Groves research group
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
University of Virginia

"Directed Vapor Deposition"
James F. Groves

Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia, 1998.

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List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Symbols

Table of Contents

Chapter 1

  • Vapor Phase Synthesis of Materials
  • Applications Motivating Vapor Phase Process Development
  • Goals of the Dissertation
Chapter 2
  • Vapor Creation Using an Electron Beam Gun
  • Vapor Transport
  • Vapor Adsorption and Diffusion on a Substrate
  • Summary
Chapter 3
Invention of Directed Vapor Deposition

Chapter 4
DVD System Design

  • Electron Beam Gun
  • Processing Chamber
  • Crucible
  • Gas System
  • Vacuum Pumps
  • Vacuum Gauges
  • Substrate Temperature Control System
  • Computer Control Methodology
  • Concluding Remark
Chapter 5
Experimental Investigation of Vapor Transport
  • Overview
  • Available Processing Regime
  • Visual Observations of Gas Stream
  • Gas Flow / Vapor Stream / Substrate Interactions
  • Concluding Remarks
Chapter 6
Materials Synthesis Via Directed Vapor Deposition
  • Overview
  • Contamination Study of Nonreactive Deposition
  • Study of Silicon Deposition
  • Study of Reactive Deposition
  • Concluding Remarks
Chapter 7
Experimental Investigations of Deposition Efficiency
  • Overview
  • Deposition Efficiency Experimental Procedures
  • Flat Substrate Results
  • Fiber Substrate
  • Clustering
  • Summary
Chapter 8
Vapor Transport Model Development
  • Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Modeling of the Flowfield
  • Bimolecular Collision Theory (BCT) Modeling of Vapor Transport
  • Summary
Chapter 9
Vapor Transport Model Verification
  • Verification of DSMC Results
  • BCT Model Verification
  • Summary
Chapter 10
Vapor Transport Modeling of DVD
  • Vapor Transport Predictions
  • Vapor Deposition Predictions
  • Summary
Chapter 11
DVD System Development
  • Reconfiguration of the Gun, Vapor Source, and Carrier Gas Flow
  • Substrate Bias
  • Impact of Changes in Vapor Flux Upon Carrier Gas Flow
  • Experimental Work
  • Model Development
  • Concluding Remarks
Chapter 12
  • Focus, Efficiency, and Angular Distribution
  • Non-line-of-sight Coating
  • Vapor Stream Mixing
  • Enhanced Energy Deposition
  • Rapid, Continuous Processing of Pure Materials and Compounds
  • Other Applications
  • Other System Configurations
  • Summary
Chapter 13
  • Specific Conclusions
  • Final Thought

Appendix A
DVD Specifications

  • E-beam Gun Design Drawings
  • Processing Chamber Design Drawings
  • Water-Cooled Crucible Design Drawings
  • Processing Chamber Pumping Capacity Design Calculations
Appendix B
Clustering Calculations

Appendix C
Flowfield Modeling Code

Appendix D
Atom Tracking Code

Appendix E
E-beam Vapor Distribution