DAWN WIRE SERVICE
Week Ending : 26 July 1997 Issue : 03/30
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17 die as monsoon rain lashes Karachi
Secretariat to be handed to PM on Aug 14
Loan accord for $1.6bn signed with IMF
Punjab launches elite police force scheme
Two PIA GMs in NY try to run the show
Child smugglers ring busted in Dubai
Pakistan: a tourist state
India and Bangladesh invite CEPA investment, Pakistan spurns
Determinants of inflation in Pakistan
Gas to replace oil in power generation
Work on gas pipeline to begin next year
Mangoes:tremendous export potential
KSE index recovers 33 points amid low trading volume
The redundant propaganda ministry Ardeshir Cowasjee
Honesty is news Omar Kureishi
The arrogance of power Gen. K. M. Arif (retd)
Cost of ties with the US M.B. Naqvi
An end to tolerance Mazdak
Generation of cricketers
Accountability disturbs vested sports groups
Technology increases its grip on cricket
Rashid's betting charge denied by Azharuddin
PHF setup likely to undergo change
Let the Rip Van Winkles of table tennis wake up
17 die as monsoon rain lashes Karachi
Tahir Siddiqui and Omar R. Quraishi
KARACHI, July 21: Seventeen people were killed and three injured in Karachi
in rain-related tragedies on Monday - nine of them, living in the same
house, died when the roof of the Kachchi Abadi dwelling collapsed, burying
These deaths, which included six children, happened when just 30
millimetres of rain fell in the city within a three-hour period which began
early on Monday morning and was over by 6am.
Eyewitnesses told Dawn that the rainwater flooded the house of Abdul Aziz,
a vegetable vendor, in Madina Colony in Block 13-G of Gulshan-i-Iqbal. As
his wife, Khairunnisa, and their nine-year-old son came out to ask
neighbours for help the corrugated roof of their house collapsed. With this
the electric wires which were part of the roof also fell down and as soon
as they touched the wet floor the current spread through and electrocuted
nine people inside, they said.
Abdul Aziz, 55, his two daughters, 12-year old Farah and three-year-old
Ambreen, and two sons, six-year-old Rizwan and two-year-old Faizan, who
were trapped under the debris, died due to electrocution. Besides, four men
who had rented a room in the house, also died while trying to rescue Aziz
and his children. They came from a village of Chichawatni in Sahiwal and
were identified as 29-year-old Muhammad Akhter, 27-year-old Muhammad Riaz,
and two brothers, 27-year-old Muhammad Arif and 20-year-old Ghulam Rabbani.
A Press note issued by the Commissioner of Karachi attributed the deaths of
these nine persons to electrocution, but a KESC spokesman quoted by the
official APP news agency, said the deaths had occurred due to the collapse
of the house and not because they had been electrocuted.
Mohammad Shahid, Mohammad Jameel and Mohammad Irshad who, too were the
roommates of the deceased, however managed to save their lives. Some of the
victims were milk-sellers and the others worked at a bakery closeby.
Mr Shahid told Dawn that Arif and Ghulam Rabbani were his cousins and the
others were friends.
"Our room was flooded with water when I woke up around 3:40am. I went out
to make a barrier to keep the water out just five minutes before the house
He said when the roof caved in, his two cousins rushed in to rescue Aziz's
family but were jolted by the electric current. The two other room-mates
followed them and they, too, were killed. Mr Irshad said he saved his life
by jumping into a drain that leads to the river.
The Edhi Trust took the bodies to the Abbasi Shaheed hospital where doctors
said the victims had died of electrocution.
The bodies of Mr Aziz and his four children were handed over to Mr
Khairunnisa in Madina Colony. Arrangements to send the bodies of the four
men to their native village were being made.
Mohammad Siddique, the next door neighbour of the ill-fated family, and
whose house, too, collapsed in the rain, miraculously managed to save
himself and his family as he had evacuated the house barely 15 minutes
before the electric wires fell.
The residents complained that the drains leading to the Lyari had been
encroached upon and the flood water inundated their locality whenever there
was any rain.
WEATHER FORECAST: The rain that fell in Karachi was very localized and many
areas, like Clifton and Defence, were virtually left untouched. However,
heavy rain fell in many parts of District East and Central, especially in
Liaquatabad and Gulshan-i-Iqbal. Lightning, sometimes quite spectacular,
accompanied the early morning rain.
The Meteorological department recorded 30 mm of rain at the PAF Masroor
Base, which is closer to the city's southern and western districts, while
at the other end, at the airport, only 12 mm was measured, and a mere 5 mm
at the PAF Shah Faisal base.
The Meteorological department has forecast more rain and thunderstorm
during the next 24 hours. A senior Met official told Dawn that the rain on
Tuesday was caused by the same weather system which caused rain the day
Asked why even within Karachi such varied rainfall readings were recorded,
the official said Karachi was now a very large city. He said one of the
reasons, though not the only one, could be what he called the "heat island"
effect. He said buildings tended to create an effect which heated the air
around them causing the temperature to rise. He said this 'heat island'
effect might be the reason that whereas heavy rain fell in Gulshan, there
was practically none in Defence.
Secretariat to be handed to PM on Aug 14
ISLAMABAD, July 23: The palatial PM's secretariat, constructed at the
Constitution Avenue with a total cost of one billion rupees, will be handed
over to Mian Nawaz Sharif on Aug 14, the occasion of the 50th anniversary
of Pakistan, Dawn reliably learnt.
The work on the building, spread over an area of 350,000 square feet, was
started four years ago. Though the Capital Development Authority (CDA) is
still busy in giving minor finishing touches to the building, the
authorities are confident that it would be completed before Aug 14.
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his previous stint in power had decided to
have a separate secretariat. Originally, it had been planned that the PM's
secretariat would be set up in the precincts of the PM's house situated on
a hillock behind the President's house but the plans were changed and the
present site was selected. The foundationstone for the new PM's secretariat
was laid by Nawaz Sharif.
The work on the project slowed down due to the sacking of the Nawaz
government and could not be completed even during the rule of Benazir Bhutto.
The construction of the PM house in the federal capital was started during
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's time, but he never got the opportunity to enter it.
Loan accord for $1.6bn signed with IMF
ISLAMABAD, July 24: The government and the IMF have signed a Policy
Framework Paper (PFP) and the Letter of Intent (LoI) that would provide 1.6
billion dollars new ESAF/ EFF assistance to Pakistan after the formal
clearance of the Fund's executive board in October this year.
"This PFP and LoI is a joint a document that was agreed upon between
Pakistan, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund(IMF)',
declared Mr Paul Chabrier.
"The first tranche of the new agreement is expected to be released in two
to three weeks time after its clearance by the executive board in October",
he further stated.
Chabrier did not inform as to what would be the size of the Enhanced
Structural Adjustment Facility(ESAF) and the Extended Fund Facility(EFF).
"This is yet to be determined".
He pointed out that Pakistan has taken a number of measures to have
structural reforms that made its case favourable for attaining new funding
line under the ESAF and the EFF.
However, the IMF executive director,who led serious policy level talks with
the Pakistani authorities, stressed the need for having an efficient
economic system. "Pakistan is trying to adopt a new culture to have
somewhat efficient economic system", he said hoping that exemptions given
to various sections will be withdrawn by the government.
"Things would certainly further improve when your banking system is
efficient; central bank enjoys more autonomy and budget deficit is narrowed
down," the executive director told reporters.
The IMF executive director was of the view that unless the fundamental
weaknesses in the economic system were removed and the discriminatory tax
system was replaced with a modern system, things would not improve in a big
way. " But we are fairly confident that new policy level measures,which
were taken by the government,would bear fruits in the long run", he added.
Asked where some more reforms were still needed, Paul Chabrier said that
the government of Pakistan had already taken bold measures that cut the
public expenditure and initiated the process of fiscal reforms.
Nevertheless, he said that the process of structural reforms never ended
and that it would hopefully be introduced specially in the financial and
banking sector of the country.
He was asked whether the IMF was insisting to further reduce tariffs to 35
per cent which were already lowered from 65 per cent to 45 per cent. " The
first step has already been taken that helped reduce overall 75 per cent
tariffs", he said adding that Pakistan has given to understand to the Fund
that tariffs will be further reduced to 35 per cent during three years of
ESAF and EFF period.
Answering a question he said that the government has fixed 5 percent GDP
budget deficit target which he believed would be adhered to during the
current financial year.
To another question he said that downsizing of the government has been
initiated by the Nawaz Sharif administration itself without any outside
pressure. However,he said that there was a need to improve the performance
of the public sector. Similarly,he believed that the privatization
programme will be continued by the present government.
Chabrier told newsmen that the IMF has not fixed any limit to have foreign
exchanges reserves to nine weeks import period.
AGRICULTURE TAX: Talking about the agriculture tax, he said that the IMF
fully endorsed the government's efforts to collect this new tax. However,
he pointed out that the agriculture tax was a provincial subject and the
federal government could not do much about it. " But it is an important
step and it may gradually give larger resources to the government".
Responding to a question the IMF executive director said that the Fund has
not discussed the cut in defence expenditure."Our all stress is allocate
decent level of funding to social sectors," he added.
He appreciated the government's efforts to levy 3 percent General Sales Tax
(GST) at retail level. He said the GST was a Value Added Tax (VAT) which
was extremely necessary and that more and more tax payers should be found out.
Chabrier told a reporter that the IMF has not decided to lend the first
instalment of ESAF/EFF after having reviewed the progress of the first
quarter of the current fiscal." I think we are moving in a right direction".
Punjab launches elite police force scheme
LAHORE, July 25: The scheme to establish an elite police force for
combating terrorism and sophisticated crime in the Punjab was formally
launched here on Friday with the posting of a serving Pakistan Army colonel
as the project director of its training institute.
The project director of the Lahore-based Elite Police Force Training
Institute is Lt-Col Tariq Ihtesham who will be considered to be on
deputation till his retirement from the Pakistan Army on October 3. He is
proposed to be inducted in the Punjab Police on contract basis after his
The newly appointed project director has reportedly been selected for the
assignment on the basis of his experience in the field.
According to the government plan, the minimum training standard for the
elite police force personnel will be that of jawans of Pakistan Army's
Special Services Group (SSG). "The provincial government is in touch with
authorities in the General Headquarters to have the services of instructors
from the SSG as soon as other formalities of the project are finalized," a
source in the Home Department told Dawn.
He said the provincial chief secretary had already written a couple of
letters to GHQ for this purpose.
The government has reportedly decided to select the assistant
sub-inspectors and sub-inspectors for the elite force from the existing
strength of the police and the Punjab Constabulary as well as those
proposed to be recruited directly through the Punjab Public Service
The ASIs and SIs to be recruited through the Punjab Public Service
Commission and selected for the elite force will have to undergo at least a
two-year routine police training at Sihala Police College in addition to
specialized training at the elite force institute.
The idea to set up a specialised police force was conceived by the
provincial government to combat sectarian violence which started before
Moharram this year. The initiative was also designed to apprehend and
investigate the saboteurs operating in the province.
Two PIA GMs in NY try to run the show
NEW YORK, July 20: Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) office in New York
is going to have two general managers running the show from Tuesday, unless
it takes some immediate action to correct the situation.
The former general manager of PIA, Salim Jehangir, who arrived here on
Friday afternoon (July 18), insisted that "I am still the general manager
and I have high court orders which has "stayed my transfer".
Although, Mr Jehangir was reportedly handed over an official letter by the
airlines informing him that he was "relieved of his duties effective July
15, ", Jehangir insists that the high court order forbids that.
Talking to "Dawn" on telephone he insisted "I will sit on the seat of
general manger at the PIA office in New York. I will see who disobeys me."
"I will remain the G.M. until September 16, 1997, when hearing will take
place in the Lahore High Court. And if the court vacates the stay order
then I will leave," he said.
On the other hand the new general manager, Hamid Khan, told "Dawn" that "I
took over charge of the airlines New York office as soon as I alighted from
the PIA flight on July 15." He said he was following orders given to him by
the head office in Karachi. "I am incharge now," said Khan.
Saying that he had no quarrel with the newly appointed general manager,
Hamid Khan, for "he is my friend", Jehangir insisted that he was removed
without any valid reasons. "It was a personal thing."
Asked about his meeting with the Chairman of PIA, Shahid Khaqan Abbasi,
Jehangir said "I told him that my removal was wrong. I also said I am not
your or your director marketing's personal servant. I am an employee of PIA."
When pointed out that in New York he is governed by the United States and
New York state laws, he said "but the head office of which this office is a
subsidiary is governed by the Pakistan's law."
Meanwhile, lawyers here say that given the state of affairs and the orders
from the head office, the new general manager has the authority to remove
Mr Jehangir from the PIA office premises.
However, Mr Jehangir has a different understanding of the law he insists
that "I will remain in charge until I hand over all the papers over to the
new general manager."
The case is unprecedented in the PIA history for no one on foreign posting
has ever challenged the PIA head office decision."
Child smugglers ring busted in Dubai
Shafaat Yar Khan
DUBAI, July 25: Dubai security agencies continue their hunt for the arrest
of a Pakistani woman, Mai Sakina, the alleged member of a gang of child
smugglers busted by the Dubai authorities and Pakistani mission here, a few
Pakistan consul-general Sajjad Ashraf said here on Thursday that the chief
of Dubai immigration Maj Mohammed Essa has assured that Mai Sakina, who is
allegedly absconding with two minor children kidnapped from Pakistan, would
be arrested soon.
Dubai immigration authorities and Pakistan Consulate through their joint
effort arrested six members of a gang of child smugglers on July 9 and
reportedly recovered three children from their possession.
The alleged kidnappers have been handed over to the security agencies in
Pakistan and the destitute children have been flown to Karachi to join
their families on state expenses, Mr Ashraf said.
The drama unfolded on July 9 when an Iran Air flight from Bandar Abbas
landed at Dubai airport with the alleged members of the gang trying to slip
away through the security checks at the airport.
The immigration authorities detained one Abdul Haq who tried to smuggle out
a three-year-old Mohammed Abbas without valid documents. Upon questioning,
Haq declared that the child was his son but could not substantiate his
claim through documents. The child had no passport or had the entry of his
name in the passport of Hussain as a father nor he had a valid UAE visa for
On getting suspicious, the authorities informed the Pakistan consulate
officials who immediately rushed to the scene to discover that the child
had been kidnapped from Rahim Yar Khan.
Mr Ashraf, the officials said, immediately sought the details of other
passengers in the flight manifest report to discover that five other
passengers were travelling in possession of minor children who had been
allegedly kidnapped from the Punjab to be smuggled to Gulf states. He said
two of the three children had a passport but in spite of visible age of
three-year, their ages were mentioned as 12 in their passports. The
passports had no specific details of their address or other particulars.
Mr Ashraf said the gang members destroyed every bit of evidence including
the passport, boarding card and visa documents soon after boarding the
flight from Bander Abbas which made the enquiry complicated.
Pakistan: a tourist state
Ihtasham ul Haque
IN THE ABSENCE of any immediate increase in exports and foreign
remittances, the government has decided to develop the country's tourism
industry to earn $1.5 billion annually.
One of the major features of the new plan is to declare Pakistan a 'tourist
state' under which foreign and local investors will be given a big BOT
(build, operate and transfer) facility throughout the country.
"There exists a potential of an annual $1.5 billion in tourism which will
be tapped by declaring Pakistan shortly, a tourist state and offering
unprecedented facilities of BOT to the private sector and as well as to
foreign investors," Sheikh Rashid said.
The new managing director of Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation
(PTDC), Ehsan M. Pasha, when contacted said that short- and long-term
policies were being framed to earn substantial foreign exchange by
developing tourist resorts specially in the Northern Areas of the country.
"Initially we will be able to earn at least $300 million annually which
could eventually reach $1.5 billion in a maximum period of five years, " he
added. He said the main thrust of the new policy was to transfer everything
to the private sector. "And that is why all five hotels and motels owned by
PTDC will be shortly privatized."
Pasha said that the prime minister has asked him to ensure the development
of both domestic and international tourism on scientific lines and that
people are offered facilities in all tourist spots of the country.
Pasha said that he had been assured that the prime minister would release
special funds to the PTDC although there was no such likelihood for any
other government department because of the tight budgetary control.
Asked how could tourism be promoted when there was a law and order problem
in Karachi, he said it was very sad, but pointed out that the Northern
Areas which attracted more than 80 per cent of tourists, never had any law
and problem. "There has never been a single incident in the Northern Areas
during the last many decades," he said.
Various packages Mr Pasha informed, were being prepared for students,
children and elderly people to visit tourist spots, where they would pay
To a question, the new PTDC MD said that travel agents and tour operators
were being registered by PTDC to promote tourism. He said that the policy
of extending facilities to a few travel agents and tour operators would be
Pasha said there was a dire need to facilitate local and foreign tourists
and once that was done there would be revolution in the tourism industry of
Pakistan. He said that he had taken up matters with the chairman of the PIA
to extend maximum facilities to tourists at airports specially Karachi,
Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta.
He said the prime minister would soon be visiting Malaysia and has asked
the PTDC to prepare a video film and other relevant material to be
distributed there to attract tourism in Pakistan.
To a question he said that the idea was to lease out lands of tourism
attraction to the private sector as well as to foreign investors on the
basis of build, operate and transfer. He expressed hopes that foreign
investors would collaborate with local ones to develop tourist sports in
India and Bangladesh invite CEPA investment, Pakistan spurns
THE Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA), the group being pushed by the
government not to make an investment of around $6 billion in Pakistan has
signed a memorandum of understanding with Bangladesh for setting up a 600
MW thermal power plant and is negotiating another one with India which
involved investment of over $5 billion.
In India, CEPA is negotiating for setting up a 5,000 MW plant in the
southern state of Orissa, Latif M. Chaudhry, Resident Director of CEPA told
Dawn. Apart from India and Bangladesh, CEPA has also been offered
opportunities to invest in Sri Lanka. While all regional countries are
vying with each other for foreign investment, Pakistan is rejecting a
Mr Latif Chaudhry who had served the Asian Development Bank for over 18
years said that he had decided to join CEPA as these people were true
There was a misconception that CEPA had been interested in setting up the
thermal power station on imported coal as it had some coal mines in the
Philippines or somewhere else and was against the development of the Thar
Mr Chaudhry clarifying the matter said that the previous government had
been very anxious to get the project completed in the shortest possible time.
Obviously, the development of the Thar coal mines was not possible in such
a short time. Therefore, it allowed CEPA to develop first two units of 316
MW each based on imported coal. The CEPA, he said, however, agreed to
provide a fund for conducting a feasibility study of the Thar coal
reserves. An amount of $5 million, he said, was given to the government of
Pakistan in October 1996.
CEPA, he said was undeterred by the unequivocal announcement by the federal
minister for petroleum and natural resources on the floor of the National
Assembly, and has not given up hopes and is still working on the project.
"We have not yet been officially informed about the decision," Chaudhry
said, expressing hopes that the government would honour its agreement and
not back out from the commitment. Holes for the power units are being dug
at the site, he added.
CEPA, he said, has already issued a letter of intent for engineering
procurement and a construction contract of $1.8 billion to a consortium
comprising leading companies of the United States and Japan.
"CEPA will finalise the contracts and instruct the contractors to commence
work, once the PPIB and the Ministry of Water and Power make necessary
arrangements for construction of the 500 KV transmission line from Keti
Bunder to Jamshoro," he said.
Financial close of the power project was to be done simultaneously with the
transmission line project. The main concern of CEPA, he said, was that
international donors would not commit funds without the transmission line
Notwithstanding the fact, that the decision has caused a great deal of
restiveness among the people of Sindh, it would have far reaching
consequences on future foreign investment in Pakistan. "Who is going to
invest in Pakistan when you say no to such a leading company," he said.
The government of Pakistan should wake up to the reality that three main
economic and political giants, China, Japan and the US are involved in the
project, as CEPA is originally from Hong Kong which is now taken over by
China and Japanese and American companies are involved in civil works.
Chaudhry Nisar Ali who was the then federal minister for water and power
should have studied the project and given reasons instead of blindly
following the summary prepared by myopic and sycophant bureaucrats which
cites sluggish work on the project for withdrawing the letter of support.
In fact it was not CEPA but the government of Pakistan which was at fault.
The LOS was withdrawn only last month but even before that the government
of Pakistan had failed to complete the work supposed to be done by it. For
instance the tender for laying transmission line should have been finalised
in December 1996 but it failed.
The failure on the part of the government would not only affect CEPA but
also other projects coming up in Central Punjab.
CEPA has already acquired 1,202 hectares at Keti Bunder and had signed a
lease agreement with the government of Sindh involving a payment of Rs 89
"International lawyers take $300 to $400 an hour for negotiating projects
of such nature and we have negotiated this project for over a year with the
government of Pakistan," Mr Chaudhry said while replying to query about the
investment made by CEPA in the project.
Determinants of inflation in Pakistan
Naeem Ahmed and Mohammad Arshad
DESPITE several announcements during the 1990s by each of the last three
elected governments regarding reduction of inflation from double to single
digits, there is no evidence at present that in the coming years this dream
will materialise. This can be attributed primarily to the bleak economic
scenario prevailing in the country.
Several studies have been conducted to explore the causes of inflation
during the 1990s. Generally, monetary growth, public policy, administered
prices, rise in the prices of imported goods, inflationary expectations and
output growth are termed as the determinants of inflation in Pakistan.
However, their actual contribution towards inflation is debatable. One
group of economists considers inflation a monetary phenomenon, while the
other assigns more weightage to rise in administered prices and increase in
prices of imported goods as determinants of inflation. Overall, host of
factors from both the demand and supply side are responsible for the recent
price spiral in Pakistan. The following is a brief review of the factors
responsible for inflation during this period.
Causes of Inflation
The GDP growth has a significant dampening effect on inflation. Pakistan's
GDP has grown at an average rate of more than 6 per cent per annum during
the last decade. During the first half of 1990, however, the growth rate
remained at an average of 4 per cent per annum which may be attributable to
the transition of economy from greater government role to private sector,
inefficiency of public sector enterprises, lower production in large scale
manufacturing, poor agriculture sector performance and distortionary public
policies. Most public sector enterprises have become inefficient and have
been incurring losses for several years. More than 4000 industrial units in
the private sector are 'sick' due to which performance of the manufacturing
sector is poor for the last few years and recorded a negative growth of 1.4
per cent this year. The agricultural sector, which contributes 26 per cent
to the GDP also exhibited vulnerability during the last five years' period.
This sector recorded a meagre growth of 2.5 per cent per annum during last
five years which is even lower than 3.0 per cent population growth rate.
The effect of poor agriculture growth is also evident from the fact that
'food group (weight 49.35 per cent), in CPI recorded 107 per cent inflation
from 1990-91 to May, 1997 as compared with over all inflation of 97.57 per
cent and non- food inflation of 88.0 per cent during the same period.
Furthermore, the country faced a severe wheat shortage this year due to
lower than targeted production of wheat in the country, delay in its import
and failure of responsible authorities in its prompt distribution in
different areas of the country.
As far as administered prices are concerned the government increased the
procurement price of wheat, gram, rice, sugarcane, etc, this year in the
range of 10 per cent to 40 per cent to give impetus to the production of
these crops. Actual quantities of these crops will come into the market
with a time lag of at least six months. Prices, however, increased soon
after the government's announcement. Distor-tionary public policy towards
agriculture sector in the past has put us into the situation that,
Pakistan, an agricultural country, is bound to import wheat, milk, cooking
oil, pulscs, meat, etc to the tone of $ 2.0 billion annually. Solution of
half of trade deficit problem of the country hinges in self-sufficiency in
agricultural production. Similarly, the index of fuel, lighting and
lubricants' in CPI, which comprises electricity gas and POL products
increased 19 per cent during the year from end June, 96 to May 1997 and
98.59 per cent from 1990-91 to May 1997 which caused rise in cost of
production and transportation cast. One reason for rise in the prices of
POL products in the country is a price hike of POL in the international
market determined by demand and supply forces. The other one is the
frequent devaluation of domestic currency which is controllable with better
economic management in the country. Almost every increase in administered
prices adds more and more grieves, miseries and hardships to the consumer
Inflation in Pakistan is claimed to be a monetary phenomena. Pakistan saw a
very high rate of monetary growth between 1990-91 and 1995-96, averaging
18.8 per cent per annum. Taking into account real GDP growth and inflation,
we calculate an average inflationary gap of 4.0 per cent for the period, as
measured by the following formula.
Inflationary Gap=monetary growth-(real GDP growth +price inflation) The
National Credit Consultative Council (NCCC) has approved a monetary growth
rate figure of 14 per cent for 1997-98. This is indicative of a failure on
the part of the monetary authorities to control monetary growth due to high
inflation, financing requirements of large and persistent budget deficits
of the government and the monetary overhang of previous years' excessive
Increases in the world price of imports in the world market and a 40 per
cent devaluation / depreciation in the Pakistan rupee from January 1991 to
June 1997 fuelled inflation to unmanageable levels. Without removing the
causes of devaluation, we are lowering the value of our currency to make
our commodities competitive. As devaluation fuel inflation, it becomes
necessary to devalue further to keep our market competitiveness intact.
This has put the Pakistani rupee in a devaluation spiral.
Large and persistent levels of trade and current account deficits due to
stagnant exports and high levels of imports is posing several implication
for inflation. More than 60 per cent of our exports consist of cotton and
cotton-based products which are facing cut throat competition in the world
market. Our major imports are machinery, chemicals and oil which registered
a faster growth in price in international market due to the monopolies
created by developed countries.
The tax to GDP ratio in Pakistan is only 13 to 14 per cent, leaving the
government short of funds to run the machinery of the government. The
government has to resort to debt financing, money financing and financing
from external sources which put upward pressures of different magnitudes on
the price level.
The ratio of indirect to total tax revenues in Pakistan is more than 70 per
cent. It has been the practice of all governments from past to present to
tap revenues from indirect taxes, due to which inflation in the country has
reached a very high level. The debt burden of Pakistan is almost equal to
GDP, which has made budget making a very unpleasant task for the government
every year. The government has to borrow to service the existing debt. Due
to this, the debt pool is inflating day by day. As getting unlimited funds
from abroad is not possible (although least inflationary in nature) the
government has to resort to note printing which fuels inflation severely.
Borrowing from the banking and non-banking sector also has its limitations.
The government has to compete with the private sector and offer attractive
rates of return on its securities. The government is offering more than a
17 per cent rate of return on its securities leaving banks in a liquidity
crunch and putting upward pressure on the lending rate to the private
sector. In the wake of a high lending rate the revival of the economy is
Consequences of inflation
During an inflationary period it becomes very difficult for the government
to fulfil its commitments of achieving macro economic targets. Almost all
targets, such as GDP growth, price inflation, bank borrowing, trade
deficit, budget deficit, are violated. This hurts the credibility of the
government. Costs of development project and non-development expenditure
increase due to which the government needs more funds next year by the
amount of inflation to keep economic activity at the level of previous year.
A low saying rate in the country is also one of the causes of rising
inflation. In the wake of 14 per cent inflation and an average 10 per cent
deposit rates, depositors are getting negative real rates of return on
their deposits. Income of the individuals is being diverted from saving to
consumption and non- productive channels like purchase of real estate and
conspicuous consumption leaving saving at a very low level of 11 per cent
in the country.
Redistribution of income takes place during an inflationary regime.
Resources are moving from lender to borrower. As in the case of Pakistan,
lenders are small deposit holders and borrowers the rich elite. Double
digit inflation is aggravating the already high inequality between the rich
and the poor.
A kind of rent seeking culture develops due to inflation where the business
man earns lucrative profits by trading existing production. This provides a
disincentive for him to be involved in the production process. An
entrepreneurial culture cannot develop in this situation. Trading further
raises the price level by manipulation of the market through hoarding and
black marketing by the rent seekers while production eases the upward
pressure on price level in an economy.
As inflation is a regressive tax on fixed and low income groups, it can
cause anxiety, unrest and many other social problems in the country.
Dollarization, as defined by the ratio of foreign currency deposits to
total monetary assets (M2), takes place due the decline in the value of
domestic currency. This process never reverses until or unless the value of
the local currency is not restored as is evident from the study of
transitional economics of the socialist block and other developing
countries. Foreign currency deposits in Pakistan have reached the $ 9.4
billion mark since their inception in 1992 to date acting as a hanging
sword on the head of the government. Inflation expedites this trend further.
Devaluation is also one of the consequences of inflation. Due to double
digit inflation Pakistan has been caught in the vicious circle of
devaluation (devaluation inflation loss of competitiveness again devaluation).
As a result of inflation real money balances (M/P) decline and we need more
money to exchange the same quantity of goods and services. This puts
pressure on the printing press to print more and more currency notes to
meet the requirement. This is the extra cost attached to inflation.
A persistent high level of monetary growth should never be compromised to
maintain stability in the external value of currency and to control
inflation effectively. The major factor towards excessive monetary growth
in the case of Pakistan is high government borrowing as compared to the
stipulated credit allocation in the credit plan. This leaves less room for
the private sector which is considered more productive as compared to
public sector. The Central Bank should not act as the printing press for
the government's finance ministry. For example during 1996-97 the
government of Pakistan has taken more than Rs. 80 billion in credit as
compared to the revised target of Rs. 61 billion from the total domestic
credit expansion of Rs. 136 billion. Unlimited injection of credit into the
economy will aggravate the already uncontrollable inflation in the country.
Quick and transparent privatisation of government sector enterprises and
use of privatisation proceeds towards debt retirement will ease the
government's position by educing the amount of debt servicing. It will also
lower the government's budget deficit by the amount of losses incurred by
Down-sizing the budget deficit by cutting administrative expenditures and
through increases in revenues by broadening the tax base. The government
should consult that group of privileged people who is not contributing to
government exchequer currently so that it does not have to resort to
increasing administered prices to get extra revenue.
Inflation in Pakistan is hard to control efficiently and quickly with out
enhancement of agricultural production. There is need to provide credit to
small farmers. His weak financial position and skill level prevent him from
employing modern equipment and inputs to his farm. It is no easy task for
small farmers in Pakistan to obtain credit. It is possible only after
several visits to the bank and after paying some percentage of the loan to
mobile credit officer (MCO) or to other officials. This increases the
effective rate of return and multiplies his miseries.
Banks are unable to offer a positive real rate of return to depositors in
Pakistan due to huge intermediation costs and stuck up loans.
Implementation of recently approved laws by the parliament will help cure
this situation. Process of privatisation of the nationalised commercial
banks (NCBs) should be speeded up keeping in view the transparency of this
As a long term policy measure, human capital must be equipped with skill
and knowledge to enhance its productivity and efficiency, and ultimately
tame inflation. The standard of living and the level of education has a
strong bearing on population growth and other matters of social and
economic well being. Autonomy granted to SBP is also a right step towards
financial soundness and restoration of the value of currency. Performance f
SBP hinges on the success of recovery drive, controlling monetary expansion
to public sector for budgetary support and reducing the lending rate by
lowering the intermediation cost of the banking system.
Consensus has developed among the economists that the inflation and output
growth are negatively correlated specially at the level of double digit
inflation. An unclear trade-off between inflation and unemployment at a
very low level of inflation of 3 to 4 per cent is also identified. On the
basis of these findings a low inflation of 2-3 per cent is desirable. It
can be achieved through curtailment of monetary expansion, lowering budget
deficit, promoting efficiency by education and skill, enhancing agriculture
production through research and credit availability, promoting national
savings by offering positive rate of return on deposits and identifying
profitable avenues of investment and revival of the economy by solving the
problems of sick industrial units and quick and transparent privatisation
of public sector enterprises.
Gas to replace oil in power generation
ISLAMABAD, July 22: The government is evolving a strategy to substitute gas
for oil in power generation, reduce import of oil, obviate counter
productive investment in oil import infrastructure, import natural gas and
increase production of indigenous gas through quicker depletion within safe
reservoir limits up to the time when imported gas becomes available.
The Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) has desired an acceleration in
the import of gas and an increase in the production of indigenous gas with
safe reservoir limits.
Two sponsors from Turkmenistan, two from Iran and one from Qatar have
already offered to bring gas to Pakistan by the year 2002 and according to
the ministry of petroleum and natural resources, the healthy competition
has already caused reduction in pipeline cost to under $2 billion promising
minimum landed price of natural gas.
According to a summary prepared by the ministry of petroleum and natural
resources if Pakistan were to stay the historical course, it would be
needing over 600,000 barrels of oil by year 2000 to support a 7 per cent
growth rate in the economy.
The option of prioritizing gas import and faster depletion of local
reserves would have the following advantages:
1. Substantially more (tentatively 300 to 500 million cubic feet per day)
of additional gas production capability beyond that already planned.
2. Substantial saving (about $250-$400 million per year) in foreign
exchange from reduction in imported oil through substitution of additional
3. Obviating massive but counter productive investment on expansion of oil
import, storage and transportation infrastructure which would become
redundant to some extent beyond 2002 after import of gas.
4. Realizing multiple benefits of massive reductions in capital, operating
and environmental costs by using gas for power generation.
5. Laying the base for an economical and efficient fuel strategy into the
All proposals received for international pipelines for import of gas are
said to be based on commercial financing and there would be no public
sector participation in financing of the pipelines.
But there would have to be an expansion as well as addition of gas
transmission infrastructure from the terminal of international gas pipeline
within the country.
In order to estimate the cost of this exercise, the MP&NR has undertaken a
study with funding from Asian Development Bank grant of $526,000.
It is also proposed to require major gas producers with large reserves
especially OGDC (Qadirpur and Uch), PPL (Sui and Kandkot) and Mari gas to
determine the feasibility of quicker depletion and estimate of investment
in expanding their existing facilities.
Higher rate of depletion is proposed to be maintained up to the time of
flow of imported gas and the rate would then be adjusted down. The spare
capacity of production is proposed to be used later for peak shaving in
Work on gas pipeline to begin next year
ISLAMABAD, July 23: Pakistan, Turkmenistan, the UNOCAL of USA and Delta Oil
of Saudi Arabia entered into a joint agreement here on Wednesday for
undertaking construction of the Turkmen-Afghanistan-Pakistan Gas Pipeline
Project by December next year.
The first delivery of 1,000 million cubic feet per day of Turkmen gas will
be made to Pakistan by 2001. The approximate cost of laying about 1600-km
long 48 inches diameter gas pipeline is estimated at two billion dollars.
The visiting deputy premier and oil minister of Turkmenistan, Mr Batir
Sarjaev, signed on his government's behalf. The Federal Minister for
Petroleum and Natural Resources, Ch. Nisar Ali Khan, signed on behalf of
the Government of Pakistan.
The signatories agreed to finalize the price of gas by Sept 15 this year
and to set up a consortium by October.
Construction work will begin by the end of next year.
Ch. Nisar Ali Khan said that this project would transform the fate of the
entire region. It would be a trendsetter for projects in
telecommunications, power transmission, road links with Central Asian
Republics and oil supply from Central Asia to South Asia, he added.
The Turkmen minister said the people of the two countries desired early
implementation of the project. He said that this was a landmark project
which Pakistan and Turkmenistan had initiated for welfare of their people.
Pakistan will be facing acute energy problems by the end of this century
and different options, including import of gas, are being considered by the
An MoU was signed to bring Turkmenistan gas to Pakistan via Afghanistan. As
a follow-up a protocol was signed on May 14 in Ashkhabad.
Pursuant to the protocol, a joint working group met in Islamabad and
Ashkhabad to resolve issues pertaining to gas pricing and formation of
Mangoes:tremendous export potential
Sada Hyat Jalbani
The title 'King of Fruits' awarded to mangoes in Pakistan suggests the
esteem in which it is held in our part of the world.
The fruit is rich in vitamins A, B and C and contains water, proteins,
sugar, fats, fibre and iron etc. Ripe mangoes are eaten raw as dessert. In
some countries, the fruit is dehydrated and preserved as dried mango.
Mangoes are also processed into puree, juices, jams, jellies and mango
nectar etc. Unripe mangoes are used in pickles and chutneys.
The world mango production stood at 18.5 million tons in 1993. The figure
rose to 19.2 millions tons in 1996, showing an increase of 3.78 per cent.
India is the leader in global mango production. During the 1993-96 period,
its output was 10 million tons yearly. Mexico and China producing 1.4
million and 1 million tons respectively in 1996 are second and third.
Pakistan is the fourth largest mango producing country in the world with
880,000 tons in 1996. Other major mango producers include Indonesia
(780,000 tons in 1996), Thailand (650,000 tons), Nigeria (500,000 tons),
Philippines (480,000 tons), Brazil (410,000 tons) and Haiti(230,000 tons)
etc. Substantial quantities are also grown in Taiwan, Madagascar,
Bangladesh, Tanzania, Egypt, Dominican Republic, Zaire and Mali etc.
Cultivation in Pakistan
Land under mango cultivation in Pakistan has expanded from 73,000 hectares
in 1984-85 to 85,000 hectares in 1993-94, an increase of 16 per cent. While
mangoes can be found in Balochistan and NWFP, it is mainly grown in Punjab
Over 60 per cent of the mangoes grown in Pakistan are supplied by the
Punjab. Only 8,000 tons come from Balochistan and NWFP. The rest is
produced in Sindh.
Multan and Mirpur Khas are noted for their big mango gardens. It is,
however, Rahim Yar Khan which is the single largest mango producing
district in Pakistan, with more than 26,000 acres under cultivation.
Bhong, Rahimabad, Jamaldinwali, Shaikhwahan, Mianwali Qureshian, Zahir Pir,
Bagh-o-Bahar, Dera Shams and Tarenda Mohd Panah are big mango growing
centres in the district. Hyderabad, Bahawalpur, Muzafargarh, Shujeabad are
other important mango areas. Mango production in Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari,
Okara, Faisalabad, Jhang, Toba Tek Singh, Sargodha in the Punjab and
Nawabshah, Naoshehro Feroz, Khairpur (Mirs) and Ghotki in Sindh, is also
There are many varieties of mangoes. The most popular include Chaunsa,
Sindhri, Langra, Anwar Ratole, Fajri, Dosehri, Saroli, Malda, Sonehra,
Totapari, Neelam, Sensation, Collector and Beingan Phalli etc.
The maturing time depends upon variety and growing area. The time and
length of season of each area is determined, primarily, by climate (heat
units). Like other crops, mangoes in Mirpur Khas and Hyderabad region
mature about three weeks earlier than those cultivated in the Rahim Yar
Khan-Bahawalpur-Multan belt. The mango season in Pakistan lasts about four
& half months from mid- May to end September. Supplies reach a peak during
the period from mid-June to mid-July.
Global export increased by 26 per cent to 306,330 tons in 1994 from 223,695
in 1991. A little over 40 per cent of it originates from Mexico. Their
exports climbed to 125,000 tons in 1994 from approximately 100,000 tons in
1991, showing a rise of 26 per cent as shown in Table I.
Ranking eighth in production, Philippines is the second largest exporter of
this fruit. Its exports, however are less than one-fourth of what Mexico
exported during the period under review. India, the Netherlands, Pakistan
and Brazil are other significant suppliers of mangoes.
Pakistan's share in global mango exports was 4.73 per cent in 1991, which
rose slightly to 4.84 per cent in 1994. Other countries with considerable
mango exports include UAE, Venezuela, Haiti, South Africa and Hong Kong.
Pakistan's mango exports were valued at $3 million in 1994-95. The figure
went up $4 million in 1995-96, showing an increase of 33.3 per cent over
the previous year as shown in Table II.
Some 20 countries are on our mango buyers' list, with Dubai at the top,
with around 90 per cent of Pakistan's mango shipments destined for this
country. The UK and Saudi Arabia are other significant importers.
Consignments to Singapore, Norway, Germany, Kuwait and France are also
Conspicuously absent from Pakistan's mango importers' list is Hong Kong,
the second largest buyer of this fruit in the world. Japan is a recent and
remarkable appearance on the list and imported 104,000 tons from Pakistan
in 1995-96 and 72,000 tons in 1996-97 (July-Nov).
As indicated in Table III, the USA is the biggest importer of mangoes. It
imported 250,000 and 270,000 tons in 1993 and 1994 respectively, which is
around 44 per cent of total world imports as shown in Table III.
Hong Kong is the second largest buyer accounting for 10 per cent of all
imported mangoes. It imported 25,916 tons in 1994. Between 1991 and 1994,
its imports increased 76 per cent.
The Netherlands is the third largest importer with a rising imports trend
which almost doubled between 1991 and 1993. There was a further increase of
17 per cent in 1994. During that year this country's mango imports were
The UAE, UK, Saudi Arabia, France, Germany, Singapore, Malaysia and Japan
are countries who import roughly around 8,000 to 12,000 tons. Other
important importers include Kuwait, Belgium, Luxemberg, Portugal, Spain,
Switzerland, Austria and Italy etc.
The following hints may prove useful for enhancement of the level of common
approval and acceptance for mangoes in the international market.
Mango harvesting should be avoided in the early morning to reduce latex
While harvesting, a stem of 1.5 cm should be left and be trimmed back to
2-3 mm at packing.
Before packing, the fruit should be washed and given fungicidal of heat
treatment. Mangoes are usually treated against anthracnose with hot water
(ISO standard 6660 - mangoes, guide to storage).
The fruit must be cooled rapidly within 24 hours.
Minimum weight of an individual mango meant for export should not be less
than 220 g. The most saleable weights are 300-550 g. per fruit.
Packaging should be strong, preferably white, attractive and clean.
The fruit should be individually wrapped in tissue paper packed in one
layer. A 2-kg packet, containing six mangoes, is preferred in the Gulf.
However, guidance in this regard may be sought from the concerned importers.
The box must have enough holes for ventilation and should be fully lidded.
In order to receive a tariff preferential treatment in European countries
and Japan under their GSP Schemes, the consignments must be accompanied by
Form 'A', dully autheniciated by Export Promotion Bureau, Government of
Scheduled international cargo flights lifting fresh produce from Pakistan
are being operated only from Karachi and Lahore airports. The main mango
centres are far from these cities.
The fruit gets badly damaged and its freshness wanes during land
transportation. Thus, much of the produce initially meant for exports is
disposed at throw-away prices in the local market. To prevent this great
national loss, regular cargo flights be provided from airports near
important mango growing areas: Multan, Rahim Yar Khan, Sukkur and Sindhri
Our farmers grow choicest variety mangoes in the world. But due to poor
storage, grading, packing facilities and lack of temperature-controlled
transportation system, our exports have been far below the desired level.
To achieve better results such facilities should be provided in mango
growing areas on top priority basis.
Various technological advancements in cultivation, handling and processing
mangoes are rapidly taking place in many a mango growing/exporting country
in the world. To study their 'model' and benefit from their experience, a
mango growers/exporters delegation be organised to visit selected countries
viz: USA, Mexico, Brazil, UK, Philippines, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong and
Mango farmers in Pakistan have formed their association only on local
basis. There is a need for an association on all Pakistan level. This will
provide an effective FORUM to voice problems and bring forward valuable
suggestions for making improvements in mango cultivation and its exports.
There is no DRIED MANGO concept in Pakistan, though it has the status of an
industry in many countries. Entrepreneurs in Pakistan may venture into this
profitable field. Ready buyers may be found in Europe, the USA and Japan.
As stated above, mangoes mature about three weeks earlier in
Hyderabad/Mirpur Khas region than those cultivated in the Rahim Yar
Khan-Bahawalqur-Multan belt. Thus, delivery of firstling/early Punjab
varieties coincides with that of near-mid Sindh varieties.
To avoid 'over-supply' resulting in heavily reduced prices for growers
during peak delivery weeks and to extend the length of the mango season in
Pakistan, it is advisable to cultivate early varieties only in Sindh and
late varieties in Punjab. The agriculture departments of the two provinces
and mango research institutes should suggest to growers of the respective
regions, suitable varieties for cultivation.
To attract the attention of mango-importing countries, Pakistan Mango Shows
may be organised in major cities in Pakistan as well as abroad.
The retail prices of this fruit in importing/consuming countries are
attractive and re-export of mangoes to third countries is a lucrative
business. New exporters do not usually, have the exact idea about retail
prices in import markets. They find it difficult to quote the right prices
to their buyers. Thus, they fail to get an optimum profit.
There is a need for market/price intelligence reports, so that exporters
can keep themselves abreast about latest developments in this connection.
To achieve this, periodical market intelligence and market development
exercises may be conducted.
KSE index recovers 33 points amid low trading volume
Our Staff Reporter
KARACHI, July 24: The Karachi Stock Exchange index of 100-share managed to
recover in part the overnight losses as some of the foreign funds and local
institutional traders made active covering purchases in blue chips at the
Volume figure, however, fell from the overnight peak level of 279 million
shares to 145 million shares, reflecting the absence of leading
bargain-hunters and speculators.
In the morning session, the index recovered 35 points at 1,984.11 as
compared to 1,949.13 a day earlier but in the evening session it weakened
slightly owing to selling in some of the leading shares and fell to show
final gain of 32.68 points at 1,981.81 points.
Owing to heavy buying in pivotals such as PTCL, ICI Pakistan and Hub-Power,
the total market capitalization, which has fallen below the recently
achieved barrier of Rs 610 billion, also rose by Rs 8 billion to Rs 602.020
"News that the visiting IMF team has agreed to sign a letter of intent
after two weeks discussions on various structural reforms for the release
of $1.5 billion credit under the Extended Structural Adjustment Facility
(ESAF) seems to be the chief inspiring factor behind the rally," some
They said Pakistan urgently needs credit line for debt repayments and for
some other payments and the release of the first tranche could provide the
market a major push to consolidate its current gains.
But what is disturbing is that investors are not inclined to move out of
half a dozen shares as they are unsure about the direction of the market
and until that happens any rally might remain inconclusive, said a leading
After having fallen by 67 points, breaching the barrier of 2,000 points
overnight on selling followed by prime minister's visit to the Karachi
Stock Exchange, the smart recovery is welcome as it might lead the market
to a safer position, said a leading analyst.
The losing shares maintained a fair lead over the advancing ones as the
strength of some base shares failed to spillover to other counters. Volume
fell from the overnight all-time record figure of 279 million shares to 145
million shares as losers led gainers by 141 to 87, with 59 shares holding
on to the last levels.
Bulk of the support remained confined to PTCL and ICI Pakistan, which
together accounted for 90 million shares and the interesting feature was
that both of them recovered overnight losses.
Big gainers were led by Pakistan Gum Chemicals, which rose by Rs 9 on
active support, on news of larger export, followed by Javed Omer, Engro
Chemicals, PSO, Pakistan Refinery, Fauji Fertilizer and Adamjee Insurance,
which rose by Rs 3 to Rs 5.75.
News that final dividend from the BOC Pakistan for the year ending
September 30, 1997, might be on the higher side pushed its price to Rs 165,
with a net gain of Rs 10. It has already given an interim dividend of 15%.
East-West Insurance, General Tyre and Sana Industries led the list of
leading losers, falling by Rs 2 to Rs 7. Dawood Hercules, Siemens Pakistan,
Shell Pakistan and Mari Gas were some other prominent losers.
PTCL topped the list of most actives, up Rs 1.30 on 44 million shares,
followed by ICI Pakistan, higher 95 paisa on 43 million shares, Hub-Power,
firm 85 paisa on 19 million shares, Dewan Salman, up 75 paisa on 13 million
shares, FFC-Jordan Fertilizer, higher 90 paisa on 5.500 million shares, and
Dhan Fibre, steady 10 paisa on 2.250 million shares.
Other actively traded shares were led by Japan Power, firm 35 paisa on
1.890 million shares, D. G. Khan Cement, lower 10 paisa on 0.356 million
shares, Sui Northern, off 50 paisa on 0.262 million shares, Al-Faysal Bank,
up 50 paisa on 0.192 million shares, and Honda Atlas Cars, unchanged on
0.176 million shares.
DIVIDEND: Al-Meezan Mutual Fund, cash 11.80 per cent.
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Back to the top.
The redundant propaganda ministry
MY column last Sunday (July 13) touched upon the matter of corruption in
the doling out of Octroi contracts by the local government department of
the Sindh government (ministries in Sindh are known as departments), whose
minister is Dr Farooq Sattar. Millions are being lost to the people, and
millions are being made by the corrupt, the dishonest, and the greedy.
A candid minister of Sindh called me naive. Why do you think we fight over
portfolios? He asked. Do you think it is for the benefit of the people? Do
you really not know who wins, who loses?
On July 16, Dawn published a letter from the 'information department' of
the Government of Sindh (its minister, Chief Minister Liaquat Jatoi),
headed 'Octroi duty'. It stated, inter alia, "The Government maintains that
the allegations made by Mr Cowasjee are baseless and malicious," and "the
revenues of the local councils have increased by Rs 900 million, which is
an all-time record," emphasizing thereby that had 'transparency' prevailed,
the revenues would have perhaps increased by Rs 9,000 million. The
knowledgeable say that a clean Octroi contract for one single union
council, Darsana Channo (which includes the Steel Mill, Port Qasim and
other heavies) should fetch an auction bid of close to Rs 700 million.
Had Secretary, Information, Shafiq Piracha checked his facts? I asked. No.
His department had merely reproduced the letter sent by the local
government department, i.e. the octroi department. His clarification, under
the same heading, was published on July 17.
Piracha had heard rumblings about octroi corruption, concerning which he
had read a report published in Ummat that morning. I asked him if he had
seen the note of July 5 sent to his minister by Chief Secretary Saeed
Mehdi, headed 'Irregularities in Octroi Contracts'. He had not. For his and
for the public's information, here it is:
"A large number of complaints have been received in respect of the octroi
contracts being given for the current financial year all over Sindh. I have
been writing to the Local Government & Rural Development Department to take
notice of the same (copies are enclosed). In addition to these complaints,
the people of the province have also been talking about it. While some
complaints relate to the award of contract at rates less than last year's
auction amount, some others mention that auctions have been held in closed
rooms and not in the open - still some others say that auction has not been
held at all and all proceedings have been fictitious and tailor-made to
accommodate some favourites. Since it is adversely affecting the
credibility of the government agencies, it is proposed that a high-level
committee comprising the Chairman of the Chief Minister's Inspection &
Evaluation Team, Additional Secretary Local Government & Rural Development
Department (Mr Manzoor Syed) Director, Anti-corruption (Mr Akbar Arain) be
appointed to look into the octroi and similar contracts being awarded by
the local councils as well as the Local Government Department and put up a
report within a fortnight positively. Further, all those contracts which
have been awarded at rates 20% less than last year's auction amount should
be cancelled forthwith and re-auctioned strictly in accordance with the
procedure / policy."
We presume that the recommended committee was constituted, that it managed
to accurately assess the loss caused to the exchequer, and that in the
interest of 'transparency' the report will be published.
As for the 'Information' Ministry and its various departments, what
function do they have other than to misinform and disinform the public of
Pakistan at the public's expense? The main tools: Pakistan Broadcasting
Corporation and Pakistan Television, and the joint stock company, Shalimar
Recording and Broadcasting Company Ltd. (SRBC), in which the combined PBC
and PTV are the major shareholders.
Are Shalimar's private shareholders happy? No. PBC/PTV nominate five
directors to its Board and the private sector elect four. One government
nominee is the information secretary, who, by virtue of his status, chairs
the Board. the directors of the company, supposedly independent and working
in the interests of the shareholders, have always been coerced by the
government into doing the opposite.
SRBC, the owners of the hardware (the transmitting equipment) had a
non-extendable three-year contract with NTM for software. In September
1994, half way through, on orders from the 'higher-ups' of the prime
minister's house, Chairman Hussain Haqqani, despite the protests of the
private sector directors, prevailed upon the majority to execute a ten-year
contract with NTM, freezing the rates for twelve years, to the detriment of
the shareholders and for the benefit of the 'favourite', NTM. Written
protests addressed to Naheed Khan of the PM's secretariat went unheeded.
Then, early in April 1996, when Secretary Haji Akram was chairman, he asked
the company to carve out a large portion of amenity plot ST-27 on the hill
in KDA Scheme 1 (leased out by the KDA on which its transmitting tower had
been installed) and hand it over to one Mr Rafiq Habib to enlarge the area
of the adjacent plot on which stood his house. Again, the private
shareholders protested. They were told that if they did not follow the
dictates of the 'higher-ups' the transmitting area would be declared 'a
public nuisance', transmitting suspended, and the entire plot handed over
to Habib. The private sector, headed by director Rashid Latif, held out.
This resulted in Rashid Latif receiving repeated telephone calls from
various lower orders of the Karachi CIA office informing him that CIA SSP
Wajid Durrani wished to meet him urgently. Eventually, Durrani himself came
on the line and asked Latif to come to the CIA office on April 16 as a very
important message had to be delivered to him personally. Latif went as
ordered. Durrani told him that he had been instructed to tell Latif to
behave himself or face serious consequences. Behave how, Latif asked?
Durrani could not say, but he did stress the fact that the matter was
deadly serious and, besides, everyone knew the meaning of such messages
when delivered by the CIA.
The next day Javed Pasha, stepped in and confirmed to Latif that the threat
related to the handing over of the hill-top plot. The directors dug in
their heels, dallied and stalled. The plot was saved by the fall of the
second PPP government.
This government has acted no better. On June 18 two notifications were
issued by the Establishment Division of the Cabinet Secretariat. The first
stated that the ubiquitous 'competent authority' had been pleased to
terminate the contract appointment of Agha Nasir, chief executive officer
of the SRBC. The second notified the appointment of Mr Khalid Hassan as CEO
on a two-year contract. What right did the 'competent authority' have to
meddle in the management of a joint stock company? The private sector
requisitioned a special board meeting.
Chaired by additional secretary Ismail Patel, the directors met on July 5.
There was a two-hour impasse as the government directors, who praised the
services of the sacked CEO, were unable to justify the notifications.
Finally, one of them left the room to talk to Agha Nasir, whereafter Nasir
was called in and, as instructed, informed the directors that he had
decided to resign. The chairman then proceeded to accord de jure cover to
the appointment of Khalid Hassan.
The private sector directors asked who and what is Khalid Hassan? How far
did his proficiency extend? The chairman declared he would produce the
man's CV in a matter of days and requested the Board's approval of the
appointment then and there. The private sector directors protested.
On July 7, a hopeful Latif, narrated the facts and appealed to the prime
minister "in his capacity as the chief executive of this country, the
custodian of the supremacy of law, the proponent of democracy,
privatization and market economy, and the declarer of the lofty principle
of appointments on merit only," requesting that the two notifications be
rescinded and the board of SRBC be allowed, as hitherto, to appoint the CEO
of its choice.
On July 8, he wrote to SAPM "Anwar Zahid Sahib" (a former brother
director), ending by stating that he was "absolutely confident that you
would avert a situation whereby some of the Shalimar shareholders may be
compelled to knock at the door of justice, if the illegal notifications are
not withdrawn." The man is an optimist!
I have advised Latif to move the courts to nullify the 10-year contract and
(relying on Justice Wajihuddin Ahmed's judgment of July 9, High Court of
Sindh, ER 03/97) to make a reference to the Ehtesab Commission charging the
misusers of authority as well as the pecuniary beneficiaries.
Whilst Mr Nawaz Sharif is 'downsizing', should he not consider disbanding
his propaganda ministry and the related provincial departments? One must
hope that sense will, someday, prevail.
Honesty is news
IN our social and political milieu an act of honesty is obviously rare and
something of a happening. When one comes along,it becomes a news story that
is blazed across several columns in our newspapers. The Pakistani
taxi-driver in New York who returned $ 38,859 left by an old lady in his
cab has found that he has become something of a hero not only in New York
city but in his home country as well.
He may well find that he may be the recipient of some civil award, even the
Pride of Performance. And I say that he will deserve it, for by one small
gesture, by in fact, doing his duty, he has sent many hardened cynics into
a tail-spin. We have become so conditioned into believing the worst about
ourselves, into seeing the country and the people as corrupt that we cannot
concieve that there may be people who live by a moral code whose
bottom-line is not making a fast buck by fair means or foul.
Witness the way we accepted the "researched" accusation of Transparency
International that we were the second most corrupt country in the world. So
convinced were we that this was true, it became gospel and a part of
Paki-bashing in which we excel. Admittedly one swallow does not make a
summer but that young Pakistani taxi-driver in New York has made a lot of
us feel good.
The young man in question is Qurbe Tirmizi, a 20-year old student who is
obviously putting himself through college working part-time as a
taxi-driver. It is not at all uncommon to come across Pakistanis in New
York hacking cabs. Not all of them are students. But they are making an
honest living and that's what counts. Qurbe Tirmizi found a satchel in the
back seat of his taxi left behind by a 71-year old lady. It was not after
the taxi had dropped her outside her apartment in Upper Manhattan that the
woman realised that she had left her life savings, a leather bag crammed
with $ 38,859.05 in large and small bills and coins, on the back seat.
Imagine the shock to her. It was as if all the lights in her life had gone
out. The lady is quoted as saying: "I said, Dear God, I don't have a nickel
to my name and I don't know what I'll do. But I felt in my mind that I
would get it back."
Qurebe Tirmizi found the bag and took it to the Central Park police
station. "This was nothing special," he said. But it was special for he
acted on what came to him instinctively, what his religion had taught him,
what his own inner voice told him was right.
Mayor Rudolph Giuliani invited him to City Hall and the New York Times
picked up the story and called Qurbe Tirmizi "a gem among taxi-drivers."
One does not want to make a big deal out of this but I think this young man
did more to improve the image of Pakistan than all the many mountains of
efforts that have been made in the past. Something like this sticks in the
minds and hearts of ordinary people and they will not remember the name of
the taxi-driver but they will remember the country from where he came.
Just when I was feeling good about this taxi-driver in New York, I came
across a letter in an upcountry newspaper which brought me down to earth
for it was business as usual. I would like to re-produce the letter in
full: "The incident to which I am reporting occured near Jinnah Hospital
(Lahore) about two weeks ago. An unfortunate son of the soil took a right
turn allegedly without using his indicator, causing great inconvenience to
the vehicle immediately behind. The person behind was no ordinary mortal.
He was the son of someone high and mighty and there was no way the culprit
could escape punishment. First he was given a good beating by the royal
gunmen and then deposited at the Johar Town Police Station to be kept until
given release orders which took about ten days. May God bless our rulers
for establishing the rule of law. Soon, society will be rid of all its ills
without anyone ever having to go to court for seeking justice."
The writer signs himself as "A Concerned Citizen" on the theory, no doubt,
that discretion is the better part of valour. Sadly he gives no clue who
this young man might have been. But one thing is certain that if this young
man had found $ 38,859, that did not belong to him, he would have not have
returned it to its rightful owner. He would have claimed it as a matter of
I find this incident disturbing. There is such a thing as road-rage and
people do all kinds of irrational and daft things when they are involved in
car accidents or near-accidents. But surely if the offending driver was
locked up for ten days, someone should have asked why he was being kept in
the police station? I wished that the writer of the letter had given us the
name of the tough, young man who is the son of someone who is high and
mighty. Not for any reason other than to make sure that I am not on the
road when he is riding past.
There is such a concept as a feel-good factor and there is a feel-bad
factor. Does one cancel out the other? I don't think so. What the young
taxi-driver in New York did was uplifting. What the young man in Lahore did
was typical of spoilt-brats who belong to a particular class, the upstarts
and jumped-up-johnnies. Their power and their money has gone to their
hearts and left a hole there. I wish I could say that the young taxi-driver
in New York is more representative. Sadly, he isn't. I wish he was.
The arrogance of power
Gen. Khalid Mahmud Arif (retd)
CONVENIENT are the rules of the game of power politics made by the
promoters of the New World Order to advance their own national interests.
The Brahmins of the Nuclear Pentagon retain their nuclear-weapon arsenals
for an indefinite period of time in the name of protecting their own
All the remaining 'untouchable' countries of the global village must not
acquire the forbidden nuclear weapons as their security is considered less
sacrosanct by the holy cows. They may accede to the carefully prepared
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and abdicate their rights in perpetuity.
The five recognized nuclear-weapon powers are in no mood to honour their
part of this patently partisan NPT. A nuclear-weapon elimination regime may
thus never see the light of day because this silly idea is pooh-poohed by
the big-wigs as the brainchild of the idealists in the Third World
countries who supposedly know little about the games of diplomacy and power.
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has carefully kept in-built loopholes in
it. Coming on the heels of the high drama of its approval, the United
States conducted a subcritical experiment in July 1997, 300 metres below
the ground surface, to improve upon the lethality of its "aging" nuclear
weapons. It involved the use of high explosives for blasting small targets
of plutonium into tiny particles. Some more such tests are planned to be
conducted by Washington in the future. Those claiming that the US behaviour
vindicates their earlier expressed doubts forget that the new definition of
the word "comprehensive" is comprehensively flexible at the will of those
who hold a stick in their hands.
Russia did not lag behind the US. Notwithstanding its economic
difficulties, it quickly test-fired its fourth "Topol-M" intercontinental
ballistic missile. Such an attempt by China might have earned it an instant
ire from Washington. Not so in the case of Russia, a former adversary
turned an ally, which has yet to ratify START-2 (Strategic Arms Reduction
Treaty) with the United States.
The power game is played with no less ferocity on the regional scene. India
urges upon its strategic ally, Russia, to prevail upon Ukraine not to
supply the 300 odd tanks that she is committed to provide to Pakistan under
an international contract. Reason: India considers itself more sovereign
than Pakistan as Russia regards itself more sovereign than Ukraine.
The US diplomacy traditionally employs the inspired leaks published in its
print media. Its "free Press" dutifully carries the carefully-timed reports
frequently leaked to it by its open-secret intelligence sources. In
accordance with the Clinton Administration's even-handed policy on South
Asia, it was India's turn to be at the receiving end. As expected, the
Washington Post story about India's Prithvi missile was promptly denied by
New Delhi. The denial did not cause a ripple of surprise. By now New
Delhi's knee-jerk reaction to any regional development affecting Pakistan
is well known even to its new strategic ally.
Caught on the wrong foot, India soon recovered from the shock to realize
that it could not fool all the countries all the time. It conceded that the
medium-range (150 and 250 km) Pakistan-specific Prithvi missiles had in
fact been stored by it at Jullundar, close to the border of Pakistan.
Storage is not deployment, cried India in self-defence. The US would "react
very negatively", said Mr Burns of the Clinton Administration, "because we
don't favour the deployment of missiles" in South Asia. This mild criticism
must have been music to the Indian ears.
Notwithstanding diplomatic semantics, the professional minds easily see
through the game. The Pakistani planners have no option but to accept the
reality that a neighbour which has traditionally regarded it as India's
enemy number one has acquired the missile capability and started a new
weapons race in the region. The missile reality in South Asia can no longer
be wished away by any one in a fit of pious hopes. Never before in history
has this weapon system been used in combat to lob flower petals on the
opposing forces. Every high-grade student knows that the stored missiles
can become operational within a matter of hours. That Prithvi covers all
the major target areas in Pakistan creates an inescapable need for Pakistan
to possess a tit-for-tat capability. Such a deterrence will promote
Washington's pro-India tilt has gradually but surely pushed India and
Pakistan wider apart. Its growing arrogance is directly proportional to its
increasing confidence gained as a result of developing strategic
relationship with Washington. Resultantly, South Asia's instability has
further increased. The US is directly responsible for creating this
situation. The non-supply of contracted F-16s, much delayed release to
Pakistan of its military equipment sent for repairs to the US, and the
punitive Pakistan-specific Pressler Amendment are a few clear indications
of attempts to weaken Pakistan. On the other hand, the dual-purpose
technology has freely flowed from Washington to New Delhi. What the US
could not or did not provide directly to India reached it via Israel and
Ayub Khan said two decades ago that Pakistan needed friends not masters.
This prognosis remains relevant. The bilateral relations between states are
a two-way traffic. They lose vitality and durability if relegated to a
one-directional association. Mir Aimal Kansi's 007-style arrest from
Pakistan and his hush-hush transfer to the US, under mysterious
circumstances, has created a strong public reaction in this country. Kansi
is no saint. He is accused of committing a heinous crime for which he
deserves a fair trial, in a fair court of law, and in a fair country. His
dramatic arrest, an official silence on his capture and his prompt transfer
to the US custody raises important legal, moral and constitutional issues.
It needs to be clarified if the two governments acted in unison or Pakistan
yielded under the US pressure. If the benefit of doubt is given to
Pakistan, it may be assumed that Islamabad might have acted in good faith
and for valid reasons. However, it will be wise on its part to take the
people into confidence. No less important is the public anxiety about the
protection of the legal rights of Kansi, despite the gravity of his alleged
crime. Are the people of Pakistan safe in their own country is the question
Two wrongs do not make one right. A media trial is unjustified. So also is
yellow journalism. The publication of unsubstantiated reports on this
unpleasant and sensitive incident, in a section of our Press (not Dawn),
did not promote our national interest. This has been forcefully denied by
the government and the president. While it is fair to criticize Pakistan
and the US for their acts of omission and commission, it may not be prudent
either to settle old domestic scores by taking advantage of this case or to
portray an under-trail criminal as a hero.
It is a mockery of justice, international law and diplomatic norms for the
US to claim that some domestic court in that country had held it legal for
America's intelligence agencies to arrest foreign nationals from the non-US
soil for the crimes allegedly committed by them in America or against
American nationals. Such a self-serving judgment has eroded international
confidence in the fairness of the US judicial system. Assume some other
country, armed with an identical internal judicial decision, arresting an
American citizen in this country in a clandestine operation? The thought
smells of big-power arrogance. How can the sovereignty of a weaker power be
equated with that of the sole superpower on earth?
That Pakistan and America have bilateral cooperation on the drug control
measures is a healthy development. The drug menace cannot be controlled at
the supply end only. The demand end is equally blameworthy for the ongoing
drug trade in the world. The market mechanism in a free society is governed
by the principles of supply and demand. The West has not done enough to
prevent the purchase of smuggled heroin by its own people.
There is a need to review Pakistan-US relations on drug control measures.
Any technical or financial assistance given to Pakistan by the US or other
countries do not ipso facto give them a free run in this country. The
arrest of Squadron Leader Farooq Ahmed Khan was reportedly engineered by a
US agency by keeping Pakistan in the dark. This shows lack of faith. Worse
still, Ayaz Baloch, a Pakistani in the US pay, intentionally violated
Pakistani law to keep his employers in good humour.
Strangely, the US authorities have shown undue concern about his release.
Such one-sided acts have created a feeling in this country that the
Washington authorities consider their own fishy and dicey acts above the
law of this country. This is an unfortunate attitude. Why should such
pinpricks be there to spoil bilateral relations? It may well be better to
do way with the technical and the financial help provided by the US along
with its encumbrances on the drug control-related issues.
An end to tolerance
BETWEEN now and mid-August, you are going to be inundated with editorials
and columns relating to Pakistan's fiftieth anniversary. My advice to the
readers is to duck for cover.
I have long thought about the factors qualifying a society for the title of
civilisation, and wondered if we made the grade. Actually, I didn't have to
ponder for very long about our claim to civilisation, given the increasing
aggressiveness that has come to characterise what passes for debate and
discourse in this benighted nation. Day in and day out, newspapers are full
of murder and mayhem. Most of these deaths have very little to do with
profit: rather, people are being slaughtered on an everyday basis because
they didn't agree with somebody on the wrong side of a gun.
The state has long ago abdicated all responsibility for law and order, just
as it has for other basic functions like education and health. All our
other social indicators are at rock bottom, so to talk about civilisation
in such a context seems to be a luxury we can ill afford. Nevertheless, it
seems appropriate to weigh up what we have achieved in the last
half-century. I know there are many cynics out there who think the balance
sheet is totally in the red. But statistically and physically, there are
some pluses if you look hard enough for them: more roads (pot-holed and
rutted); more schools (mostly without teachers); more hospitals (filthy and
unequipped); more soldiers than we know what to do with; and many, many
more people than there were at Partition.
That's the good news if you're an optimist. The bad news is that the
teeming millions are largely underfed, unhealthy and unlettered. Even
worse, the state appears to have neither the will nor the intention to
correct this intolerable situation. More and more, Pakistan resembles a
free-for-all where the law of the jungle has superseded civil law. Those
who have presided over this slide into anarchy are still sitting pretty,
protected by their own bully-boys and the remaining vestiges of state
power. But even this security is illusory: witness the slaying of the
brother of a sitting prime minister not so very long ago.
However, more alarming than this breakdown of civil society is an even more
intangible loss, that of the tolerance that we had not so long ago taken
for granted. When Pakistan came into being nearly fifty years ago, Mr
Jinnah guaranteed all citizens - Muslims, Hindus, Parsis, Christians et al
- complete equality under the law. It was on this basis that many members
of our minority communities decided to stay on in the new state.
Unfortunately, it was not very long after the death of the founder of
Pakistan that his successors broke every promise he had made to non-Muslims.
When I went to a missionary school in Karachi in the mid-fifties, there
were over forty thousand Goans living in the city. I doubt if there are
over five thousand left today. The same is true of the city's Parsis and
Hindus. Everybody who has been able to has emigrated. Granted this is true
of Muslims as well, but basically, the minorities have voted with their
feet and left for safer shores whenever they got the opportunity. And more
and more, foreign countries recognize the threat to the minorities in
Pakistan and have given them visas and refuge.
So what does this say about us as a society? Let me quote from a report on
religious freedom worldwide prepared by the US State Department, and
partially reproduced in this newspaper recently - and I urge the readers
not to discount the veracity of the document because of its source:
"...extremists from the religious majority faith have assaulted, raped and
even murdered members of the religious minorities... In February, 1997,
Muslim mobs destroyed homes and churches belonging to Christians in the
Khanewal area. Local police failed to take adequate steps to control the
mobs and thousands of people were rendered homeless... Discriminatory
religious legislation has led to acts of violence directed at Ahmadis,
Christians, Hindus, and Zikris. Although the Constitution prohibits
discrimination in government employment, religious minorities are
reportedly under-represented at all levels of government service, specially
in the senior ranks..."
Anybody denying the truth of these observations and conclusions is either
blind or hypocritical. Actually both amount to the same blinkered
worldview. To me, this steady, inexorable erosion of tolerance is the
biggest loss we have suffered these last fifty years. The growing refusal
to listen to a point of view different from one's own is paralleled by a
decline in our collective IQ. After all, it takes a certain amount of
intelligence and imagination to put yourself into somebody else's shoes and
think as he does. Empathy is the basis of tolerance, and in the
self-righteousness of the majority, we have lost the ability to accept that
others may have an equally valid point of view.
One result of this growing bigotry is the violence that is currently
shaking the fragile foundations of our state. Quite often in many areas of
Pakistan, people are being gunned down because of their beliefs. The law
provides no deterrence because apart from the lengthy procedures involved,
those accused of the most vicious crimes are easily granted bail. In any
case, the police seldom act in cases of religious killings because they
know that in most cases, the accused get off scot-free.
In a sense, the chickens have come home to roost. The intolerance towards
Hindus, Christians and above all, the Ahmadis, has boomeranged on the
majority, and now we are all feeling its effects. Many products of our
madrassas are armed and dangerous, as the recent raid on such an
institution in Lahore proved: just about every room had an automatic weapon
So what is the cure for this madness? Political will can go a long way in
cutting down the violence that has come to be a way of life and death in
Pakistan. The government has to show its resolve in facing up to religious
fascists of every stripe. There should be no question of bail for anybody
arrested for gratuitous, random violence. The display of arms by anybody
not authorized to carry them must be banned.
Unfortunately, every government in Pakistan is all too willing to make
deals and exceptions, so the end-result of all anti-gun campaigns is a
predictable failure. But a businessman prime minister must consider if any
sane foreign entrepreneur will invest in a country where he and his
co-workers are constantly at risk.
Incidentally, it goes without saying that the country's golden jubilee will
be celebrated with thousands of live rounds being fired into the sky. I'd
stay indoors if I were you.
Generation of cricketers
Mohammad Shoaib Ahmed
Dean Headley made cricket history being the first third generation
cricketer to play Test cricket-following in the footsteps of his famous
grandfather George Headley and also his father Ron. Both represented the
West Indies but Dean represents England.
The record books reveal that 36 fathers and their 38 sons have played Test
cricket, Walter Hadlee of New Zealand having fathered two sons Dayle and
Richard who have represented their country, with Lala Amarnath also
fathering two sons Mohinder and Surinder who have both played in Tests.
The father/son list includes nine Englishmen; a lone Aussies; five South
Africans, three West Indians; six Kiwis; seven Indians, and four Pakistanis.
Khalid's father S. Wazir Ali and Majid's father Jahangir Khan had played
for undivided India before Pakistan was created, Dean Headley's father Ron
Headley and grandfather George Headley played for West Indies, Whilst the
senior Hearne had played for England before emigrating to South Africa and
representing that country also in Tests.
Lala Amarnath and his son Surinder Amarnath both scored centuries on their
Test debut the Lala v England at Bombay in December 1933, and Surinder v
New Zealand at Auckland in January 1976. This is the only instance in Test
annals of a father and a son both scoring a Test debut hundred.
Father and sons in Test cricket: England
R.O. Butcher (2 Tests, 1980-81) and M.J. Butcher (2 Tests, 1997)
M.C. Cowdrey (114 Tests, 1954-55) and C.S. Cowdrey (6 Tests, 1984-85).
J. Hardstaff (5 Tests, 1907-08) and J. Hardstaff Jr (23 Tests, 1935-48)
L. Hutton (79 Tests, 1937-1954-55) and R.A. Hutton (5 Tests, 1971).
F.T. Mann (5 Tests, 1922-23) and F.G. Mann (7 Tests, 1948-49).
J.H. Parks (1 Test, 1937) and J.M. Parks (46 Tests, 1954-1967-68).
M.J. Stewart (8 Tests, 1962 to 1963-64) and A.J. Stewart (65 Tests, 1989-90
F.W. Tate (1 Test, 1902) and M.W. Tate (39 Tests, 1924-1935)
C.L. Townsend (2 Tests, 1899) and D.C. H. Townsend (3 Tests, 1934-35).
E.J. Gregory (1 Test, 1876-77) and S.E. Gregory (58 Tests, 1890-1912).
F. Hearne (4 Tests, 1891-92 to 1895-96) to G.A. L. Hearne (3 Tests, 1922-23
F. Hearne also played 2 Tests for England in 1888-89.
J.D. Lindsay (3 Tests, 1947) and D.T. Lindsay (19 Tests, 1962-63 to 1969-70).
A.W. Nourse (45 Tests, 1902-03 to 1924) and A.D. Nourse (34 Tests, 1935-1951).
P.M. Pollock (28 Tests, 1961-62 to 1969-70) and S.M. Pollock (10 Tests,
1995-96 to 1996-97).
L.R. Tuckett (1 Test, 1913-14) and L. Tuckett (9 Tests, 1947 to 1948-49).
G.A. Headley (22 Tests, 1929-30) and R.G.A. Headley (2 Tests, 1973).
O.C. Scott (8 Tests, 1928 to 1930-31) and A.P.H. Scott (1 Test, 1952-53).
W.M. Anderson (1 Test, 1945-46) and R.W. Anderson (9 Tests, 1976-77 to 1978).
W.P. Bradburn (2 Tests, 1963-64) and G.E. Bradburn (5 Tests, 1990-91).
B.L. Cairns (43 Tests, 1973-74 to 1985-86) and C.L. Cairns (23 Tests,
1989-90 to 1996-97).
W.A. Hadlee (11 Tests, 1937 to 1950-51) and D.R. Hadlee (26 Tests, 1969 to
R.J. Hadlee (86 Tests, 1972-73 to 1990).
P.G.Z. Harris (9 Tests, 1955-56 to 1964-65) and C.Z. Harris (9 Tests,
1992-93 to 1996-97).
L. Amarnath (24 Tests, 1933-34) and M.B. Amarnath (69 Tests, 1969-70 to
S. Amarnath (10 Tests, 1975-76 to 1978-79).
D.K. Gaekwad (11 Tests, 1952-1960-61) and A.D. Gaekwad (40
Tests, 1974-75 to 1984-85) Nawab of Pataudi (Iftikhar Ali Khan) (3 Tests,
1946) and Nawab of Pataudi (Mansur Ali Khan) (46 Tests 1961-62 to 1974-75).
Nawab of Pataudi Sr also played 3 tests for England, 1932-33 to 1934.
V.L. Manjrekar (55 Tests, 1951-52 to 1964-65) and S.V. Manjrekar (37 Tests,
1987-88 to 1996-97).
V. Mankad (44 Tests, 1946 to 1958-59) and A.V. Mankad (22 Tests, 1969-70 to
Pankaj Roy (43 Tests, 1951-52 to 1960-61) and Parnab Roy (2 Tests, 1981-82).
India and Pakistan
M. Jahangir Khan (4 Tests, 1932-33 to 1936) and Majid Khan (63 Tests,
S. Wazir Ali (7 Tests, 1932-36) and Khalid Wazir (2 Tests, 1954).
Hanif Mohammad (55 Tests, 1952-53 to 1969-70) and Shoaib Ahmed (45 Tests,
1983-84 to 1995-96).
Nazar Mohammad (5 Tests, 1952-53) and Mudassar Nazar (76 Tests, 1976-77 to
West Indies and England
R.G.A. Headley (2 Tests, 1973) and D. Headley (1 Test, 1997).
Grand Fathers and Grand Sons: Australia
V.Y. Richardson (19 Tests, 1924-25 to 1935-36) and G.S. Chappell (87 Tests,
1970-71 to 1983-84) I.M. Chappell (75 Tests, 1964-65 to 1979-80); T.M.
Chappell (3 Tests, 1981). Grand Father, Father and Grand sons:
G.A. Headley (22 Tests, 1929-30 to 1953-54) and R.G.A. Headley (2 Tests,
1973); D. Headley (1 Test, 1997). Great-Grand Father and Great-Great Sons:
W.H. Cooper (2 Tests, 1881-82 and 1884-85) and A.P. Sheahan (31 Tests,
1967-68 to 1973-74).
Accountability disturbs vested sports groups
A. Majid Khan
The notorious sports group virtually controlling most of the provincial
sports bodies and usually acting at the behest of their national
federations appears to be not happy with the first ever accountability
process that has been put into operation at the conclusion of the XXVI
National Games on June 12 in Karachi.
Never before had such an exercise been undertaken while the Sindh Olympic
Association staged the national games five times in Karachi in the past.
The move, initiated by the Chairman of the 26th national games organising
committee, Dr Farooq Sattar, the senior Sindh Minister for Local Government
and Kacchi Abadis is, however, welcomed by the well-wishers of the games in
the province. It has also the approval of the Sindh Chief Minister Liaquat
Ali Jatoi, who was the Patron-in-Chief of the organising committee.
The mismanagement probe as well as auditing of the national games accounts
is being carried out and it would be made public. But it is gathered that a
good number of Sindh associations, made responsible or organising various
disciplines of the National games, are creating hurdles by not submitting
proper accounts for the money they received.
The slow process of accountability and auditing of accounts by a chartered
accountant, notwithstanding its satisfying aspect is that for the first
time in the history of the national games such a process has been put into
Another historic decision taken on the eve of Pakistan's golden jubilee,
was the termination of the long-standing discrimination in the day
allowance between the players and team officials. This decision resulted in
an additional expenditure of Rs. ten lakhs as over 2000 participants of the
National Games become its beneficiaries.
The POA and Sports Mafia preferred to remain silent for understandable
reasons. All the highups of the POA as well a good number of the Presidents
and secretaries of the national federations enjoyed lavish hospitality of
the organising committee, obviously at the expense of the players.
Sindh had already suffered a lot in the past at the hands of the
exploiters. By making sports bodies stronger and institutional changes the
state of affairs in the realm of sports may be improved. Let the playing
facilities be created for the youth of the area instead of wasting public
money on sports festivals.
Technology increases its grip on cricket
Test cricket further embraced the technological age by approving the
introduction of floodlights in poor light and extending the use of
television replays to determine whether a catch has been cleanly taken.
The ICC's decision, at its annual meeting at Lord's, to extend the TV
umpire's powers to determine borderline catches, as well as run-outs and
stumping, is particularly timely after a controversial incident during the
third Test at Old Trafford.
Nasser Hussain claimed - and was awarded - a catch to dismiss the Australia
batsman Greg Blewett, even though subsequent TV replays suggested that the
ball had fallen short.
Interestingly, the third umpire would have given Blewett "not out" but only
because the TV replays proved inconclusive. The BBC cameras providing the
official feed failed to provide a clear view of Hussain's catch, which was
only later available on Sky News. No system is fail-safe, but many argue
that the number of BBC cameras remains inadequate when their official use
is ever more widespread.
Although the Australians largely curbed their anger, privately they were
furious, and it was noticeable that for the rest of the match
indiscriminate appealing became commonplace.
David Richards, the ICC's chief executive, explained: "If the umpire at the
bowler's end is uncertain as to whether the ball carried, he will follow
the normal practice of consulting the square leg umpire. Only if both
umpires are unable to make a decision can a replay be sought".
The experiment, which seems wholly sensible, of allowing Test cricket under
lights when bad light would stop play will be reviewed at next year's
There is no intention, as yet, to stage Test cricket outside traditional
playing hours, although one does not need the prophesy in talents of Clarke
to predict that such a day is not far off. Indeed, the introduction of
day-night Tests might one day be regarded in some parts of the world as
essential to the survival of the five-day game.
To appease the sceptics - among whom England, until they state otherwise,
must remain ranked - floodlights will be introduced only if agreement is
reached by both sides before a Test series begins.
Batting under lights is not always straightforward. The most difficult
period is often said to be the half-light shortly before dusk, precisely
the conditions that might exist when floodlights are introduced in bad light.
This concern, however, is countered by a recognition that spectators paying
high admission prices deserve to see play whenever possible. Equally, many
sides have been denied deserved Test victories over the past century
because of stoppages for murky light.-Dawn-Guardian Services
Rashid's betting charge denied by Azharuddin
COLOMBO, July 22: If the rain washed out the India-Pakistan match touted to
be the semi-final of the Asia Cup controversy has ensured that all eyes
remained trained on the arch-rivals. While Azharuddin, Ajay Jedeja and
Navjot Sidhu today vehemently denied the allegations made by a weekly news
magazine, Pakistan players are yet to respond to the charges reported to
have been levelled against some of them by former wicketkeeper-batsman
Citing a fax message reportedly sent by Latif, who is now in England,
former Indian skipper Azharuddin asserted that he had never made calls to
Latif. "I never made calls to him" Azharuddin said, adding that Latif had
sent the fax on his own. He said that he received the fax message this
morning until which time he had no knowledge of the article published in
the Outlook, an Indian weekly news magazine.
In his message to Azharuddin, the former vice-captain of the Pakistani team
has claimed that he had been misquoted by the magazine and that he had only
said Azharuddin, Ajay Jedeja and Raju were his friends.
"I, Rashid Latif, wish to make clear that the newspaper statements against
many Indian cricketers are very falsified to the original interview in
which I only stated my friendship with Azharuddin, Ajay Jadeja and Raju.
Any extension to this statement should be disregarded as they seem to
allegations by the Press and not by myself," the former Pakistani player
said in the message sent to Azharuddin.
Speaking on behalf of Ajay Jadeja and Navjot Sidhu, who have also been
named in the article, the team manager Ratnakar Shetty, said that the two
players have also denied having made calls to Latif. "I have spoken to
Sidhu and Ajay and both of them have told me the same thing. They know him
as a cricketer," Shetty said, adding that the other two players had not
received any fax message from Latif.
The team manager announced that the honorary secretary of the Board of
Control for Cricket in India had telephoned him and asked him to inform the
players that the board would stand by them and that they could submit the
facts before the commission of inquiry appointed by the board. "They could
always come forward with the facts and figures before Justice Chandrachud.
Articles which are appearing should not affect the players," Shetty said,
adding that it was up to the individual players to take legal action on
this matter and that the board had nothing to do with it.
Earlier today, the team manager had said that neither he nor any of the
players was aware of the article. A few minutes later, however, he told
reporters that Azharuddin had received a fax message this morning from Latif.
Interestingly, the message dated July 22, which Azharuddin claims to have
received this morning from Latif, appears to have been sent from London
last night. The time and date on the message read 17:12 hours of July 21,
which, according to local time ought to have been received here by 10.12
last night. "The fax may have come in the middle of the night, but I was
fast asleep. I saw the fax only this morning," Azharuddin said. He
suggested that journalists contact Latif on a telephone number mentioned at
the bottom of the message for any further clarifications they may wish to
This weekly has quoted Latif as saying that Azharuddin, Ajay Jadeja,
Venkatapaty Raju and Navjot Sidhu used to call him up and ask him about the
condition of the pitch and whether it would aid batting or bowling, how
strong the teams were and the weather conditions.
Besides pointing fingers at the Indian players, Latif has also lashed out
against his own colleagues in the interview appearing in the latest edition
of the Outlook published from New Delhi. Of the Pakistani players named by
Latif, only Salim Malik is here as part of the Asia Cup team. However, he
was not available for comment as the team has reportedly gone to Nuwand
Eliya, a hill resort, and is expected to return only tomorrow.
Referring to Salim Malik, the magazine has quoted Latif as saying that when
Salim Malik was captain he would himself take on the task of bowling at
crucial stages of the match. "He would set an offside field and bowl on the
leg side. While batting, he would also run out his colleagues. I escaped
being run out by him in England last year," Rashid reportedly told the
"In the finals of the 1995 Mandela Trophy against South Africa (in
Capetown), I told Malik that we should bat first as it would be difficult
chasing under lights, Malik charged, but then veered around to my view. I
was vice-captain. Since there was a lot of talk about betting in the air,
all the players decided to swear on the holy Quran that they would not get
involved in betting. Only Malik didn't, because he was out for the toss.
But when he came back, he told us that he had opted to bat second. Pakistan
lost the match," Latif has been quoted as saying.
The report has claimed that Latif was in possession of copies of seven
post-dated bearer cheques issued in favour of Salim Malik. These cheques
were related to payments for some matches played in 1994, the report said
The magazine stated that Latif was also in possession of a cassette
containing devastating information. "Agar woh de diya to sara kissa hi
khatam ho jayega," the magazine has quoted him as saying. The former
wicketkeeper has also accused some Pakistan Cricket Board officials of
shielding players involved in betting.
Rashid has been quoted as saying that betting and funding still continue
and that this was true of the Sharjah tournament involving Pakistan and Sri
Lanka as well.
In June the same magazine published claims by former Indian Test cricketer
Manoj Prabhakar that he was offered 72,000 dollars to throw away his wicket
against Pakistan in a 1994 limited-overs match.
He has since refused to disclose names to an official match-fixing inquiry,
fearing legal action against him.
Former Pakistan captain Salim Malik was involved in a major match-fixing
controversy in 1994 when he was accused by Australian players, including
Shane Warne, of offering them money to fix a result. The charges were never
Latif said he himself had been offered around 35,000 dollars by an Indian
national during a Test match in England to try and make sure Pakistan's
score did not cross 300. He said he refused the bet and helped his team
PHF setup likely to undergo change
KARACHI, July 24: With the transfer of Mr. Mohammad Nawaz Tiwana as
Managing Director of Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the Pakistan
hockey setup in only a year will again undergo a change.
Traditionally, the office of the Pakistan hockey supremo has been held by
the Airlines Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and one does not visualise any
deviation from this practice.
The National carrier has had a new Chairman Mr. Shahid Khakan Abbasi
appointed recently. Soon after, Mr. Mohammad Nawaz Tiwana was sidelined to
do routine administrative jobs.
Nonetheless, that was a great gain for the country's hockey as Mr. Mohammad
Nawaz Tiwana, was left with ample time to devote towards the promotion of
National hockey affairs.
Starting from September 1997 and lasting until the end of December 1998
Pakistan will be competing in no less than six significant international
By every reckoning, it will be a tall order for Pakistan to not only
maintain its position as one of the top four nations in world hockey but
also a customary hockey powerhouse.
*From Sept 17 to 28 1997, Pakistan will be vying to regain the Junior World
Cup at Milton Keynes (England) which it last won in France in 1979.
Then from Oct 11 to 19, Pakistan is scheduled to play in the 19th Champions
Trophy World Hockey Tournament at the Pines Hockey Stadium in Adelaide
But more important is the year 1998, when Pakistan will be involved in a
plethora of four distinguished international hockey events besides other
To begin with, the 9th World Cup Hockey Tournament is slated to be held
from May 21 to June 1 at Utrecht (Netherlands).
Next, the 16th Commonwealth Games hockey tournament is to be staged at
Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) from Sept 10 to 20.
Thirdly, the 20th Champions Trophy World Hockey Tournament will be
contested at Lahore from Oct 31 to Nov 8.
And finally, the year 1998 will be drawn to a close with the 13th Asian
Games Hockey Tournament to be competed at Bangkok (Thailand) from Dec. 6 to
Certainly, four of the major international hockey tournaments will be
contested by all the leading hockey playing countries in the world.
However, the Commonwealth Games besides Pakistan, will see Australia, India
and South Africa also competing for the topmost distinction.
Ever since, the return of South Africa to the international hockey fold
after its banishment of apartheid policies, it is fast developing into a
prominent country on the world hockey circuit.
Then in the Asian Games at Bangkok, defending champions South Korea, two
former champions namely; Pakistan and India will be the top billed teams
trying to assert their hockey supremacy and conjure up the gold medal.
By all accounts, this is a pretty crowded international hockey programme
and it will not only test the players to the full but also the management.
Aside of the Junior World Cup, Pakistan will have to first defend the
Senior World Cup captured at Sydney in December 1994. Then try to win the
first Commonwealth Games hockey trophy and lastly the Asian Games gold medal.
In all three major tournaments, Pakistan will face off archrivals India.
Anything short of victory against India is simply unpalatable.
In a way, the Government still has time to appoint a man with sports if not
hockey background as PIA's Managing Director.
To ask a quwestion, what would be the immediate assignment of the new
First of all, he would have to refrain from rocking the boat in the
country's hockey affairs.
The present PHF Secretary, Col. Syed Mudassar Asghar, who has been in the
post for over four-and-a-half-years and has managed to develop a striking
relationship with all the important players in the International Hockey
Federation (FIH) should be asked to carry on.
For the interest of the country's hockey, it is the crying need of the hour
to have a person who can liaise with the FIH in the ensuing 15 months.
Secondly, with the Junior World Cup Hockey Tournament to be played from
Sept 17 to 28 this year, the new PHF Supremo should refrain from tinkering
with the management of the juniors.
Former Olympian Samiullah has been instrumental in ensuring that Junior
team made it to the final round by winning the Junior Asia Cup at Singapore
last year. Samiullah who was then saddled with managing the ill-fated
Senior string at the 1996 Olympic Games held at Atlanta, has a good report
with the juniors.
And Junior Coach Ayaz Mahmood, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic gold medal
winning team centre-half, has also been involved with the juniors for a
long time and should be encouraged to continue, and that is that.
Let the Rip Van Winkles of table tennis wake up
LAST month's National Games were organised on the pattern of the Olympiad.
No doubt they were staged in Karachi with the approval of the Pakistan
Olympic Association headquartered in Lahore. All national championships
were suspended for the duration of the games. Committees had been set up
and venues were spruced up to hold and arrange as many disciplines as are
recognised by the International Olympic Committee. As such racket games
like table tennis, badminton and tennis were included in the list of
Lovers of the sport were surprised that a veteran of 44 in the absence of
some top-notch players, especially due to the pull-out at the last minute
of Farjad Saif, won the singles laurels in table tennis. It is tragic for
the country, commented many fans after Arif Nakhuda's success in the men's
singles final. Some others wanted to know if it was a deterioration, a move
backward or a step forward?
Certainly in the seventies and mid-eighties Nakhuda had thrown out many
top-liners with his guile and power. There were the repetitive fluctuations
in the matches against Arif Khan, Sohail Hayat, Javed Chotani and
Irfanullah as one of the two contestants gained and then relinquished the
ascendancy. It was a drama enacted for the enjoyment of the onlookers.
Perhaps those were the better days for the table tennis of the country.
Arif Khan, a product of the Islamia Club, thrice wrapped up gold medals at
the regional level in the South Asian Federation (SAF) Games. It was a high
honour for the country.
During the early phase of Pakistan's table tennis Gulzar Zaidi was usually
in pole position with a series of stunning forehand and backhand strokes
sent with impeccable judgment. His style, defence and aggression gave
credibility to Pakistan's table tennis. Zaidi's long rallies with another
delightful exponent of the game, Dr Shamim Haroon, remains an endearing
memory for the old-timers of the country's table tennis. Both varied their
game to outfox the other yet both enthralled the connoisseurs. Both swiftly
moved to and fro and absorbed the heavy artillery of the other. Table
tennis was advancing forward.
Dr Essa Mohammad had the steely nerves to counter the assaults of his
opponents with his stone-walling. He would not easily surrender, even
though busy in his medical studies then. Kamal Shoaib, now more known as a
bridge player, was in the fifties confident and businesslike at the
rectangular table. He gave pulverising blows to his opponents. He had the
tactical sense for a fine spinning service and the mobility to counter the
attacks of his rivals. Why the game has gone down the hill? Has the new
generation stopped to ascend the learning curve, ask the enthusiasts of the
game, who used to play and practise at YMCA, the famed Islamia Club, now
having a full indoor gymnasium, KGA hall, KPI, Amroha Club, the Sharfabad
Club and Karachi Gymkhana.
In this Brave New World where the veterans will take Pakistan? The North
Asians, especially Japan and Korea, shocked the Europeans with their
pen-holder grip in the seventies. It was difficult to resist their all-out
attack. Their explosives shook the Europeans in their shoes. The Chinese
replaced the Japanese and Koreans as the new world leaders. Not only in the
Asian Games (1982) but in the world competition they mutilated global
top-rankers and announced the coming of a new table tennis power.
The Chinese used ping pong as a weapon for their open-window diplomacy,
trade and international friendship. Mao Zedong had put full stress on the
game with the legion of young players being trained in the country. In the
last global championship at Tianjin the Chinese swept aside all opposition
and carried away seven gold medals. The pen-holder grip was scaling the
Himalayan heights. The shake-hand grip of Europe, with mingling of attack
and defence, was trying to find an answer to the Chinese authority.
Jan - Ove Waldner of Sweden, Vladimir Samsonov of Belarus, Jean Michel
Saive of Belgium and Jorgen Persson (Sweden), worked hard to foil the game
of the Chinese. The long-range defence and quick reactions of England's
Mathew Syed may have stopped the tide of the Chinese but he too was
engulfed in it. In this year's world meet (April - May) at Manchester the
Chinese ran away with six gold medals. Their authority could not be eroded
in the team events (two), the women's singles, the women's doubles, the
mixed doubles and the men's doubles. However, Waldner of Sweden exhibited
his tactical discipline to bring down Samsonov to claim the world title.
Waldner with his sharp drives tore into pieces the game of Belarussian
Samsonov but paid lofty tributes to the all-round supremacy of the Chinese.
Chinese, no doubt, believe that attack is the best form of defence but all
their players do not always charge into aggression. Some of their stars use
close-to-the-table defence to dismantle the rhythm of their rivals.
According to Waldner the Chinese grip on world table tennis is not loosening.
But what about Pakistan? Can a veteran of 44 give the lead to the country?
Can he win games outside the country? The Rip Van Winkles of the country's
table tennis officialdom have to wake up to stop the downward trend of the
game. The training at the grass-root level, tournaments for schools and
colleges and chain of contests to improve and judge the competitive
capacity of the players are necessary. The Secretary of the Karachi Table
Tennis Association plans to arrange camps and organise tournaments in
Karachi but the fans of the game want concrete practical steps. The
activities have to be revived of this popular game not only at Sunset Club
in Clifton but all the centres of Karachi. The example of Islamia Club has
to be followed which has coached and produced numberless talented stars. It
was real hard work. It is to be seen if the country can switch over to the
modern mode of pen-holder grip. A synthesis of the orthodox method with the
modern style may pay better dividends if adopted from a young age.
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