Imagery -- appeals to senses
Figurative language -- personification, simile, metaphor
Sound -- alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, rhythm
Allusions -- but getting the allusion requires a broad knowledge of life and literature
Diction -- injecting prose with the flavor of a time and place. Consider the Mistress of Diction: Virginia Hamilton
Tone -- a reflection of attitude. Eschew the sentimental...