**Solving for SMALL
numbers**

Microelectronics is (apparently) one of few fields where we routinely have to calculate very small numbers - numbers so small that modern calculators and programs tend to round them to zero!

**Here are two ways to get around this
problem:**

1) Remembering "Taylor Series," if "small" is a very small number,1 / (1+small) ~ 1-small1/(1-small) ~ 1+small

So, for example if we realize that e

^{-33}is a very small number,1 - 1/(1+e^{-33}) ~ 1 - (1-e^{-33}) ~ e^{-33}And THIS our calculators CAN handle

e^{-33}= 4.65 x 10^{-15}

2) For MATHCAD users,Go to FORMATSelect RESULT

hit the TOLERANCE tab

set the "zero threshold" to 20 (i.e. display numbers as small as 10

^{-20})