Virgil, ca. 29-19 BC:|
Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem, 5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.
John Dryden, 1697
Arms, and the Man I sing, who forc'd by Fate,
and haughty Juno's unrelenting Hate;
expell'd and exil'd, left the Trojan Shoar:
long Labours, both by Sea and Land he bore:
and in the doubtful War, before he won
the Latian Realm, and built the destin'd Town:
his banished Gods restor'd to Rites Divine.
And settled sure Succession in his Line:
from whence the Race of Alban Fathers come.
And the long Glories of Majestic Rome.
W. F. Jackson Knight, 1956
This is a tale of arms and of man. Fated to be an exile, he was the first to sail from the land of Troy and reach Italy, at its Lavinian shore. He met many tribulations on his way both by land and on the ocean; high Heaven willed it, for Juno was ruthless and could not forget her anger. And he had also to endure great suffering in warfare. But at last he succeeded in founding his city, and installing the gods of his race in the Latin land: and that was the origin of the Latin nation, the lords of Alba, and the proud battlements of Rome.
Allen Mandelbaum, 1981
I sing of arms and of a man: his fate
had made him fugitive; he was the first
to journey from the coasts of Troy as far
as Italy and the Lavinian shores.
Across the lands and waters he was battered
beneath the violence of High Ones, for
the savage Juno's unforgetting anger;|
and many sufferings were his in war -
until he brought a city into being
and carried in his gods to Latium;
from this have come the Latin race, the lords
of Alba, and the ramparts of high Rome.
Robert Fitzgerald, 1981
I sing of warfare and a man at war.
From the sea-coast of Troy in early days
he came to Italy by destiny,
to our Lavinian western shore,
a fugitive, this captain, buffeted,
cruelly on land as on the sea
by blows of powers from the air – behind them
baleful Juno in her sleepless rage.
And cruel losses were his lot in war,
till he could found a city and bring home
his gods to Latium, land of the Latin race,
the Alban lords, and the high walls of Rome.
Robert Fagles, 2006
Wars and a man I sing – an exile driven on by Fate,
he was the first to flee the coast of Troy,
destined to reach Lavinian shores and Italian soil,
yet many blows he took on land and sea from the gods above –
thanks to cruel Juno’s relentless rage – and many losses
he bore in battle too, before he could found a city,
bring his gods to Latium, source of the Latin race,
the Alban lords and high walls of Rome.
Muse, how it all began. Why was Juno outraged?
What could wound the Queen of the Gods with all her power?
Why did she force a man, so famous for his devotion,
To brave such rounds of hardship, bear such trials?
Can such rage inflame the immortals’ hearts?