at six foot 
five and nearly 18 stone, knocked out Australian Justin Whitehead 
in the third round. The cocky Australians had talked of four gold 
and ended with four bronze.
    
In the lightweight, Asghar Ali Shah of Pakistan qualified for the 
final after a narrow 12-10 win over Mauritiusís Giovanni Frontin. 
His opponent in the final will be Raymond Narh of Ghana, who 
stopped Englishman Andrew McLean in the fifth round.
    
The Games boxing has been marred by accusations from England and 
Ghana that teams are receiving points information during bouts, and 
a television cameraman was reprimanded for on passing scores during 
the final round of the bantamweight contest involving Malaysian 
Adnan Yusoh.
    
The cameraman, crouched near Yusohís corner, denied he was speaking 
to the Malaysians, claiming he was giving the scores to his 
assistant.
    
Yusoh lost the bout by one point to Michael Yomba of Tanzania who 
fights Herman Ngoudjo of Cameroon for the gold after Ngoudjo upset 
the fancied Canadian Andrew Kooner, also by one point.
    
Chris Bessey, the English light middleweight, rattled up 41 points, 
the highest at the Games, before the referee stopped his contest 
against Scot Jackie Stewart in the fifth.
    
The long awaited clash between English middleweight John Pearce and 
Brian Magee of Northern Ireland favoured Pearce, the fresher of the 
two following his walkover in the quarter-final after Australian 
Danny Green broke his hand.
    
Pearce won 29-19, with Magee showing he had not fully recovered 
from his tough points win Thursday over defending champion Rowan 
Donaldson of Jamaica.
    
Mike Strange remained on target for his second consecutive Games 
gold beating Davie Mwale of Zambia 19-1. The Canadian light 
welterweight, who has come through the tough end of the draw, has 
dropped just two points in his last two fights.
    
The one Malaysian into the finals, light flyweight Sapok Biki, was 
four points clear of Englandís Gary Jones at the bell, but he will 
have to lift his performance in the final against the rapid hands 
of Kenyan Moses Kinyua.
    
The Seychelles with Mauritius and Kenya have two boxers each in the 
finals. Roland Raforme, the Seychelles heavyweight, provided the 
biggest semi-final upset, with a big last round to beat New 
Zealandís Garth da Silva, third ranked in the world and who led the 
fight for all but the final 30 seconds.
    
The luck of the Irish was with Scotlandís Alex Arthur who arrived 
at the stadium without his boots and Irish flyweight Liam 
Cunningham, also into the finals, was the only boxer he could find 
with similar size feet.
    
Results of semi-finals:
    
Light-flyweight (48-kg): Moses Kinyua (Kenya) beat Boudik Kazanjian 
(Cyprus) 33-14; Sapok Biki (Malaysia) beat Gary Jones (England) 15-
11.
    
Flyweight (51-kg): Liam Cunningham (Northern Ireland) beat Phumzile 
Matyhila (South Africa) 21-8; Richard Sunee (Mauritius) beat 
Jackson Asiku (Uganda) 31-16.
    
Bantamweight (54-kg): Herman Ngoudjo (Cameroon) beat Andrew Kooner 
(Canada) 17-16; Michael Yomba (Tanzania) beat Adnan Yusoh 
(Malaysia) 16-15.
    
Featherweight (57-kg): Marty OíDonnel (Canada) beat Lynch Ipera 
(Papua New Guinea) 14-12; Alex Arthur (Scotland) beat James Swan 
(Australia) 16-10.
    
Lightweight (60-kg): Raymond Narh (Ghana) beat Andrew McLean 
(England) stopped round five; Asghar Ali Shah (Pakistan) beat 
Giovanni Frontin (Mauritius) 12-10.
    
Light-featherweight (63.5-kg): Gerry Legras (Seychelles) beat Casey 
Johns (Australia) 31-11; Michael Strange (Canada) beat Davie Mwale 
(Zambia) 19-1.
    
Welterweight (67-kg): Absolom Okoth (Kenya) beat Colin McNeil 
(Scotland) 27-12; Jeremy Molitor (Canada) beat Lynden Hosking 
(Australia) 15-5.

Light-middleweight (71-kg): Scott Macintosh (Canada) beat James 
Tony (Ghana) 22-14; Chris Bessey (England) beat Jaxkie Townsley 
(Scotland) stopped 5th round.
    
Middleweight (75-kg): Jitender Kumar (India) beat Trevor Stewardson 
(Canada) 21-10; Pearce John (England) beat Brian Magee (Northern 
Ireland) 29-19.
    
Light-heavyweight (81-kg): Courtney Fry (England) beat Samuel 
Odindo (Kenya) 17-8; Troy Amos (Canada) beat Charles Adamu (Ghana) 
stopped 2nd round.
    
Heavyweight (91-kg): Mark Simmons (Canada) beat Kevin Evans (Wales) 
19-11; Roland Raforme (Seychelles) beat Garth da Silva (New 
Zealand) 15-13.
    
Super-heavyweight (+91-kg): Audley Harrison (England) beat Justin 
Whitehead (Australia) knockout 3rd round; Michael Macaque 
(Mauritius) beat Aloryi Moyoyo (Ghana) 21-11.AFP/Reuters

DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS
980919
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Yousuf takes on Saleh in Latif Masters final
-------------------------------------------------------------------
By Ian Fyfe

KARACHI, Sept 18: Old rivals Mohammad Yousuf and Saleh Mohammad 
will once again meet in the final of the 12th Latif Masters Snooker 
Championship, when they beat off the challenge of their respective 
rivals at the Karachi Club on Friday evening.
    
Defending champion and top seed Mohammad Yousuf, came from behind 
to end the pretensions of Vishan Gir 6-3, while in the first semi-
final played in the morning session, third seed Saleh Mohammad with 
a splendid break of 101 points, backed up with another of 92, swept 
past Naveen Perwani 6-2.
    
Naveen began his quest for a final berth on a confident note, 
picking up the opening frame 65/25. But Saleh levelled the frame 
scores 1-1, after winning the second 57/42.
    
>From then on it was Saleh Mohammad all the way.
    
Chalking up 101 points on the trot, his second century break in the 
tournament, Saleh pocketed the next frame 115/2 and aided with 
another break of 47, in the following frame, was cruising along 
merrily 3-1.
    
Winning the fifth frame also 84/14, aided with a quick break of 39 
points, Saleh increased his lead 4-1, before Naveen scoring with 
every visit to the table, stopped the landslide by bagging the 
sixth frame 81/25, cutting down the deficit 2-4.
    
Drawing repeated applause from the snooker fans, Vishan chalking up 
46 points and then following it up with an excellent round of 79 
points, was racing ahead 3-1, after picking up the next two frames 
76/20 and 95/14.
    
Realising that he had to curtail Vishanís scoring abilities, Yousuf 
who always brings out his best when the chips are down, began to 
play safe, a ploy which seemed to aggravate the young left-hander 
who began to play a series of unforced errors.
    
Yousuf the master craftsman fought his way out of trouble and after 
levelling the scores 3-3, went ahead 4-3, snatching the next three 
frames, with breaks of 40, 33 and 46. Soon the lead increased to 5-
3 with victory awaiting Yousuf around the corner.

Vishan began the ninth frame scoring 21 points on his second visit 
to the table and adding another 15 points on his next visit was 
leading 36/0.
    
But with the scoreboard on the move, Yousuf slowly but surely 
closed the gap 37/39, after potting the last red with the yellow 
ball. The scores were now tied 39/39, when Yousuf potted the yellow 
once again. Vishan however managed to keep his head in front 39/41, 
sinking the green only to miss the crucial brown ball.
    
The 15 frame final will be played from 11.00 a.m. on Saturday 
morning, with the winner receiving a handsome purse of Rs.50,000 
and runner-up going home richer by Rs.30,000.
    
The President of the Karachi Club, Jameel A. Sakrani, will be the 
chief guest at the final and will present the trophies to the 
winner and runner-ups.

DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS
980919    
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Pakistan beat India in third Sahara Cup match
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TORONTO, Sept 16: Pakistan went 2-1 up in the Sahara Cup by beating 
India by 77 runs in the third match here on Wednesday. Replying to 
Pakistan's 257 for five, India could collect 180 all out in 46.2
overs.

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