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DAWN WIRE SERVICE

------------------------------------------------------------------- Week Ending : 15 November 1997 Issue : 03/46 -------------------------------------------------------------------

Contents | National News | Business & Economy | Editorials & Features | Sports

The DAWN Wire Service (DWS) is a free weekly news-service from Pakistan's largest English language newspaper, the daily DAWN. DWS offers news, analysis and features of particular interest to the Pakistani Community on the Internet. Extracts, not exceeding 50 lines, can be used provided that this entire header is included at the beginning of each extract. We encourage comments & suggestions. We can be reached at: e-mail dws-owner@dawn.com WWW http://dawn.com/ fax +92(21) 568-3188 & 568-3801 mail Pakistan Herald Publications (Pvt.) Limited DAWN Group of Newspapers Haroon House, Karachi 74200, Pakistan Please send all Editorials and Letters to the Editor at letters@dawn.com Make sure you include your full name, complete address and, if in Pakistan, your daytime telephone number. TO START RECEIVING DWS FREE EVERY WEEK, JUST SEND US YOUR E-MAIL ADDRESS! (c) Pakistan Herald Publications (Pvt.) Ltd., Pakistan - 1996 DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS ******************************************************************** *****DAWN - the Internet Edition ** DAWN - the Internet Edition***** ******************************************************************** Read DAWN - the Internet Edition on the WWW ! http://dawn.com DAWN - the Internet Edition is published daily and is available on the Web by noon GMT. Check us out !


CONTENTS

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NATIONAL NEWS

PM decides to appear in person Nawaz to give gold medals to Overseas Pakistanis Albright to arrive on schedule CEC asks PPP to provide evidence of poll rigging Benazir scoffs at charges of corruption Quota to be extended for another 20 years Draft bill to curb piracy being prepared US can help resolve Kashmir issue: FO Political considerations override safety needs Defence, PIA officials to attend Dubai air show ---------------------------------

BUSINESS & ECONOMY

Economy continues on lackadaisical note Let us follow Bangladesh Devaluation elicits scathing criticism Environmental issue in true perspective First Women Bank's 10.2m shares sold for Rs285 million Inflation increases by 11.88pc 250pc rise in non-traditional exports Forex reserves up by $117m Real GDP expected to grow by 5.5pc PTCL to sign MoU with multinational Investors avoid new positions owing to negative news ---------------------------------------

EDITORIALS & FEATURES

Dishonesty from Day One Ardeshir Cowasjee The poor traffic cops! Hafizur Rahman For the sake of the party Irfan Husain Why hasn't the PM responded? Eqbal Ahmad -----------

SPORTS

Era of Jahangir & Jansher sustains Pakistan's supremacy President decorates Pakistani captains Cricket stadium to be built at Bhurban All-rounders were our main asset, says Bacher Wasim to lead team against West Indies Waqar Younis dropped from first Test squad PCB earns Rs 9.1m from one-dayers against India

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NATIONAL NEWS

971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- PM decides to appear in person -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 14: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif decided on Friday to appear in the Supreme Court on Nov 17 to face contempt charges against him. Addressing a Press conference, Information Minister Mushahid Hussain said the appearance of a prime minister in court was "nothing unusual". "The Caliphs used to appear in Qazi courts and it is nothing unusual in Islamic traditions," Mr Mushahid said. The decision of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was in keeping with the traditions of Islam and "our commitment as democratic and political force", he said. The Information Minister parried a question whether the prime minister would tender an apology to the court. He defended the Anti- terrorist Act, against which several petitions were being heard by the Supreme Court. The government had brought in the law as a deterrent to arrest rising incidents of sectarian violence in Punjab. Since January, 179 people have been killed in 89 different incidents of sectarian violence in Punjab alone. The government, he said, enacted the law in August and since then only 14 people had been killed in five incidents of sectarian violence. He also declined to comment on a question whether he felt sectarian violence would increase if the Supreme Court suspended the law. The law enacted by the government had attracted widespread criticism as it gave sweeping powers to the police to shoot to kill any suspect on the spot. The anti-terrorist law had been compared by the critics with TADA imposed by the Indian government in occupied Kashmir. Besides Mr Nawaz Sharif, six other parliamentarians, editors of three newspapers and the Pakistan Television chief were summoned by the Chief Justice on contempt charges on Monday. The contempt charges were levelled over criticism of a decision of the Supreme Court regarding the suspension of a certain portion of the anti-defection law brought in to check floor-crossing. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971114 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Nawaz to give gold medals to Overseas Pakistanis -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 13: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif will award gold medals to 30 people who had donated 100,000 dollars in the prime minister's debt retirement scheme at the Overseas Pakistanis Convention being held here on Nov 27. Besides gold medals the Prime Minister would also give away silver medals and green certificates to people who had contributed 100,000 dollars in Qarz-i-Hasna and 100,000 dollar to one million dollars in profit-bearing accounts respectively. There were 32 people who had given 100,000 dollars in Qarz-i-Hasna who would receive silver medals at the ceremony, Khawaja Haroon, Secretary Debt Retirement Cell, told a press conference. He said under the scheme the government had received over Rs13 billion (313.7 million dollars) up to September 30. "The government is still receiving Rs1 million per day," said Khawaja. He said the tremendous response the government received under the scheme was unprecedented. He said the government would also mail certificates to over 400 people who had contributed substantially in the scheme. Giving the break-up of the amounts received in donations, Qarz-i- Hasna and profit-bearing accounts, he said out of the total of Rs13 billion, 15 per cent amount was received as donations, 4 per cent under Qarz-i-Hasna account and 81 per cent in profit-bearing account. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971113 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Albright to arrive on schedule -------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Correspondent WASHINGTON, Nov 12: There is no change so far in the plans of the Secretary of State Madeleine Albright to visit Pakistan in view of the terrorist attack that killed four Americans in Karachi on Wednesday morning. A State Department official told Dawn the US was working closely with Pakistani authorities to nab the culprits of the killings. The official would not say anything more at this stage. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- CEC asks PPP to provide evidence of poll rigging -------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: The Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan, Mr Justice (retd) Sardar Fakhre Alam, said if anybody had any doubt about the fairness of the 1997 elections,he could prove his contention by providing solid evidence. In his press briefing on Monday, he reiterated that 1997 general elections were free, fair and impartial, and that the allegations of tampering with the results during Iftar and Sehar, were baseless. He called upon the Pakistan Peoples Party to provide solid evidence to substantiate its allegation that 1997 elections were rigged. The Chief Election Commissioner unequivocally said that he was not in favour of granting right of franchise to the overseas Pakistanis as it would divide the Pakistani community residing abroad into different groups. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Benazir scoffs at charges of corruption -------------------------------------------------------------------- By Our Correspondent NEW YORK, Nov 10: Former prime minister Benazir Bhutto did not deny the validity of Swiss accounts but scoffed at the charges of corruption against her, saying that her family was always rich and "privileged". During a question-answer session at the Arco Public Forum at the Harvard University last Friday, Ms Bhutto said she came from a privileged and rich family. To underscore that she pointed out that she and her two siblings had been educated abroad and she herself spent four years at Harvard without any scholarship, which showed that money was no problem for the Bhuttos. Ms Bhutto, according to reports, lost her cool when one student asked her about the charges of corruption and the Swiss accounts. At first she tried to laugh away the question, saying the students at Harvard had more knowledge about her accounts than "even myself and my accountant." But then, not conceding directly the validity of Swiss accounts, she embarked upon detailing her family's wealth, and said: "Right now I am perhaps making more money giving lectures, than what I earned all of last year since leaving office." DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Quota to be extended for another 20 years -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau report ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: The government on Monday announced that it was in favour of extending the quota system in civil services for another 20 years and said a constitutional amendment to the effect would soon be discussed in the federal cabinet. The announcement came in the National Assembly when the opposition called the attention of the House to the abolition of quota system for successful candidates in the CSS examinations and asked the government to explain its position. "I assure the smaller provinces that we will be able to have the quota system extended for another 20 years because we feel if it's abolished, the smaller provinces are going to suffer," the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs, Mr Yaseen Wattoo, said. Mr Wattoo recalled that the Supreme Court had given a judgment on the quota system that the 20-year period stipulated in the Constitution had expired. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Draft bill to curb piracy being prepared -------------------------------------------------------------------- Muhammad Ilyas ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: A comprehensive draft bill to amend the Patent and Design Act, 1911 is being prepared by the ministry of industries to bring it in conformity with the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) under the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements, according to an official source. Expected to be ready by the end of this year or early next year, the proposed legislation would also curb the growing menace of piracy which robs the inventors, innovators and creative artists of the fruits of their labour. Rejuvenation of the law, the source stressed, is also important for the protection of our own writers, scientists, musicians, technologists from the predatory practices of pirates, who have grown rich by publishing books without their authors' permission and copying their original designs and innovations without having spent a penny on their creation. This state of affairs was a major disincentive to creativity in Pakistan, he further remarked. By way of suggesting a solution to this problem, the source referred to the advanced countries where artists' guilds keep watch and collect royalty fees on behalf of their members. Given the absence of any precedents of such organizations working successfully in Pakistan, the efficacy of this solution is anybody's guess, the source conceded. WTO agreements require the member governments to amend their patent law by 2000. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971109 -------------------------------------------------------------------- US can help resolve Kashmir issue: FO -------------------------------------------------------------------- Hasan Akhtar ISLAMABAD Nov 8: Pakistan looks forward to discussing important issues with US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright when she arrives here on a day-long visit on Nov 16. Foreign Office spokesman Tariq Altaf told a weekly news briefing here on Saturday Pakistan believed the United States or any other country which is a common friend to both India and Pakistan could play an important role in settling disputes between the two countries. He said this when asked to comment on a news report that the US secretary of state would avoid discussing Kashmir issue with Pakistan officials during her visit here. The spokesman said Pakistan had always been stressing the importance of Kashmir in such discussions with foreign officials whoever they might be and added that since India and Pakistan had so far failed to sort out the issue, Islamabad would welcome mediation from any country. The spokesman recalled statements from US officials that their attention was now focussed on South Asia and observed Islamabad would welcome developments which should concern the Kashmir issue. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Political considerations override safety needs -------------------------------------------------------------------- Mahmood Zaman LAHORE, Nov 14: Political considerations rather than safety of aircraft and passengers or skill of flight crew seem to have been, so far, the main criterion in awarding aviation licence to the private sector airlines since the first of them was launched in 1991. By now six companies have been allowed to operate private airlines and aviation licences have been issued to them ignoring the regulations framed in 1978. Incidentally, all such aviation certificates were issued by the first Nawaz Sharif government during 1991-92 period, apparently out of its enthusiasm to bring in the private sector in all spheres of business activities. The affair goes on even even now and the present Sharif government renewed an aviation licence, issued to the Javed Aviation Services, about three months ago. Of the private operators, three have gone out of business, probably for good. Two of them ceased operations because they were unable to honour their financial commitments to foreign aircraft leasing companies. A third one used to claim that its crew had the highest operational skill but failed because its managers were unable to ensure required standards of aircraft maintenance. Most of these companies came into flying business with one or two aircraft secured on lease from former Soviet republics. Usually the lease money for one aircraft ranges between $75,000 and $80,000 a month. In terms of hours, it costs about $2,200 to $2,400 and airlines are under obligation to complete a certain number of flying hours in a day determined under the lease agreement. Almost all the private airlines lack expertise, particularly in engineering. Their staff is at the best qualified in refuelling and general examination of safety devices. In case of a technical fault, the aircraft is generally sent to the leasing company's country. For an airline depending on two aircraft, it is always a high-risk business. What the future has in store for all these companies, the responsibility will squarely lie on the Civil Aviation Authority which is predominantly managed by retired PAF officials. The PAF has excellent traditions of high-skill management of the national air force. But under what pressures the CAA had to compromise on standards in the case of private operators is open to question. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Defence, PIA officials to attend Dubai air show -------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent DUBAI, Nov 14: A high-level delegation comprising senior officials of ministry of defence and PIA will arrive here on the invitation of the government of Dubai to attend Dubai Air Show from 16-20 November 1997, informed sources said. Pakistani missions in the UAE and PIA Gulf office here were unable to provide the list of names of the members but said high ranking officials are due on Saturday on the eve of the Dubai 97, the international aerospace exhibition scheduled to be inaugurated by UAE Defence Minister Gen Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Makhtoum. With 500 exhibitors from 31 nations and eight national pavilions, the show is the largest ever in the Dubai air show series. "This includes a substantial number of small-medium-sized suppliers of a broad scope of aviation-related equipment", said Virginia Kern, managing director, fairs and exhibitions, the official organizers of the show. Around 60 per cent of Dubai 97 is given over to the civil aviation and 40 per cent to the military aviation. The Czech Republic, Ireland and Germany will be officially represented for the first time at a Dubai air show. Other national pavilions will represent Canada, France, Italy, USA and UK. Similarly, high-level delegations from Russia, Iran, USA, Germany and France will also be present at Dubai 97. More than 70 aircraft will be at the show. Some insiders say Pakistan International Airlines is considering to replace its ageing fleet of aircraft, but the project has hit snag due to financial constraints. "The airline is striving to arrange finances from foreign sources to meet the requirement of its new aircraft", the source said. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971114 -------------------------------------------------------------------- PA wants NWFP renamed -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report PESHAWAR, Nov 13: A resolution calling for renaming of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) as Pakhtoonkhwah was adopted by majority vote in the provincial assembly on Thursday. Only two members out of the 74 present in the House of 83 opposed the resolution. The resolution said:" This assembly recommends to the provincial government to recommend to the federal government that the NWFP be renamed as Pakhtoonkhwah so as to identify it with their inhabitants, like Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan." It was a day of deliverance for the ANP which had pledged to get the resolution passed and it used all methods for the purpose, including persuasion of members belonging other parties. The Leaguers, however, termed it " bulldozing". A large number of ANP supporters thronged the visitors' and the press galleries. The PML-N, which tried to stall the resolution by any means, appeared to be a" loser" in the end when the House rose for next morning without registering its abstention. Interestingly, Chief Minister Sardar Mahtab Ahmed Khan who remained in the House for sometime during the debate on resolution left moments before it was put to vote. The staffers at his chamber said he had a pressing engagement outside. Most interesting was the suggestion by independent member Pir Mohammad Khan who said that the best name for the province would have been Pakhtoonistan which was first proposed by late Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in a meeting in Bannu in 1940. He said the word Pakhtoonkhwah had no meaning as its second part "Khwah" was taken as abuse in some areas. Speaking on his resolution, Najmuddin Khan of PPP said the PML and ANP had an agreement on renaming of the province but regrettably they had failed to fulfil the same and give this nameless province a name. He also stressed the need of taking up the issue in the National Assembly where the ruling coalition has a two thirds majority.

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BUSINESS & ECONOMY

971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Economy continues on lackadaisical note -------------------------------------------------------------------- M. Ziauddin THE FIRST month of the second quarter of the current financial year passed off without any sign of an imminent turnaround in the economy. The sluggishness of the first quarter has continued unabated into the second quarter. Despite a massive devaluation of nearly 9 per cent in the middle of the month, the revenue collection for October remained largely stagnant. Foreign trade continued to be afflicted by inactivity. The trade balance is shrinking not due to increases in exports but because of declines in investment related imports. Inflation has also remained in the vicinity of 12 per cent. The joy of the ratification of the three-year $1.6 billion ESAF/EFF agreement and the subsequent release of the first tranche of $208 million was marred by the reports that the Fund executive board would have refused to ratify the assistance had it not been for the political nudging from the right political quarters at the right time. The IMF executive board had found that the slippages in the first quarter were too great to be acceptable. Therefore, their reluctance to ratify the agreement. In any case, the intense political activity which had brought the government to an almost standstill for the whole month has denied the country a good opportunity to take immediate advantage of the IMF ratification by borrowing at reduced rates to take care of costly commercial debts amounting to $2 billion acquired in the last 12 months. Already it has postponed the proposed road show in America for the launching of US dollar bonds. The continuing currency and stock market crises in East Asian countries has also reduced greatly the chances of fast-paced privatisation in the country. While launching its far-reaching economic reforms soon after coming into power, the government had estimated that it would take at least about 18 months for these reforms to start yielding results in the shape of an accelerated growth all around. Meanwhile, the intervening hardships were to have been taken care of through incomes from privatisation, the assistance from the IMF and the associated advantage of the cheaper commercial credit and savings through downsizing of the government and the public sector. This is not happening. And as a result it has become almost impossible for the government to take in hand the second phase of reforms which is almost due. The decision of the government to postpone the downsizing of the government in the meanwhile is not likely to go well with the IMF. In the first place, this condition should not have been accepted, and in the second, if at all, this scheme should have been launched after the full revival of the economy so that those who would get the golden handshake would have some reliable avenues to invest their pay packets to ensure a regular income for rainy days. In countries like Pakistan, where there is no social security scheme or unemployment benefits, an expanded public sector and a large government are the only protection against the menace of uncontrollable middle class educated unemployement. In the countries where regular restructuring of the economy is taking place in line with the changes in industrial practices, technologies and capital availability, it is not uncommon to see massive retrenchments going on regularly. But this does not increase unemployment because while old jobs are becoming obsolete, new jobs in greater numbers if not in equal numbers are being generated constantly keeping the rate of unemployment almost constant. This also is not happening in Pakistan. Of course, over-staffing in the government adds to the budgetary burdens while large public sector units become economically unviable. But in countries like Pakistan such practices yield unquantifiable social profits by taking care of the problem of unemployment to an extent, at least among the educated middle classes. This is probably the reason why the Indian government has so far refrained from touching the public sector or the size of the government, though it has launched massive reforms in the economy, the benefits of which the country has been reaping since 1991. According to one estimate the Indian government is just about to enter the 'debt trap' because of the colossal borrowings it has had to resort to in order to keep financing the over- staffing. But so far there is no indication that it has decided to embark upon this socio-political misadventure though the reform related new investment activity in that country has started generating new jobs. In Pakistan even the recent devalutation made no difference to the sluggish investment activity though it has added further to the liquidity with the banks. The reasons for the slump in the bank advances are many. One, the bankers are playing it extra safe. They do not want to be hauled up later for approving a presumably defective loan. So, not only are they not going out prospecting clients but they are not looking even at the trickle of the applications coming in on their own. Second, the loanees who in the past would know whom to approach and how much to spend for obtaining an investment loan, are still in the process of learning the new rules of the game. Thirdly, the double digit domestic inflation and falling demand have caused the investors to continue with their wait-and-see approach. ABN AMRO's latest economic bulletin (Dawn Oct 23, 1997) finds the continuing weak demand for credit from the private sector as "source of concern, since the private sector's investment response is at the heart of the government supply side strategy." The bulletin goes on to say: "If this response is to be realised in the first half of 1997-98, the recent devaluation may result in one of two, diametrically opposed, reactions. It may discourage domestic investors by increasing the rupee cost of investments (which are based on imported raw materials or physical capital), or it may encourage investment by credibly removing the possibility of another devaluation in the next 6 to 9 months." The first scenario of ABN Amro says that investments based on imports of raw material and/or physical capital, are vulnerable to devaluations. A large devaluation (or even credible expectations of one) will discourage domestic investment by increasing cost and squeezing profit margins. Hence, fewer investments are likely to be realized with a large devaluation. If these investments projects are export-oriented, investors will have to evaluate whether the increase in domestic costs will be compensated by an increase in export demand because of the devaluation. The second scenario: Investors expect a devaluation in October, but given the lack of macroeconomic urgency for this action, are not sure how large the devaluation is likely to be. Opening unhedged import L/Cs forces them to cary the risk that the rupee may be devalued before the physical capital arrives in Pakistan. After a large devaluation, investors would be assured that a further devaluation is unlikely, which implies that opening unhedged L/Cs is less risky. Hence, this may encourage certain investors to proceed with their investment plans. However, it is important to realize that those investors who respond positively to the devaluation, will still pay a higher rupee cost for their import needs. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Let us follow Bangladesh -------------------------------------------------------------------- Shafqat Tanvir Mirza AFTER A LONG time, the authorities in Islamabad are now considering to follow the example set by Bangladesh in ameliorating the economic and social conditions of the poorest sections of their population. They have the Grameen Bank of Bangladesh in mind as a model. The bank was started on an experimental basis in 1976 when the famine and the perennial floods had destroyed the economy of Bangladesh. Particularly badly hit were the rural areas. It was the University of Chittagong where the miseries of the womenfolk were discussed at a seminar. It was decided to conduct survey about the socio-economic conditions of village women. The survey concluded that if propertyless poor women and men were given small amounts of money to just start ordinary economic activities it might begin to pay them as well as the country. The survey was conducted with a view to finding how some loans could be given to people who had no collateral to offer. An attempt was also made to find out how to recover these loans. What sort of job or work would suit those who had been forced into beggary. There was perhaps no precedent to follow. The survey was conducted under the supervision of Dr Mohammad Yunus who was a teacher at the University of Chittagong. The village selected was Jabira and the aim was to know the living conditions of women who sought alms during Ramazan or begged for sacrificial meat on Eidul Azha. These miserable women and the children that they carried while begging had moved into doing something positive for them. Dr Mohammad Yunus who is now a very successful man and known throughout the Third World came to the conclusion that a financial body should be raised which could arrange very small loans for those who could not get credit from any bank. The survey was made the basis of the next step when a small private financial organisation (Gramin Bank) was set up to give financial help to poor, illiterate and resourceless people. It was first established only in Tangail district in 1976. After some time the State Bank of Bangladesh evaluated the job done by Gramin Bank and it came to the conclusion that if it was financially helped, it could work miracles. And miracles did indeed take place. The major part now in the export of Bangladesh is due to the effort of this bank which has revolutionised the cottage garment industry which is rapidly capturing the world market. But this had happened in urban areas. The miracles in the rural life of the Bangladeshis particularly in the life of women are spectacular and Dr Yunus has compiled the stories of many poor women who were forced to go about with a begging bowl. Dr Yunus has compiled the stories of about 16 women; married, divorced and widowed but running their homes. The book "Jorimon and others," was published in Bengali and English in 1987, just after 11 years of the establishment of the bank which is not meant for women only. It also gives credit to poor males but women are the first preference because, according to the findings of the bank, they are more needy, more responsible, more hardworking and are not defaulters. Another reason which, in Dr Yunus' view was more important was that if women were given more economic independence it would help change the traditional male-female relationship which was hindering social development. The stories of Razia, Bakhtawar, Sakeena, Maya Rani, Phool Jan, Mehfil, Zulekha, Haleema, Shumari, Maria, Jamna, Raabia, Tara and Aasia are identical to those of poor women in Pakistan's rural areas and the slums of big cities like Karachi, Lahore, Hyderabad and Faisalabad. They are our daughters, sisters, and mothers but they have not been helped to improve their conditions. Rather, they have been victims of male chauvinism for generations. The male dominated society of ours refuses to recognise women as an equal partner to man. The woman in our society has also a productive role to play and she has been playing it in the lower classes for many centuries. However ,her role has not been recognised because if it were, she would become entitled to an equal social status which the male- dominated society is not ready to give her. The same was the case with the Bangladesh. According to Dr Yunus, petty religious leaders, elders and the majority of the male population was bitterly opposed to the Gramin loans for women. The scheme was opposed on all grounds particularly on religious ground. But the determination of the women living much below the poverty line overcame all opposition It is a pity that no such experiment has been done in Pakistan. Even the book written in 1987 was translated into Urdu ten years later by a foreign-funded NGO, Mashal. If the government is seriously thinking in terms of introducing Gramin banking pattern then it must propagate it through the electronic media, especially to the rural areas. It must be kept in mind that some original ideas are suited only to those areas from where they spring. But the Bangladesh idea is such that it can be transplanted in any poor country. But it must not be controlled by the affluent. The Gramin banking system is only for the poor and only they can make it a success. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Devaluation elicits scathing criticism -------------------------------------------------------------------- Zafar Samdani THE FINANCE Minister's faith in devaluation proving a high speed vehicle for enhancing exports has attracted widespread scepticism instead of causing a stampede for conversions to his ideas. But even if his argument was accepted, devaluation would be, at best, a factor among many for boosting exports. Not a basic one at that. Some prerequisites of the export sector like value added products, improvement of quality and consistence of supply and reliability of supply are constantly stressed. The Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) follows these targets with considerable diligence. It also tries to explore new markets, a task often undertaken jointly by men of initiative in the exports business and EPB. There is more to the exports scene than this. What is ignored is that exports can not be promoted beyond a certain limit in isolation. Linking them with other policies of the government can enhance exports possibly more rewardingly than any other measure. The most vital connection is sources of imports. All the way barter arrangements are not being proposed. Linking all imports with exports is neither possible nor desirable. Ends can nevertheless be tied in many cases. The government should look at countries from the viewpoint of exports to them and re-draw the imports map accordingly. The focus of imports is usually reverted on profitability; quality is often disregarded, indeed it is of little consequence in the unqualified commitment to instant and massive margins. The result is a flooding of the local market with goods of suspect standard. Nor do many of the imports serve a purpose other than sustaining individuals who have either access to right places or are quick on the uptake. Import from countries which have the potential to be a destination for some of the export items from Pakistan can prove worthwhile undertaking. This would require a thorough study of the import needs and export strength of the country. Considering that the bulk of Pakistan's exports does not cover a vast area, the latter should not pose much of a problem; the picture is in fact clear. But the sources of imports as also their contents are scattered. The scene is a free for all, the principle is the lowest price which can bring in maximum dividends. This exploitative trends needs to be arrested in any case; tying imports with exports to the extent possible should prove positive. However, this would imply taking an assertive stance, in many cases, of a political nature. Pakistan can not afford to ignore this factor if her economy is to be put on the recovery path. There is need to scuttle imports too. A certain drop in the import bill in recent weeks is a welcome trend but the impression is negated on two counts. One export oriented imports, such as updating machinery, its maintenances and installing new equipment have gone down; the food bill has gone up. This is most regrettable for a country with an agricultural economy. But this does inform that dependence on imports can be negotiated and brought down. Pakistan is also faced with numerous pressures which are likely to turn heavier, given the lay of the international political land. Child labour involved or alleged to be involved in the production of certain items, specially carpets and sports goods, has already cut into their exports. Often it is merely a charge drummed up to undermine Pakistan's interests by competitors or an arms twisting tactic deployed by countries to promote their own ends or endorse those of their allies. Wherever correct, it does not take in to account the country's social, political and economic conditions in to account. The impact of such charges is negative on Pakistan's exports. That children merit a better, fairer deal goes without saying. They should be working for their future rather than the maintenance of large families and augmenting the subsistence level resources of the impoverished segment. For Pakistan and many countries similarly placed, a change is easier proposed than accomplished. Transforming ground realities into an equitable dispensation is a long haul job not to be completed in a short period of time and unattainable without a significant improvement in the economy. While children should be cared for better and efforts for alleviating poverty intensified, Pakistan would do itself no harm by looking towards countries caught in socio-economic quicksands of the same proportions rather than catering for the requirements of affluent nations on preferential basis who keep re-writing rules of the game to suit them. Many of the nations leading the human rights crusade today have grave crimes against humanity blackening their history; small and economically deprived nations are being punished for their guilt. Child labour should be done away with - but not to please the protagonists of human rights with a shameful record of rights suppression and their support for such practices even today when they fit their design, but as commitment to the downtrodden in Pakistan. The picture is really not as bleak as painted. Facts should be presented to the world through an aggressive media campaign highlighting the children's plight, the governments concern and efforts to ameliorating their lot and the backdrop inheritance of the colonial period, which institutionalised exploitative practices as well as positive aspects of children's involvement in traditional arts and crafts in which families take pride and to sustain themselves. Children, it should be underlined, are not invariably engaged in work as a matter of exploitation. Secondly, children's work which does not impair their innocence or their future, needs to be differentiated from child labour. Dissemination of authentic information on this theme, a child as a carpet weaving artist instead of bonded labour for instance, should help clear many of the cobwebs woven around Pakistan and other such allegations against the country. It is time Pakistan took an aggressive stand, backing it with positive policies at home, than remaining on the defensive and apologetic without reason. A dire need of many of a number of the relatively minor exports, specifically perishable items, is more efficient services in terms of air cargo facilities, production points/markets to export point transportation and packaging. The EPB has worked hard to persuade relevant agencies to provide assistance but the response has been negligible. It is here that the federal government has a role to play which is more vital than devaluing the rupee or, in the words of the finance minister, readjusting it. An area certain to benefit from better performance is packaging. It has become essential to effective marketing, particularly for exports for western countries. Better quality packaging would make exports from Pakistan more attractive in many markets cases. These are some of the needs of the export sector on which the government must concentrate on an urgent basis. Devaluing rupee and siting back in the hope that it would boost exports is akin to obtaining residence in a private paradise. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Environmental issue in true perspective -------------------------------------------------------------------- Jafar Wafa "PURIFY Present ... Fortify Future. Tune your car", screamed the advertisement carried prominently by newspapers on the closing days of the previous months. These were paid for by the Ministry of Environ-ment (Islamabad) reminding the newspaper readers that this Ministry, which was allegedly established to provide a berth in the federal cabinet to the ex-Prime Minister's husband, is still alive and kicking. Obviously, it has enough funds in its kitty to issue such advertisements. What other activity this Ministry is indulging in is not known to the public. The continued existence of such a Ministry, while every leader from the treasury benches, Prime Minister downwards, is loudly talking of 'downsizing' (or 'right-sizing') the government, is an anomaly. However, there is more to it than meets the eye. Developing countries, whose combined GDP was assessed as $3.4 trillion by the World Bank in 1990 and which is projected to swell to $4.5 trillion by the turn of the century, are the quarry of the industrialized nations even for environmental goods and services, particularly services of experts in this virgin field. It is an undeniable fact that the developed countries leave no avenue of exploitation of the poor, but over-populated, Third World untapped. The new fad of environmental protection, which should be the main concern of the highly industrialized states that have despoiled the environment, and are doing so, is now being used as a ploy to squeeze more money from the developing countries on the stipulation that sine all development projects should be environment - friendly, no financial assistance or loan will be available unless the environmental aspect has been thoroughly examined by, naturally, experts recommended by the multilateral funding agency or by the country which is arranging plant and machinery for the project. It would be worth recalled that the protracted study carried out at enormous cost by the World Bank consultants for the feasibility of elevated light rail in Karachi had ultimately to be cleared by another team of consultants who examined the project's effect on environment for which additional charges were realised, which were quite a few thousand US dollars, though the project is still on the drawing board awaiting funds for execution on the ground. Thus, one consultancy service after another has consumed many years, in terms of time, and many thousands of dollars, in terms of money. the representatives of the Third World countries, including our Finance Minister, voiced their dissatisfaction with the way the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) were promoting the economic interests of the industrialised countries at the expense of the developing ones, the venue being Hong Kong and the occasion the annual meetings of the Bretton Woods institutions held in the concluding week of September last. The deliberations ended without agreeing on an appropriate mode of assistance for ailing economies. In fact, instead of accepting the developing countries' legitimate demand that the developed countries, instead of targeting markets in the poor, but densely populated, countries of the Third World, should pool some portion of their huge financial resources for uplifting the letters' economy, the proposal was side-tracked for consideration in the next annual meeting. It is being pontificated that "good environmental policies bring good economic returns". It may be theoretically true. No controversy on this slogan. But the questions that arise are, firstly: to what extent are the developing countries responsible for environmental pollution when they are nominally and minimally releasing pollutant when they are nominally and minimally releasing pollutant emissions from the few factories, non coal- fired power stations and transport vehicles that they have, as compared to the industrialised countries headed by the United States of America? Secondly, can the poor countries bear the crippling costs of controlling environmental degradation? They can hardly meet the cost of lead-free fuel for their motor vehicles and their tuning and servicing at regular intervals. This newspaper has, of late, been printing pictures of small towns, including military cantonments, in upcountry regions of Pakistan, which suffer so badly from want of effluent drainage facilities and solid waste disposal arrangements that they look like virtual cesspools. Local Administrations can do nothing to improve the situation for lack of financial resources. So, the grandiose schemes of environmental improvement conceived by the rich countries which are prescribed by foreign consultants for adoption in, say, Gujrat or Gujranwala urban centres are absolutely irrelevant and out of place. Viewing things from that above perspective, it is apparent that the assumption that the previous government had created an Environment Ministry only to accommodate a particularly person in the cabinet or provide well-paid cushy jobs to the cronies for doing precious little was ill-founded. Had it been so, the present government would have been the last one to let this Ministry continue, unless one presumes that some blue-eyed bureaucrats have to be retained in their sinecure jobs. So far as this writer is aware, an environment Ministry is one of the strings attached to foreign loans, as environmental goods and services, for which there is no ready market in the developing world, have to be sold to the seekers of loan. It is on record that the World Bank and the IMF exert pressure on developing countries to create public awareness of environmental issues and establish environmental protection institutions. In fact, the International Finance Corporation (IFC) had undertaken studies in many Third World countries, including Pakistan, a few years ago, to explore potential and opportunities for private investment by multinational corporations who have a fortune at their disposal for gainful investment. These studies had identified "more than 200 potential opportunities of this kind". The problem, however, that should stir up some resentment in countries like Pakistan and make them resist such outside pressure is that the cost of environmental protection in poor countries should, at least party, be borne by those who have, in the first place, brought about global degradation of the environment by reckless and thoughtless industrialisation and commercialisation of earth's natural resources-oil, forests and minerals-and, in the second place, by those who will benefit from sale of goods, like modern plant and equipment for drainage system and solid waste disposal, safety valves in factories to control emission of pollutants and so on, and for the inevitable consultancy services involved in each project. The industrialised countries should, therefore, contribute to a special fund for environmental works and public awareness in the developing countries. Such a fund should be with the United Nations not IBRD/IMF. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- First Women Bank's 10.2m shares sold for Rs285 million -------------------------------------------------------------------- Bureau Report ISLAMABAD, Nov 10: The Privatization Commission sold 10.2 million shares of the First Women Bank at a total cost of Rs 285 million in an open bidding to a consortium led by a UAE- based Bin HAM Group here on Monday. The bidding, shown live on television, witnessed a long rally between the Bin HAM and the Overseas Pakistani Group which started at a price of Rs20.60 per share quoted by Bin HAM group in the sealed bids earlier submitted to the commission. The Privatization Commission, which met soon after the bidding accepted the offer of Rs28 per share. "The members expressed their satisfaction over the smooth and transparent process of privatization of the FWBL and recommended the highest bid of Rs28 per share," said a press release later issued by the commission. The final approval of the sale of 51 per cent shares of the bank at Rs285 million would be given by the Cabinet Committee on Privatization. Four bidders had been qualified for the final bidding, including the Prime Bank and the Alsa Group. Prime group, however, could not qualify for the final round of open bidding as its sealed bid was the lowest among the four contenders. Whereas the Alsa group withdrew when it was asked to improve its bid of Rs12.88. Nusrat Ali of Bin HAM group, after wining the bidding, announced 5 per cent increase in the salary of the staff of the First Women Bank and held out an assurance not to lay off any employee. The group, he said, had plans to expand the operations of the bank without altering the unique character of the bank, as obligated in the sale agreement. The First Women Bank has 38 branches with deposits at Rs2.32 billion and current advances at Rs437 million. The chairman of Privatization Commission, Khawaja Asif, who presided over the bidding, hoped that the new buyers would maintain the character of the bank and the poor and needy women would be given priority while extending loan facilities. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971112 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Inflation increases by 11.88pc -------------------------------------------------------------------- By Muhammad Ilyas ISLAMABAD, Nov 11: Prices registered increasing trend during October, 1997 as the inflation rate rose by 11.88 per cent during October, 1997 over the past one year, Federal Bureau of Statistics stated here on Tuesday. When compared with September, 1997, CPI increased by 0.40 per cent. The SPI, CPI and WPI for the running 12 months i.e. November 1996- October 1997 showed an increase of 12.59%, 11.88% and 12.40% respectively over the corresponding 12 months of last year, November 1995-October, 1996. The SPI, CPI and WPI for the running quarter August-October 1997 increased by 0.62%, 1.52% and 0.59% respectively over the previous quarter May-July 1997. When compared with the corresponding period of last year, the increase has been measured as 10.03%, 10.19% and 9.18% respectively. The CPI increased during October, 1997 by 0.40% and 9.43%, respectively, over the previous month and corresponding month of 1996. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971113 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 250pc rise in non-traditional exports -------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent ISLAMABAD, Nov 12: Pakistan increased its exports of non-traditional items to $151.8 million during October 1997, which was more than 250 per cent as compared to the corresponding month of last year as well as September, 1997. This contrasts with the other categories of merchandize that continued their downhill slide. According to monthly statement of the Federal Bureau of Statistics made available to newsmen here on Wednesday, "others" increased their share in overall exports from a little over 6 per cent to 21.8 per cent last month. This is the only group which has recorded positive growth. Cumulative figures for the period July-October 1997 show that the non-traditional goods totalled $280.0 million, 70.4% more than in the corresponding period of last year. After negative growth of 1.84% in September, 1997, exports at $693.9 million indicated a turnaround last month but further analysis unveils the continuation of a disturbing trend in the fourth month of current financial year. For example, the share of manufactures in overall exports shows a substantial decline from 85.5 per cent during October 1996 and from 82.3% in September 1996, according to the FBS statistics. The deterioration is matched by the textile manufactures. Their exports totalled $393.1 million during the month under report, representing 56.6 per cent of the total exports. This denotes a striking fall from $457.8 million (67.0% of the total) during the previous month as well as from $446.641 million (68.7% of the total) in October, 1996. The overall manufactures exports amounted to $479.6 million. Cotton yarn, a semi-manufacture with value addition of only 8 per cent, accounted for 12.7% of total exports of textile manufactures. The quantity of cotton yarn exported in October 1997 was 36,288 tons, down from 40,402 tons in September 1997 and from 42,938 tons in corresponding month of last year. The unit value of cotton yarn also declined, as evident from the fact that the drop in quantity (14.39%) was exceeded by drop in value (23.91%), when compared with October 1996. Knitwear and waste material of textile fibres/fabrics were the only items in textile manufactures sectors which registered a positive growth in quantitative terms. But not so in terms of dollars. Having increased by 4.22% and 41.0%, respectively, in quantity over October 1996, the dollar value fetched by these shows a decline of 7.2% and 24.3%, respectively. Among non-textile manufactures, the items whose exports increased were carpets & carpeting, onyx manufactures and molasses. Carpets stand out as the item whose exports declined by 6.6% quantitatively; its proceeds in dollar terms increased by about 60% over October 1996. But their share in total exports of manufactures is still rather negligible just 3.2%. Pakistan exported 63,213 tons in October, 1997, as against 59,345 tons in September and 73,543 tons in October 1996. The export of rice during the first four months of 1997-98 totalled 261,199 tons, fetching $91.3 million. But this is lower than the corresponding period of last year when Pakistan earned $106.7 million by the export of 316,191 tons. The export of raw cotton, however, shows a dramatic increase from only 451 tons in July-October, 1996, to 19,281 tons during the corresponding period of current year. However, the increase in value in dollars yielded by cotton export was lower than last year, due probably to slump in the world market. Exports during the first four months leave Pakistan lagging behind its exports target of $9.5 billion for 1997-98 by about $45 million. Imports: The import bill for last month totalled $1.0 billion, showing a 5.93% decrease over the corresponding month of last year. It, however, shows 11.12% increase over September 1997. Viewed in the perspective of first four months of current financial year, import bill at $3.69 billion is lower by 2.0% over the corresponding period of last year. The import of un-milled wheat totalled 1.85 million tons during the first four months of 1997-98, as against 0.529 million tons during the corresponding period of last year. Overall, the food group imports show an increase of 34.1% in dollar terms during this period. Imports of this group amounted to $684.7 million, out of the total import bill of $3.69 billion, raising its share in overall imports from 13.47% last year to 18.5% in the current financial year. The figures about import of machinery group and industrial raw materials show a mixed trend in the month under review. Its imports amounted to $252.4 million, showing an increase of 4.43% over the previous month but down by 16.0%, when compared with October, 1996. The statistics show increase only in import of power generating machines, office machines, textile machinery and aircraft, ship & boats. The imports of synthetic fibre, synthetic & artificial silk yarn and worn clothing dropped by over one-third, when compared with the corresponding month of last year. In the agricultural and other chemicals group, imports of fertilizer, insecticides and plastic materials went up appreciably. But the entire metals group has declined by 29.4%. All the industrial raw materials included in the miscellaneous group showed substantially lower imports; the only exception were rubber crude and wood & cork. A sharp drop is also indicated in the import of petroleum crude last month. The country imported 324,861 tons of petroleum crude as against 416,468 tons in September 1997 and 336,466 tons in October 1996. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971114 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Forex reserves up by $117m -------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Nov 13: Pakistan's foreign exchange reserves totalled $1.631 billion on November 8 against $1.514 billion on November 1 showing a build-up of $117 million. A State Bank report released here on Thursday showed approved forex reserves at $1.272 billion on November 8 up $127 million over $1.145 billion on November 1. It showed the balances held outside the country around $359 billion against $369 million on November 1. Senior bankers link the modest increase in the forex reserves to the release of $157 million by the IMF during the week under review as part of $208 million worth of first transche of a $1.6 billion loan to Pakistan. The IMF had debited $51 million to the SBP account by the end of October. They also attribute it to increased export bills of October that were realised in the first week of November. The bankers cite a draw down on cash and short term securities placed in the international markets for a nominal draw down on the reserves held abroad. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Real GDP expected to grow by 5.5pc -------------------------------------------------------------------- Muhammad Ilyas ISLAMABAD, Nov 14: International Monetary Fund expects the real GDP growth rate to increase by 5.5 per cent during 1997-98 as a result of implementation of medium-term adjustment and reform programme under the financing package amounting to SDR 1.1 billion ($1.6 billion), says the latest issue of IMF Survey. The first tranche of this package amounting to SDR 151.6 million (about $208 million) under ESAF (Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility) and EFF (Extended Fund Facility) was made available to Pakistan a couple of weeks ago. Major economic indicators projected under the programme to be carried out by the Government of Pakistan included raising the GDP growth rate to 5.8% in 1998-99 and to 6.0% in 1999-2000. It was recorded as 3.1% in 1996-97, down from 4.6% in 1995-96. Other macroeconomic objectives for the three-year programme, as outlined in the Survey report, are: to progressively reduce annual inflation to about 7% (from 11.8% in 1996-97); and to reduce the external current account deficit (excluding official transfers) to the range of 4.0-4.5% of GDP (from 6.4% in 1996-97). The policy actions in the key fiscal area are designed to cut the overall budget deficit to 4.0% of GDP by the third year of the programme (from 6.1% in 1996-97). DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- PTCL to sign MoU with multinational -------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent ISLAMABAD, Nov 14: A Memorandum of Understanding will be signed between ICO Global Telecommunications Ltd, London and Pakistan Telecommunications Company Ltd (PTCL) for provision of Global Mobile Personal Satellite Communication Services (GMPCS) in the country, the PTCL announced here on Friday. According to a Press release, the memorandum will be signed by Olof Lundberg, Chief Executive Officer ICO and by Naseem S.Mirza, Chairman PTCL. Under the MOU, the ICO Global Communications Company will provide the state of art mobile telecommunications services in Pakistan connecting the country with the entire world. The system will complement the existing mobile cellular and fixed satellite services both for domestic and international consumers. ICO services will become operational by June 2000. The ICO Global Communications was established in 1989 to explore the evolution of mobile satellite communications towards hand-held services. The project was undertaken by INMARSAT, the 79-member-country organization to provide mobile communications for Maritime, Aviation and a variety of land based applications and ultimately with the expansion of services of INMARSAT, the formation of ICO Global Telecommunication Company and has decided to acquire the exclusive status for ICO's business in Pakistan by investing $20 million. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Investors avoid new positions owing to negative news -------------------------------------------------------------------- Staff Reporter KARACHI, Nov 14: Stocks finished the weekend session on an easy note as investors were not inclined to take new positions owing to negative news from the political fronts. Market rumours that a major political change is imminent added to the already prevailing confusion, after the killing of four Americans appears to be the chief destabilizing factor behind the current uncertainty. "The government might not fall as widely speculated by some quarters but the planned destabilization process is inhibiting fresh support from leading bulls," some dealers said. Unlike previous sessions, there was no nervous selling as some of the foreign funds were back in the rings and made active covering purchases on selected counters, they added. However, there was some optimism in the rings on news that Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif has talked to President Clinton on telephone and assured him to nab the killers, said a leading broker. "What seems to have halted foreign selling is the apparent full weight thrown by the US president behind Nawaz Sharif and his perceptions in regard to developing political situation in Pakistan," some analysts said. The market should have finished in the plus column after the Nawaz-Clinton talks but proceeding in the contempt case against the prime minister in the apex court on Monday kept local investors out of the rings and added to it were weekend considerations, they maintained. They said the market might not rebound with a bang keeping in view the global slump on the stock markets but panic selling will certainly be halted. "Some of the foreign investors are already back in the rings and covered positions at the lower levels in most of the pivotals," they added. After opening more than 20 points lower, the KSE 100-share index finally managed to finish recovered at 1,784.95 as compared to 1,798.30 a day earlier and in a way reflected the return of investors. The net decline being 13.35 points. The total market capitalization, however, suffered a fresh setback of Rs 3.242 billion owing to fall in the pivotals at Rs 542.128 billion as compared to Rs 545.371 billion a day earlier. "The market is struggling to find support at the lower levels, but the near-term outlook appears bearish", said an analyst. Most of the alternate bouts of buying were again centred around the leading banks shares, notably Bank of Punjab, MCB, Faysal Bank and some others. Massive activity was witnessed in the energy sector where the current favourites, notably Hub-Power, Southern Electric, Sui Southern and Sui Northern followed by Japan Power and Kohinoor Energy, were actively traded, both ways. They were followed by FFC-Jordan Fertilizer, ICI Pakistan, Engro Chemicals and Fauji Fertilizer, which came in for renewed selling. PTCL fell modestly but attracted strong support around the current level on the perception that it could rise during the next week. Dividend news from Dilon, Habib Bank Modaraba and Lease Pakistan were on the higher side of the market and evoked good interest on their respective counters. Trading activity fell further to 45 million shares from the previous 54 million shares as leading sellers kept to the sidelines. There 175 actives, which came in for trading, out of which 86 shares suffered fall, mostly fractional, while 44 rose with 45 holding on to the last levels. Big gainers were led by Pakistan Refinery and Packages, which rose by Rs 8 and Rs 4, while losers were led by Adamjee Insurance and Pak-Suzuki Motors, falling by Rs 6.50 and Rs 5 respectively. Hub-Power again topped the list of most actives on 20 million shares followed by PTCL, on 10 million shares, Sui Northern Gas, on 5.347 million shares, ICI Pakistan, on 5 million shares, and Southern Electric, on 1.166 million shares. DIVIDEND: Dilon, cash 25 per cent, Habib Bank Modaraba, cash 15 per cent, and Lease Pakistan, 10 per cent interim. ------------------------------------------------------------------- SUBSCRIBE TO HERALD TODAY ! ------------------------------------------------------------------- Every month the Herald captures the issues, the pace and the action, shaping events across Pakistan's lively, fast-moving current affairs spectrum. Subscribe to Herald and get the whole story. 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EDITORIALS & FEATURES

971109 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Dishonesty from Day One -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ardeshir Cowasjee FOR the purposes of this column which deals with the judiciary and the liberty of the individual, 'Day One' is August 14, 1973, the day on which Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's ill-conceived Constitution was promulgated. Within four hours of this promulgation, as pre-planned, he himself vitiated his own Constitution. A notification was issued, and the president was made to sign it, suspending all fundamental rights as guaranteed under the Constitution. His political opponents were immediately arrested and jailed and not released until General Zia-ul-Haq took over four years later, on July 5, 1977. During the four years between 1973 and 1977 Bhutto amended his Constitution seven times, rushing all the amendments through his assembly after suspending all rules of procedure and debate. The First Amendment (May 8, 1974) redefined the territory of the Islamic Republic, it having taken three years to recognize the fact that East Pakistan was lost in 1971. The Second Amendment (September 21, 1994) infringed upon the rights of an entire community the Ahmadis which was shorn of its majority rights and reduced to a minority after having existed as a part of the majority since the inception of the country in 1947. The Third Amendment (February 18, 1975), inter alia, empowered the government to detain a person without trial for three months, and enlarged the grounds for detention to include anything and everything that in the opinion of the government was tantamount to anti-national activities or was prejudicial to security, defence, etc etc. activities, including the alleged theft of a buffalo to the voicing of dissent. The Fourth Amendment (November 25, 1975), inter alia, enlarged the scope of preventive laws and further restricted what little freedom of association had been allowed. The Fifth Amendment (September 15, 1976) fixed the tenure of five years and four years respectively for the Chief Justices of the Supreme and High Courts. This enabled Bhutto to get rid of the Chief Justice of the Lahore High Court, Sardar Iqbal, and the Chief Justice of the Peshawar High Court, Safdar Shah, and appoint Aslam Riaz, who stood eighth in the order of seniority, as CJ of the LHC. The Sixth Amendment (January 4, 1977) allowed the Chief Justices of the Supreme and High Courts to hold office for tenures of five and four years respectively even though they had attained the retirement age of 65 and 62. This was done solely to retain Bhutto's favourite judge, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Yakub Ali, who soon thereafter would have had his 65th birthday. On December 8, 1976, Yakub Ali publicly stated: "I can say from personal knowledge that the prime minister, by conviction, has great respect for the judiciary from the lowest to the highest rung." (Dawn Dec 9, 1976). The Seventh Amendment (May 16, 1977), inter alia, prohibited the High Courts from exercising jurisdiction over people and property of an area where the armed forces had been brought in to aid the civil authorities. Martial law followed and with it the various presidential orders and the famous convoluted Eighth Amendment which, for better or for worse, changed, added to, or subtracted from, many provisions of the Second to Seventh Amendments. For instance, now our law decrees that an Ahamdi can be sent to jail merely for intoning Kalima Tayyaba. And our society being as educated and tolerant as it is, has accepted this. Many Pakistanis have come to accept subservience and corruption as virtues. Corruption grows, as more and more people join the ranks of the corrupt on the easy-to-understand maxim: 'If you can't lick 'em join 'em'. The same approach brought in periods of non-governance by martial law despots and by fascists posing as democrats. Martial Law is no law it is brute force which brooks no reason, but the excesses of our 'fascocrats' have, to a certain extent and before a total breakdown of the country could be achieved, been stemmed by our good, bad, or indifferent judiciary. Since 1973, each 'fascocrat' has declared that he or she will abide by the constitutional dictates and fulfil the requirement that the judiciary will be independent. This, after the passage of almost a quarter of a century, has still not come about. During this time, let us recall how certain members of our judiciary, men of independent minds, have been 'dealt with', or 'fixed', particularly in Sindh. First was Justice Tufailally Abdul Rahman, Chief Justice of the Sindh High Court. In the second half of 1973, District and Sessions Judge of Sanghar, Mohammed Owais Murtaza, was hand-cuffed, arrested in his court and jailed by provincial minister and Bhutto-minion Jam Sadiq Ali for having granted bail to certain men he had had arrested. The steadfast CJ stood his ground and protested. Why was his judge humiliated? Why was he, the Chief Justice, not consulted? He demanded that Prime Minister Bhutto meet him. Bhutto carefully avoided him and wrote to Talented Cousin Chief Minister of Sindh Mumtaz Ali Bhutto: "For heaven's sake, meet this old woman and keep him happy, otherwise deal with him." Mumtaz backed off, writing back that a meeting with the CJ "is usually not an event to which I look forward. The Chief Justice is just impossible." The arrested judge Murtaza moved the High Court for bail and Bhutto had him released before the matter could be heard by Tufail. Tufail died in office on January 16, 1974, and for five days thereafter the SHC was without a CJ, for Bhutto did not wish to appoint the senior puisne judge, Nurul Arfin, as Acting Chief Justice. Arfin's independence was not liked and he had never been forgiven for having released Abdul Hamid Jatoi, whom Bhutto had imprisoned. The prime Minister's machinations brought down from the Supreme Court his friend Justice Abdul Kadir Sheikh and he was appointed Chief Justice. The farcical Gazette Notification read: "During the period Mr Justice Abdul Kadir Sheikh holds the office of Chief Justice of the High Court of Sindh and Balochistan, he will continue to retain his lien on the office of and seniority as a judge of the Supreme Court." Nurul Arfin resigned. A useless gesture, as a resignation on a matter of principle in our kind of society is meaningless. Sindh merely lost a good judge. A bad precedent was set, and in 1994, when daughter Benazir Bhutto found Chief Justice of Sindh Nasir Aslam Zahid to be 'non- cooperative', he was exiled to the Shariat Court and replaced by Abdul Hafiz Memon, who had been a judge since the days of her father. He holds the record of having been sworn in as a judge six times, twice in Bhutto's time, once when he took the oath under Zia's PCO, and three times during Benazir Bhutto's two terms. Not to be left behind, Nawaz Sharif followed suit. To his credit, this time around he has hurriedly pushed through Parliament two constitutional amendments, the Thirteenth and the Fourteenth, the democrat in him not allowing the rules of procedure to be followed and not allowing debate. But he claims that Parliament is supreme. Yet he could not sort out a difference with the Supreme Court Chief Justice and managed to turn it into a crisis. Are the chief protagonists capable of realizing the amount of harm they cause to the country and its people by their obstinacy? When they fail or fall, blame is immediately put upon their chosen 'advisers'. Could this be but a result of ignorance fostered by lack of education? Luckily the Sindh High Court has suffered no damage in the fall-out of this last tangle between Nawaz Sharif and the judiciary. The province has sent an honest judge, our former Chief Justice, Mamoon Kazi to the Supreme Court and we have now as CJ, sworn in on November 4, the very able unapproachable Wajihuddin Ahmad, son of Justice Wahiduddin Ahmad. The late Justice Wahiduddin was a handsome man with a booming voice, widely respected for his integrity, his sagacity, and his independence. In 1956 he was appointed to the Bench of the High Court of West Pakistan, and in 1965 was moved to the Permanent Karachi Bench as the senior puisne judge. In 1967 he sat as the Chief Justice of the High Court of West Pakistan until elevated to the Supreme Court in 1969. He retired in 1974 but was recalled in 1976 as an ad-hoc judge of the Supreme Court, staying on for a further three years, until in 1979 he was disabled by a stroke and another good judge was lost to us. Now his son Wajihuddin sits, literally, in the very chair in which his father sat over thirty year ago. He has time enough to reorganize and re-energize our High Court. He has time enough to groom the newly inducted judges. He should do his father proud. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971112 -------------------------------------------------------------------- The poor traffic cops! -------------------------------------------------------------------- Hafizur Rahman WHATEVER urban road-users in Karachi and Lahore may say, I am going to set up the SPCTP, and whoever agrees with me and wants to become a member of a public-spirited organisation is welcome to do so. SPCTP is to stand for the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to the Traffic Police. At the moment there is no membership fee, nor any apparent benefit. However, it is hoped that after some time members may become entitled to getting a certain number of traffic violations waived every month. Before I tell you more about this, let me first apologise to the Traffic Police (TP) for ignoring their problems for so long. A much- maligned body, the TP too are at fault, for they have never done anything to let their grievances be known to the compassionate public of Pakistan. (It is so compassionate that it is ever ready to forgive its national "leaders" for bringing the country to this pass; be they General Yahya Khan or General "Tiger" Niazi manner.) The credit for breaking the inside story about the TP goes to a daily newspaper of Lahore which conducted a survey some time ago and found out the facts. The survey tells us that the poor TP are more sinned against than sinning, and sadly misunderstood. Actually they are more of a social welfare body than a punitive branch of the police. This is evident from the fact related by one TP man that they invariably pay from their own pocket the fines imposed for traffic violations on persons from their home towns. This is generosity of a high order. The survey said that members of the TP had a special grouse against women car-drivers who break traffic rules. No, they don't throw their weight about, for they never come out of their cars. The grouse is that they try to intimidate the poor TP man by speaking wrong English and threatening him with dire consequences. This is patently unfair. If we want the Traffic boys to improve their manners we shall have to ask our ladies to improve their English. According to the survey, the TP are strongly in favour of booking pedestrians and cyclists for traffic offences. They don't understand why the government should be lenient with these two types which are really very well off these days. Those who walk save valuable money on transport while the cyclists spend nothing on maintenance except for an occasional puncture. It is a fact that if the two groups can be prosecuted for breaking traffic rules the TP men will be able to make up for the loss in personal income occasioned by motorists and motor-cyclists who are mean enough not to stop and escape the TP exactions. The traffic police also want the government to reduce the number of VIPs. They say that every other law-breaker hauled up on the roads turns out to be a close relation of one VIP or another and manages to wriggle out of the TP's grip. The TP are thus obliged to concentrate on that small section of the road-using public which is not connected with persons of influence. How can this small section meet the financial needs of such a large force whose domestic expenses are going up every day? The newspaper survey made out that the TP boys are overly exploited. It is the unwritten law that they have to share their takings with the higher-ups. If they cannot please their officers they are posted at points where they can't take French leave or where the income is a pittance. Who suffers because of this meanness? Only the small children of the poor TP men who have to go without Swiss chocolates and electronic toys. Imagine the psychological effect of this unjust deprivation on the delicate minds of growing children. The only way out of this is to convert the unwritten law into a code in black and white, so that every TP man, from the highest officer to the humblest foot constable, knows what he is going to take home in the evening and plan life accordingly. In fact the whole system of takings should be computerised so that human error and greed of at the higher level should not create heart-burning. There is also a rather sad aspect to the TP men's problems. Those interviewed for the survey came out bitterly against students who call the TP names that are insulting and derogatory to their self- respect. What can one do about that? You can't go and change the attitude of thousands upon thousands of irresponsible boys. They never listen to anyone nowadays, not even their parents. I'm afraid the TP men will have to bear this with a thicker skin than they already have. They can wear it under the uniform so that it doesn't show. On the other hand, the students told the survey that bribery had gone into the very blood of the TP, and unless their blood was renewed en masse (this suggestion was actually made) a transformation was not possible. The TP men will, of course, refuse to have their blood touched. Probably they are ready (like all our political leaders) to shed the last drop of their blood for the country and the Kashmir cause, but are hardly likely to yield to a whim of youthful law-breakers who themselves want to join the TP. An impasse will thus be reached. You may call it a stalemate or a deadlock; I have no objection. So this was part of the case of the Traffic Police which has never before been presented to the public in its correct perspective. Now you will understand why I want to start the SPCTP, though I don't know whether I am going to end up as their patron saint or they will issue me a ticket involving a few days in the jug if they don't like the tone and tenor of this piece. I think I should keep my car off the road for some time. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- For the sake of the party -------------------------------------------------------------------- Irfan Husain MS Benazir Bhutto was quoted recently as telling an audience at Harvard University that she was no longer interested in politics, but was soldiering on because "her party needed her." Well, I have news for her: the PPP needs her as much as a fish needs a bicycle. As more and more revelations about her Swiss accounts come to light, even the most gung-ho supporter is hard pressed to defend her and her husband. Despite the occasional pro forma denial issued from Bilawal House, nobody seriously believes that all the many overseas accounts held by her and her immediate family contain nothing but legally gained income. And her protestations about immense inherited wealth notwithstanding, Benazir Bhutto's role in her husband's seemingly incontrovertible shady deals is now an undeniable fact. Earlier, her supporters had tended to give her the benefit of doubt, arguing that she was kept in the dark by the insatiable Asif Zardari. But with the flood of documents about the ex-first couple's dummy companies and their assets now a matter of public record, it is no longer possible for even her closest associates to deny her direct involvement. As long as the PPP chairperson continues to dominate the party, it cannot emerge from its current state of demoralization that set in following the hammering it took in the last election. In fact, the party's current woes stem directly from the perception of rampant and unchecked corruption that have clung to its leader and her controversial husband. Twice turfed out of office on identical charges of bribery and mismanagement, it is high time for Benazir Bhutto to give up her apparently hereditary position in the party. Actually, any leader with an iota of conscience and sensitivity would have resigned after a defeat as humiliating as the one suffered by the PPP last February. But after being convinced that she was indispensable, she has clung on, much to the party's embarrassment. I would not have cared very much who led the PPP had it not been for the fact that I have supported it for nearly twenty years. It was only in February that I voted against it because I could no longer stomach the previous government's inept and crooked ways. The fact is that no democracy can thrive without the presence of at least two viable political parties in the arena. Their presence gives voters a clear choice on election day, and a strong opposition keeps the ruling party on its toes. But the last lopsided electoral results have unbalanced the system by virtually eliminating the opposition, and giving the ruling party a bulldozer of a mandate. And apart from the numbers in Parliament, the opposition has no leg to stand on when it comes to accusing the government of any improper behaviour. It can only regain the high moral ground when it parts company with its leader who stands accused of skimming off millions of dollars together with her husband. The need for this break has assumed greater urgency now that Benazir Bhutto is in real danger of being disqualified from sitting in the National Assembly because she did not file details of her many bank accounts abroad. She has been quoted as telling her audience at Harvard University that she is making more money on the lecture circuit than she did as prime minister of Pakistan. This may well be true, but as she cares so much about her suddenly revealed wealth, she may well consider other career options. With her sizable fortune and major investments in real estate abroad, surely she can use her considerable talents in ventures other than fooling the Pakistani public. The fact is that over the years, the PPP has come to stand for a number of things to a number of people. It may not have delivered on the promises its founders made, but for the dispossessed and the marginalized, the PPP was a beacon of hope. For leftists and liberals, the PPP was the only viable party they could support. And the party's exemplary role in spearheading the anti-dictatorship movement during Zia's rule brought in more supporters and admirers for the young Benazir Bhutto. During her first stint, we were able and willing to overlook many of her faults and errors, ascribing them to inexperience, a hostile establishment and a husband of dubious antecedents. We were disappointed that she did not even attempt the kind of reforms that were so badly needed. The Hudood Ordinance, and similar regressive pieces of legislation should, we felt, have been thrown out, but we forgave BB much when her government was dismissed by a vindictive Ghulam Ishaq Khan. The election of 1990 was widely perceived as having been rigged, and the PPP vote bank remained more or less intact. But the second time around there were no excuses. With everything going her way, it was greed, pure and simple, that brought down her government. Although PPP voters stayed away in droves last February to show their anger and disapproval, we need a two-party system if democracy is to survive. But as long as Benazir Bhutto and Asif Zardari are associated with the party, there is no way its supporters will return to the fold. Basically, the ex-first couple need the umbrella of the PPP to escape the possible consequences of their actions. But the party leadership has a larger responsibility to their rank and file, as well as the democratic dispensation they struggled to restore. It used to be unthinkable to imagine the PPP without a Bhutto. It has now become unthinkable to imagine the PPP with a Bhutto. Ultimately, the PPP is not a jagir that the Bhuttos can use at will. Many men and women have made immense sacrifices for the party, and it is high time they asserted their rights over it. It is the tradition in most democracies for the party leader to resign after he or she has presided over an electoral defeat. In our case, we have a situation where the country's biggest political party is virtually wiped out, and yet its leader continues to hang on. And not only does she hang on, but she goes on heaping further disgrace on the party by her laughable defence of her seeming complicity in her husband's dubious business dealings. I think it was Cromwell who said: "In the name of God, go!" DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971109 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Why hasn't the PM responded? -------------------------------------------------------------------- Eqbal Ahmad IN an initiative to which I recall no precedence in Pakistan, three former Chiefs of Pakistan Air Force wrote to the Prime Minister urging him to enact a law aimed against a seemingly widespread practice of kickbacks in the purchase of armaments. "The kickback takers", they wrote, "rob the armed forces of the most advantageous purchasing terms in their weapons acquisitions. They act as frontmen for those who siphon off millions of dollars from the nation's scarce defence resources. They also bring the armed forces into disrepute, mostly quite undeservedly, and lower the servicemen's morale and fighting spirit." These strange, declarative phrases were written by men who led our air force at crucial junctures, and who are remembered in the services for their integrity and leadership. The remedy which the Air Chiefs M. Asghar Khan, Zulfikar Ali Khan, and Jamal A Khan propose was sent to the Prime Minister in the form of a carefully drawn draft legislation entitled "The Defence Agents Prohibition Act, 1997". Its effects could be far reaching though its formulation is simple: eliminate the intermediary agent from the defence purchasing process, contractually and routinely obligate the foreign supplier to refrain from using agents and peddling favours. No law can end kickbacks totally; this one is not an exception. But keeping in view the worldwide history of kickbacks, a close reading of their proposed legislation suggests that if enacted this simple measure will drastically reduce the incidence of the grand larceny which harms national security in multiple ways. It is a cancer not only costly to national treasuries. It also destroys the integrity of the officers, spreads cynicism and discontent in its ranks, and undermines morale. Most analysts agree, for example, that kickbacks contributed to the demoralization and collapse of the Shah's armed forces and Mobutu's army. Given Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's overt commitment to fighting corruption, given also the impeccable source of this proposal, one had expected that within months if not weeks this legislation will be on the parliamentary agenda. On my return from the United States a few weeks ago I asked two of the three Air Marshals if the Prime Minister had replied to their letter of which the contents had been reported in Dawn. "We have not heard a word from any one", was their depressing reply. Their response conveyed a certain awe and sadness over the power of the kickback lobby. It is but one reflection of the venality which afflicts the third world that while most of the supplier countries have enacted anti-kickback laws, only a handful of the third world's arms buyers have done anything to control the termites that erode the foundations of national security and the economy. It is treason we are refusing to arrest. "Payment for collaboration" is how The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines 'kickback'. Kickback is so common a form of corruption in our time that what began as a colloquialism to describe deviation from the norm has now made its way into literary English. As for collaboration, do not confuse it for creative partnership. In the dictionary's definition above, it means "cooperating traitorously with an enemy". The phenomenon came into full view of the world in the seventies when such corporate giants as Lockheed, Northrop and Gulf oil were exposed for giving extravagant bribes in their bid to obtain favourable contracts from governments. A Japanese government of Takeo Miki, collapsed under the weight of such scandals and many a leaders were disgraced. Many supplier governments enacted laws prohibiting pay-offs. In the United States, the biggest supplier country, the Congress enacted the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, a law replete with ambiguities and loopholes. Several others passed similar laws. One effect of these laws their clearest feature is a prohibition on outright bribery to obtain a contract was to put the agent at the centre of the bribery nexus. The agents who as employees of duly constituted firms are mostly former military officers, senior bureaucrats, or relatives and friends of people in power are supposed to serve as the link between buyer and seller. They claim to help the seller understand the needs and requirements of the buyer, and assist the buyer in selecting the best quality products at the most competitive prices. Ask an agent, he will treat you to a most glowing description of the national service he performs by facilitating the purchase of best weapons at most reasonable prices. In fact, they are mere deal makers between sellers and the purchasing officials. The best deal is made when a bad product is sold at high price and the difference is split among the three parties which are always an institution the foreign corporation and the corrupt native officials and agents. Like all salesmen the arms agents are a smooth lot, and unlike most they are totally superfluous. Which respecting army, air force, or navy would need an outsider to advise it on what weapons it should buy. The capabilities and relative advantages of every weapons system is thoroughly documented, comparative data are available, performance profiles can be had on video, and all these can be checked against analyses of a given weapon system by independents no less than competitors. More importantly, arms is a most competitive market, hence sellers tend to be solicitous of buyers. "They cooperate to the greatest extent", says Air Marshal Jamal Khan, and recounts the inspections and field tests which a German radar producer provided the Pakistani air force officers. "The equipment", he concluded "we bought was the best one could and at very competitive price." Kickbacks were not yet a problem in Air Marshal Asghar Khan's tenure. The Air Force was purchasing but little and the menace of corruption and its agents had not yet infected it. Air Marshals Zulfikar Ali Khan and Jamal Khan documented at some length their efforts to bar the agents from air force transactions, and showed how willing the sellers were to certify that they had not used an agent or otherwise engaged in influence peddling. "We also forbade the entry of agents into Air Force Bases. But our writ did not go beyond the Air Force. In the absence of law we had no recourse against the intrepid violators. Our experience tells us that a service chief can not do much to stop this disease. It is a political problem, and its solution requires political will." During their tenures, the two air force chiefs took their pleadings to the chief executive and the defence secretary. "We received strong verbal support, then nothing was done", say Air Marshal Zulfikar Khan. Neither Z.A. Bhutto nor General Ziaul Haq acted on their recommendations. Their aides behaved as though this was not their business to interfere. After all, the law allowed the agents to operate. When one defence secretary was approached to do something to stop the rot that hurts the armed forces, he categorically said that we do not need legislation as we have a fool proof system of honest defence acquisition.' At the time rumours of big kickbacks in naval purchases were taking the round. When he would not identify the "fool proof system", Air Marshal Asghar Khan spoke to him harshly. During all these years there were scandals galore, from mirages to submarines. Each scandal, proven or not, affects morale in the armed forces, affects also the crucial trust between officers and Jawans. "There is talk of corruption in the barracks too", says an army officer I meet by chance, "jawans are losing faith in us. They live on a diet of daal-roti, and hear about luxurious wealth in high places. This is not good situation." I had heard these lines before and again wondered why no one speaks of this, perhaps the greatest threat to national security at all those seminars in which so much derivative bromide is spouted about Pakistan's security requirements. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif would do well to act on the Air Marshals' appeal. His government needs to build a new, a positive image of itself. Look at newspapers, in English or Urdu. Talk to people in the street. One impression overrides all others. The honeymoon is over. The Teflon has worn off Nawaz Sharif's government. Its early achievements a recoiling from VIPism, the regulation of marriage parties, the principled settlement of a lingering controversy over privatizing the Quaid-i-Azam University's land have been all but forgotten. The broad-based goodwill he had enjoyed in the first months after assuming office is being displaced by cribbing about all that afflicted this country before he came into office economic stagnation, inflation, crime and sectarian violence. To these old causes of complaints have been added new ones downsizing which is essential but necessarily hurts in this environment of low employment and rising prices, laws such as the anti-terrorist legislation which unduly lengthens the already long, repressive, and corrupt arm of the police, a backward looking cultural policy, a tendency to appease the most retrograde and sectarian sections of society, and failure to demonstrate a sense of commitment to such low cost but essential tasks as the Air Marshals have proposed. If they wish to govern effectively, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and his colleagues must reverse this trend. As a rule discontent and disillusion grows if it is allowed to persist. When authority responds positively to constructive initiatives from citizens, it promotes trust and interdependence between government and society. The converse is also true, when they ignore citizens' initiative high officials encourage cynicism, disillusion, and distrust of government. The distance between state and civil society widens.

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SPORTS

971109 -------------------------------------------------------------------- President decorates Pakistani captains -------------------------------------------------------------------- Sports Reporter LAHORE, Nov 8: President Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari decorated 21 captains of the past and present Pakistan cricket team with gold medals in recognisation of their services to the game on the occasion of the Pakistan Golden Jubilee celebrations. The medals were awarded at the conclusion of the final of the Four- Nation Pakistan Golden Jubilee One Day International Cricket Tournament which was played between the world Champions Sri Lanka and South Africa at the Qadhafi stadium on Saturday night. The three cricket stalwarts each in one buggle entered in the stadium and after receiving their medals from the President took a round of the stadium amid thunderous applause of the stadium. Imran Khan, the most successful captain of the Pakistan team could not attend the ceremony due to his political engagements. The medals of two late captains, namely Mian Muhammad Saeed and Abdul Hafeez Kardar were received by their grandsons Taimur Saeed and Hamza Kardar, respectively. Besides Mian Muhammad Saeed and Abdul Hafeez Kardar, the others who received the medals were: Fazal Mahmood, Imtiaz Ahmad, Javed Burki, Hanif Muhammad, Saeed Ahmad, Intikhab Alam, Majid Khan, Mushtaq Muhammad, Wasim Bari, Asif Iqbal, Javed Miandad, Zaheer Abbas, Wasim Akram, Saleem Malik, Waqar Younis, Rameez Raja, Saeed Anwar and Abdul Qadir. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Cricket stadium to be built at Bhurban -------------------------------------------------------------------- Our Correspondent RAWALPINDI, Nov 10: A stadium of international standard with all facilities would be constructed at Bhurban, Murree. Bids would be invited soon for the construction of the stadium as the initial designing and development works have been completed. This was decided at a meeting held here on Monday to finalise the consultants whose services would be acquired to build the stadium and the related facilities at the picturesque hilly station. Chief Minister Punjab Shahbaz Sharif had directed the district and divisional administrations for providing maximum recreational facilities, included cricket stadium, gymnasium with squash, tennis courts, basketball, badminton and volleyball, to the people of Murree. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- All-rounders were our main asset, says Bacher -------------------------------------------------------------------- Shamim-ur-Rahman The recent victory of South African cricket team in the test series against Pakistan was the reflection of the characteristics of the new South Africa nation under President Nelson Mandela - that of pride, determination and guts," said Dr Ali Bacher managing director United Cricket Board of South Africa in a telephonic interview Sunday. "Since 1980 only three visiting teams have achieved victory in Pakistan; a feat which attests to the tenacity of the South African team," he said. It was their single-mindedness of purpose that saved the day for them because by their own admission they did not perform consistently. However, when they apply themselves they are arguably among the best in world cricket, said Dr Bacher. The South African team's strength lies in its outstanding all rounders; McMillan, Pollock, Klusener, Kallis, Symcox, Richardson and Captain, Hansie Cronje. "These all rounders are the envy of many cricketing nations and the team is rapidly reaching the all-round proportions of the team that I was fortunate enough to captain in 1970," said the UCBSA managing director. That team included cricketing legends, Trevor Goddard, Eddie Barlow, Tiger Lance, Mike Procter, Lee Irvine and wicket-keeper/ batsman Denis Lindsay," said Bacher. The present South African squad also has some impressive youngsters coming through. Players such as Jacques Kallis, Adam Bacher, Shaun Pollock, Lance Klusener, Herschelle Gibbs and Paul Adams can look forward to contributing to the success of our international fixtures in the future. The South African cricket board chief was amazed at the number of young international players coming through in Pakistan "on a seemingly endless conveyor belt - without a single cricketing factory in sight." There are no discernible grassroots coaching structures or elite academies as is the case in South Africa and Australia. The answer, he said, may very well lie in the fact that cricket is deeply embedded in the fabric of the Pakistan nation where playing the game has become second nature - much like football in African countries. "I believe that Pakistan will take cricket into a new era if formal developmental structures are introduced to harness the natural flair and love for the game that is so clearly evident among the youth of that country," the UCBSA chief said. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971113 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Wasim to lead team against West Indies -------------------------------------------------------------------- Samiul Hasan KARACHI, Nov 12: Wasim Akram will lead the Pakistan cricket team in the three-Test series against the West Indies, Majid Khan, the PCB Chief Executive, said from his Lahore residence. The selectors will, however, deliberate upon the first Test squad on Thursday but the announcement will be made on Friday, Majid Khan added. "We will try to keep it (number of players) low but all depends on the selectors. I think it should be a 13-member squad," added the PCB official. Majid Khan said Wasim Akram was initially appointed captain till the series against the West Indies. "For the tour of Sharjah, the consent and approval of the Executive Council will be taken before the decision is announced." Akram is presently in Mumbai and is expected to return on Thursday. It was, however, not confirmed if he will sit in the selection committee meeting which will be held under the chairmanship of an ailing Salim Altaf who is down with flu. Majid Khan's confirmation on Wasim Akram's status lays rest to speculations about change in captaincy in the background of an embarrassing performance in the quadrangular tournament. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971115 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Waqar Younis dropped from first Test squad -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ilyas Beg LAHORE, Nov 14: In a surprise move, toe-crusher Waqar Younis was dropped along with in-form fast-medium bowler Aqib Javed in the 13- member Pakistan cricket team that was announced on Friday for the first Test against the West Indies, which will begin at Peshawar on Nov 17. Wicketkeeper Rashid Latif has also been axed from the side which finished third in the quadrangular tournament. However, young middle-order batsman Muhammad Wasim has been brought back into the side and is likely to play in the team. While talking to this reporter soon after finishing his track work at the Qadhafi Stadium, Wasim Akram said that he had been consulted by the selectors on Thursday about the combination of the team. "All the team-members will be flying to Peshawar on Saturday morning. We will have a good look at the pitch and thereafter finalise the eleven for the Test on morning of the game. Having suffered a shock-defeat at Faisalabad in the third Test against South Africa and performed badly during the Golden Jubilee Quadrangular Cricket Tournament at Lahore, chips are down and boys are under psychologically under pressure. Still, we will try our best to beat the West Indies side at Peshawar and in the following matches", said the serene and calm-looking Wasim Akram. While replying to a question from this reporter, the experienced all-rounder Wasim Akram said that a five-day Test is a totally different game from the limited-over matches. Of course, the West Indies side was also having a bad patch these days just like the Pakistan team. "No one should forget that the West Indies team consists of world- class bowlers like Curtly Ambrose and Ian Bishop, who have the capability to change the complexion of the game at any stage. One can play them when bowling in limited-over matches. But they can be lethal in Tests. The West Indies side has world-class batsmen like Brian Lara and Carl Hooper. The fielding of the team has always been good. Whenever the Caribbean side will click, it will be very difficult proposition to beat. However, my assertions should not be misunderstood or misconstrued. We will give away our best and leave the result to Allah!" said Wasim Akram. Wasim Akram looked satisfied with the composition of the team. He said that the team will play with three pacemen and three spinners. All-round ability of Aamir Sohail and Azhar Mahmood would be an advantage with the Pakistan team. The 13 players announced for the Peshawar Test have three openers Aamir Sohail, Saeed Anwar and Ali Naqvi. Besides Wasim Akram and Azhar Mahmood, young paceman Shahid Nazir has been included in the team. The match-winning right-arm leg-spinner Mushtaq Ahmad, who had opted to take rest during the Golden Jubilee Quadrangular Cricket Tournament, has come back into the side to make it more balanced. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971113 -------------------------------------------------------------------- PCB earns Rs 9.1m from one-dayers against India -------------------------------------------------------------------- Sports Reporter KARACHI, Nov 12: The Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) earned a revenue of Rs 9,100,000 from the turnstiles during the three One-day Internationals against India. This was disclosed by the PCB Treasurer, Waqar Hasan, while addressing the gathering at the prize-giving ceremony of the Veterans Cup cricket tournament here on Wednesday. Waqar, a former Test batsman of yesteryear, said that the recent one-day series against India proved to be a great success for the PCB as the proceeds from the sale of tickets for the matches yielded 1,200,000 at Hyderabad and Rs 4,200,000 at Karachi and 3,700,000 from the day/night encounter at Lahore. DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS*DWS* 971111 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Era of Jahangir & Jansher sustains Pakistan's supremacy -------------------------------------------------------------------- A. Majid Khan The man - rather the boy - destined to end the Australian stranglehold on world squash and re-assert Pakistan's supremacy was the incomparable Jahangir Khan who cut through the intervening reign of Geoff Hunt in a sensational encounter to become the youngest international title-holder (14-year-old) in 1979. Air Marshal (Rtd) Nur Khan, the Chairman of the Pakistan International Airlines, fully backed up the country's second era of progress to the hilt and introduced the PIA open as well as team championship besides building a modern squash complex in Karachi. These developments in the late seventies gave tremendous boost to the game in Pakistan a wave that is still continuing in the shape of Jansher Khan. The Karachi team event brought a new revolution in international squash and the World Squash Federation later abolished the discrimination between amateur and professional categories and its 1981 team championship was as such an open team event. It was the beginning of the new golden age of Pakistan in the world squash as Jahangir Khan re-established Pakistan's dominance in the prestigious British Open winning the 1982 final against Hidyat Jahan, in an all-Pakistan affair after a lapse of seven years when Qamar defeated Gogi Alauddin in the 1975 final in London. Jahangir proceeded to post another milestone in the international squash with ten wins in the British Open (1982-1991) surpassing Hunt's record of eight victories. Needless to say this record also remains unchallenged. Jahangir Khan also ruled the World Open for five years in a row (1981-1985) before tasting his first defeat in international squash by New Zealand's Ross Norman in the 1996 World Open final in France. He showed his mastery and skill in the hardball game, a different version of squash played in USA and Canada, and became the only player in the world to hold number one ranking both in the internationally recognised softball and hard ball game simultaneously. He toured all over the world winning countless championships but persistent back problem compelled him to skip a good number of international tournaments as well as losing quite a few matches against the new emerging champion Jansher Khan another titan to rise from the soil of Pakistan. Under Jahangir's stewardship Pakistan won the world team title four times and the last time he captained the national team to victory was in the 1993 World Teams Championship in Karachi after which he announced his retirement. Pakistan had fortunately found a new champion in Jansher Khan, and today he is the torch-bearer of our squash ascendancy in the international field. Jansher Khan, trained and coached by his elder brother Mohibullah Khan in Peshawar, was in the Pakistan Air Force which extended all help and support in his build-up as a world champion. In 1987 he beat Australia's Chris Dittmar. The great Jansher added a new chapter in squash history by surpassing Jahangir's record of six wins to set a new one of eight wins in the World Open (1987, 1989, 1990, 1992, 193, 1994, 1995, 1996). However, Jansher had to skip the 1997 World Open in Kuala Lumpur for personal reasons. Jansher's withdrawal from the world open has resulted in weakening the Pakistan team competing in the World Team Championship, also in Kuala Lumpur due to start after the conclusion of World Open. Nevertheless, Jansher Khan still holds number one rank in world squash and is expected to dominate the international squash for another few years. He is 29. Jansher Khan has also crossed the half-way stage in the prestigious British Open, winning the title six years in a row from (1992-1997) setting his eye to enter the 21st century with a new determination and will to maintain Pakistan's hold in the championship as also to surpass Jahangir's record of ten wins (1982-1991). So in this golden Jubilee year Pakistan can look back with pride on the glorious achievements by our world renowned players Hashim Khan, Roshan Khan, Azam Khan, late Mohibullah Khan, Qamar Zaman, Janangir Khan and our present world beater, Jansher Khan. As far as looking forward to an equally illustrious era is concerned, we have to keep our fingers crossed. (Concluded) Back to the top.

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