Department of Religious Studies
112 Halsey Hall
Tel: (434) 924‑6725
Fax: (434) 924-1467
Tel. (434) 295-7655
7/63 to 5/66 ‑ B.A. General.
9/67 to 6/71 ‑
jurisprudence (fiqh & usul) at the seminaries in Mashhad and
9/71 to 6/72 ‑ M.A.
9/72 to 6/76 ‑ Ph.D.
Dissertation: "The Doctrine of Mahdiism in Imami Shi‘ism:
A study of doctrinal evolution in the 9th and 10th centuries"
Swahili ‑ Speaking, reading and writing ability
Arabic ‑ " " " "
Persian ‑ " " " "
Urdu ‑ " " " "
Hindi ‑ " " " "
Gujarati - “ “ “ “
English ‑ " " " "
German ‑ some working knowledge
Modern Turkish ‑ working knowledge
9/68 to 6/71 ‑ English Language Instructor,
9/71 to 6/72 ‑ Research Assistant, Department of Middle East &
9/75 to 12/75 ‑ Visiting Lecturer, Department of Religious Studies,
9/75 to 5/76 ‑ Visiting Lecturer, Department of Religion and Culture,
9/76 to 5/77 ‑ Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Religious Studies,
9/77 to 5/78 ‑ Assistant Professor, Department of History/Department of
French and General Linguistics (joint
9/78 to 8/82 ‑ Assistant Professor, Department of Religious
Studies/Oriental Languages, (joint appointment),
9/82 ‑ Tenured ‑ Associate Professor
1/86 to 6/86 - Visiting Professor, Faculty of Shari`a, University of Jordan,
9/87 to 6/88 - Margaret Gest Visiting Professor of Religion,
9/88 ‑ Promoted‑ Professor
1989 - Offered - King Faisal Chair of Islamic and Arabic Studies, USC (Declined)
9/90 to 6/91 - Visiting Scholar,
1/93 to 5/93 - Visiting Professor, Institute of Islamic Studies,
1/96 to 6/96 - Visiting Scholar,
1/02 to 8/02 - Visiting Professor, Faculty of Theology,
8/2005 - Appointed: Frances Myers Ball Professor of Religious Studies
1/05 to 12/05 - Visiting Professor, Faculty of Arts and Humanities,
1/07 to 06/07 - Visiting Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Behishti Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran.
9/67 to 8/71 ‑
9/72 to 5/73 ‑
9/73 to 5/75 ‑
9/73 to 8/74 ‑
6/78 to 8/78 ‑
12/78 to 1/79 ‑ Muhammadi Trust Research Fellowship for Research in
6/80 to 8/80 ‑
6/81 to 8/81 ‑
12/82 to 6/83 ‑ Research Assignment‑Research in
6/83 to 8/83 ‑
1/86 to 8/86 ‑
Sesquicentennial Fellowship for research in
9/90 to 8/91 - Research Assignment-Research in Jordan/Iran
6/93 to 8/93 -
1994-95 - Z Society Award for Outstanding Professor
1/96 to 6/96 - Sesquicentennial Fellowship for research in
9/97 to 8/98 - University Seminar Course Development Fellowship
1/98 to 8/98 - Project of Preventive Diplomacy, CSIS
1/99 to 12/99 - Teaching Technology Initiative Fellowship
1/02 to 8/02 - Sesquicentennial Fellowship for research in
1/05 to 12/05 - Research Leave
1/06 to 8/07 - Carnegie Corporation of
1/07 - - Distinguished Professor of Islamic Biomedical Ethics,
MEMBERSHIP AND OTHER ACADEMIC SERVICES:
Committee on Middle East Studies
Steering Committee, Center on Religion and Democracy, UVa
Advisory Board, Center for Bioethics, UVa
Advisory Board, COMSTECH, Organization of Islamic Conference,
Standing Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation
Editorial Board, Studies in Contemporary Islam
Editorial Board, Journal of
Editorial Board, Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Ethics
Editorial Board, Journal of
Editorial Board, Journal of Religious Ethics
Editorial Board, Political Theology
Board, Annual Review of Islam in
Editorial Board, Iranian Journal of Biomedical Ethics
Editorial Board, Iranian Journal of Ethics, Law, and Medicine
Director, Organization for Islamic Learning
Member, Board of Directors, Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy
AND INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS AND CONFERENCES:
3/81 "Religion and Politics in Islam." Sponsored by the Department of Religion
4/81 "Islam in World Politics." Sponsored by the Department of Political
(Numerous other scholarly presentations not listed)
10/89 "Shi`ite Activism in
11/90 "Can Islamic Legal Theory become the source of Conflict Resolution To‑day?"
Cairo University/Dar al‑Ifta',
4/91 "A Search for Methodology in Islamic Studies." Institute of Islamic Thought,
11/91 "Islam and Muslims in Diaspora." Berlin Institute of Social Sciences,
10/92 "A Case for Islamic Medical Ethics." History of Islamic Medicine Congress,
11/92 "Quietism and Pacificism in Islam." Center for Interreligious Dialogue,
Pluralism in Islamic Revelation."
Medical Ethics in the Technical Age: A Comparative Perspective." International Congress of Medical Ethics,
Restrictions on Violence: Ethics of War in Islam."
11/93 "Woman, half-the-man?
Crisis of Male Epistemology in Islamic Jurisprudence."
of International Politics."
Theology for Interfaith Relations in 21st Century: Where shall We Begin?" Muslim-Christian Relations: Prospects in the
Twenty First Century.
Contemporary Programs in Islamic Studies." Institute of Islamic and Arabic
Influence of Religion on American Society Today." The Forum for Political Thought,
to Die? Muslim Views About End of Life Decisions." St. Francis Medical Center & Duquesne
University Annual Conference on Medical Ethics & Religion at
Implications of Supersessionist Theology in Islam." Royal Institute for Inter-faith Studies,
for Violence in Islam."
9/96 "Can God Inflict Unrequited Pain on His Creatures? Muslim Perspectives on Health and Suffering." Conference on Religion, Health and Suffering.
The Wellcome Institute
for the History of Medicine and SOAS,
10/96 "Problems in Defining Brain Death in Islamic Jurisprudence."
Association of Bioethics, San
Perspectives on Human Cloning."
Testimony before the National Bioethics
Advisory Commission (NBAC),
and Theology: A Continuation of the National Discussion on Human Cloning."
Testimony before the
of Human Cloning in Islam." Medical Forum, the Stellenbosch
the Brain Death Criteria for Organ Donation." Islamic Medical Association,
Theology for 21st Century: Non-Muslim Minorities and Islamic State." Human Sciences Research
Society and Dialogue of Civilization," Imam Khomeini Institute of Education
Pluralism: A Challenge to Monopoly over Salvation," Institute for Political and International Studies,
(After 1998 only some listed)
3/01 “Genetic Determinism: An Islamic Perspective.” The Cancer Family: At the Intersection of Science and Society Conference, UVA
and Faith: The Ethical Dimensions of Martyrdom in Islam.” Lecture series
sponsored by the Organization for Islamic Learning,
Interventions, as they Impact on Human Relationships.”
Defensive to Offensive Warfare: The Use and Abuse of Jihad in Muslim World.”
Program on Religion and Conflict Resolution,
Perspectives on Human Cloning.” The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life,
6/01 “Religion and Medicine in Modern Society:
Islamic Perspectives on Health Care.” The Saint Vincents
Comprehensive Cancer Center,
Lives: Saints in World Religions.” Series of lectures at The Elijah School for
the Study of Wisdom in World Religions, UNESCO,
there be religious sources for Human Rights?”
10/01 “The “Other” in Islamic Tradition.” Public
in the Context of Divine Purposes: Islamic Guidelines for a Multi-faith
Society.” Governor’s Conference on Human Genomics,
and Dialogue Among Civilizations: Governance or Guidance?” State
10/01 “Militancy, Peace, and Islam.”
11/01 “Religion and Globalization: An Islamic Response.” Center on Religion and Democracy Conference
of Militancy in the Light of September 11 Tragedy.”
Qur’anic Jihad and the Jihad of Osama bin Laden.”
Rights, Rule of Law and Democracy: Judaism, Western and Eastern Christianity
and Islam.” Workshop
03/02 “Militancy, Peace, and Islam.”
03/02 “The Children of Abraham: In Conflict and in Peace.”
03/02 “Restorative Justice: A Missing Dimension in Human Relations.”
(Three lectures in Hiram College Lectures in Religion,
Muslim Patients: Preparing for Cultural and Religious Sensitivities.” Conference with Internal Medicine residents,
and Medicine: Muslim Insight on Wellness and Health Care.” Public Lecture,
Clinical Ethics.” Open Forum,
Human Suffering: Death and Dying in Islam.”
Directives on Patient Care.” Medical
Search for Common Ground in a Multifaith Society.”
(Visiting Scholar at
2/03 “Understanding Islam in Post-9/11.” International Focus: The Middle East,
3/03 “Ethics of Genetic Engineering.” COMSTECH, American
3/03 “Genes: Who Owns Them?” COMSTECH, American
4/03 “Building Bridges of Understanding:
Religious Pluralism and Islam.”
4/03 “Iraqi Women and Their Rights in the
4/03 “Christians and Muslims Together Creating a
Culture of Peace.” The Lay Centre at Foyer Unitas of
5/03 “Humanitarian Aid in
5/03 “Imagining Unity: Muslim Cultural Diversity
5/03 “Why Democracy? Why now?”
Keynote speaker at the 4th Annual Conference, Center for the
Study of Islam and Democracy,
5/03 “Islamic Governance in
Biomedical Ethics: Ethics of Genetic Testing.
National Coalition for Health Professional Education in Genetics,
3/04 Constitutional Developments in
Constitutional Development for
6/04 “Ministering to Those in Need: The Rights
and Wrongs of Missions and Humanitarian Assistance in
of the Sharia in a modern democracy.”
9/04 “Terrorism: Why are we killing one another?” 9/11 memorial lecture organized by Muslim Students Association and Arab Students Organization. 203 Physics Bldg., UVa.
9/04 “Islam and Democracy: Are they compatible?” Emory and Henry Annual Lecture on Religion and Public Life.
9/04 “Islamic Business Ethics.”
9/04 “Public Role of Religion: Guidance or
Governance?” United Nations, Special
Event, Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Foreign Ministers,
9/04 “Shariati on
10/04 “Dissension and Dialogue: American Muslim
Community in the aftermath of 9/11.”
Ethics and Public Policy Center,
10/04 “Human Vicegerency: A Blessing or a
Curse? The Challenge to be God’s Caliph
in the Qur’an.” Humanity Before God
Conference, University of
10/04 “Town Hall Meeting.” Rotunda. Forum on US-Islam Relations
Rule of Law: Democratic Politics.” Ferdowsi
10/04 “Human Rights in Islam: Two Universalisms in Clash?” Muslim Societies Workshop, UVA
10/04 A Teach-In on the 2004 Elections: Democracy Matters. The Carter G. Woodson Institute of Public Policy Forum.
10/04 Islamic Bioethics. Religion and Medicine Course at UVA Med School
on Islamic Law and Ethics for Nigerian delegation under the State Department
program at the Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy,
Distortions about Islam and Muslims.
Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy,
11/04 “Civil Society in Muslim Societies: The Contribution of Women.” Women Waging
Peace Policy Day,
12/04 “Cultural and Religious in Islamic
Biomedicine: The Case of Human Cloning.” International Symposium,
Cross-Cultural Issues in Bioethics, Ruhr Unisersitat,
12/04 “The Hermeneutics of the Qur’an.” Scriptural
12/04 “Religion in the
12/04 “Islamic Perspectives on Cancer Genetics and
12/04 “The Role of Islam in Modern Nation State:
Governance or Guidance?” Ministry of
and Democracy: An Iranian Experience.” Ferdowsi
and Human Rights. The Edward Cadbury
Mar 7 “The Clash of Universalisms: Religious and Secular in Human Rights”
Mar 8 “The Nature of Islamic Juridical-Ethical Discourse”
Mar 9 “Natural Law and Knowledge of Ethical Necessity”
Mar 10 “Women’s Human Rights: The Case of the Right to Marry and Rights within Marriage”
Mar 11 “Individual and Society: Claims and Responsibilities”
Mar 12 “Freedom of Religion and Conscience: The Foundation of Pluralistic World Order”
Islamic Principles of Bioethics.
UNESCO Lecture in
of Moral Reasoning in Islamic Biomedical Ethics. Center for Bioethics, Sind Institute of
Urology and Transplantion (SIUT),
Lectures on Natural Theology,
Sept 6 “Human-Divine and Human-Human in Islamic Tradition
Sept 8 “The Islamic Roots of Relational Ethics
Pluralism and Liberal Democracy,
26 “The Use and Abuse of Jihad in Muslim World, at Wahid Institute,
27 “Religious Pluralism: A Challenge to Monopoly over Salvation,” at State
28 “The Roots of Democracy and Liberalism in Islam,” at
Sept 29 “The Role of Islam in Nation State: Governance or Guidance?” at Young Muhammadiyah Activists Forum, Jakrata
Sept 30 “Human Rights in Islam and the West,” at Paramadina Foundation
3 “Public Role of Religion in Multifaith Society,” at State Islamic University,
4 “Is there a Tradition of Non-violence and Pacifism in Islam,” at State
4 “The Role of Religion in National Politics of a Predominant
Conscience and the Ethics of Sacrifice, a series of ten lectures at the Society
of Muslim Community of
lectures and papers on various topics of Islamic Biomedical Ethics in different
and Globalization. Arab Thought Forum,
lectures and papers on Islamic Biomedical Education in different universities
BOOKS: Islamic Messianism:
The Idea of the Mahdi in Twelver
(State University of New York, Albany, 1980).
Rights and the Conflict of Cultures: Western and Islamic Perspectives on Religious
with D. Little and J.
(Columbia: U.of South Carolina Press,1988)
Ruler in Twelver Shi'ism: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence (
(Indonesian Translation, 1994)
Prolegomena to the Qur'an, being annotated
of al-Bayan fi tafsir al-qur'an by Abu al-Qasim al-Khui'
(New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998)
Roots of Democratic Pluralism (
(Persian Translation, 2008)
(Indonesian Translation 2004)
(Turkish Translation 2007)
Islamic Biomedical Ethics: Principles and Application (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2008)
Reform through Human Rights: Islamic Political Theology (Oxford University Press, forthcoming 2009)
ARTICLES AND BOOK CHAPTERS:
Majallah‑yi Yaghma (
"A Treatise on the Occultation of the Twelfth Imam." Studia Islamica,
48 (1978), p. 109‑124.
"Al‑khums: the Fifth in the Imamite Legal System." Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 39 (1980), p. 275‑289.
Shariati: The ideologue of Iranian
Revolution." The Voices of Resurgent Islam, ed.
"The Significance of al‑Kashshi's Rijal in understanding of the early role of the Shi'i Fuqaha'." Logos Islamikos: Studia Islamica
in honorem George Michael Wickens, ed.
"The Creation of Just Social Order in Islam." State Politics and Islam (American Trust Publication, 1986). Pp. 115‑131.
"Jews, Christians, and Muslims According to the Qur'an."
The Greek Orthodox Theological Review, Vol. 31, No. 1‑2 (1986),
"The Eternal Meaning of the Imam Husayn's Martyrdom." Alserat,
"The Ideal and Real in Islamic Law." Perspectives on Islamic Law,
Justice and Society: Anthropology of Culture,
"Islamic Views on Organ Transplantation." Transplantation Proceedings, Vol.XX, No 1, Suppl. 1(February), 1988. Pp. 1084‑85.
"Unity Through Diversity: The Shar`i Vision."
The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences,
Vol. 5, No. 1, 1988, pp. 59‑75.
"Early Muslim Traditionists and Their Familiarity with Jewish Sources." Studies in Islamic and Judaic Traditions II, ed. William M. Brinner and
Stephen D. Ricks (Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia, 1989). Pp. 49‑59.
are Shi'ite Muslims?" World Paper,
"Context for the Ayatollah's decree: The religious and political in Islam,"
of Imam `
"The Development of Jihad in Islamic Revelation and History."
Cross, Crescent and Sword: The Justification of War in
and Islamic Traditions, ed.
"The Shi`ite Concept of the `Authority of the Jurist': In Theory and in Practice." Bulletin of the Institute of Middle Eastern Studies,
and Muslims in Diaspora." Bulletin of the Institute of Middle Eastern Studies,
"Is Islamic Revelation an Abrogation of Judeo-Christian Revelation?" CONCILIUM International Review of Theology, 1994.
"Is there a Tradition of Nonviolence and Pacifism in Islam?"
Nonviolence and Pacifism in Conflict Resolution. United States Institute of Peace Project. 1994.
"Justifications of Violence in Islamic Tradition."
War and Its Discontents: Pacifism and Quietism in the
Abrahamic Traditions (Georgetown University Press, 1996).
"Political Implications of the Islamic Notion of `Supersession' as
Reflected in Islamic Jurisprudence." Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1996.
"Law, Society, and Governance in Islam." The Muslim Almanac.
"Islamic Theology of Christian-Muslim Relations." Islam and Christian- Muslim Relations, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1997.
Clones: An Islamic View." The Human Cloning Debate, ed.
"Can God Inflict Unrequited Pain on His Creatures? Muslim Perspecteives on Health and Suffering." Religion, Health and Suffering, ed. John R. Hinnells and Roy Porter (London: Kegan Paul International, 1999)
“Guidance or Governance? A Muslim Conception of “Two-Cities,” in The George Washington Law Review, Volume 68, Number 5/6, July-September 2000
Issue of Riba (Interest taking or charging) in Islamic Faith and Law.” Spiritual Goods: Religious Traditions and
the Practice of Business. (
Responsibility in Political Society: An Islamic Paradigm,” in Taking
Responsibility, ed. Winston Davis (
Defensive to Offensive Warfare: The Use and Abuse of Jihad in the Muslim
World.” Religion, Law and the Role of
“When Faith Confronts the Law: A Muslim Perspective.” Human Genomics, the Family, and the Law (October 2002)
Cloning: An Affront to the Divine Will?”
“Political Islam and the Hegemony of Globalization: A Response to Peter Burger.” The Hedgehog Review (Summer, 2002)
“Globalization, Religion, and Women.” Critical Half: Annual Journal of Women for Women International, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 10-13
“Ideology.” The Reader: A Journal of Iranian Culture, Issue 1, pp. 6-8.
“Business Ethics in Islam.” Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Publishing, 2003)
"Islamic Ethics: Differentiations." A Companion to Religious Ethics (Blackwell Publishing, 2005), pp. 254-267.
“End of Life Decisions from an Islamic Perspective.” LANCET (March 2005), pp. 1-11.
Cultural and the Religious in Islamic Biomedicine: The Case of Human Cloning.” Cross-Cultural Issues in Bioethics: The
Example of Human Clonning (
Vicegerency A Blessing or a Curse? The
Challenge of Being God’s Caliph in the Qur’an.” Humanity Before God (
Wali of God and the Wasi of the Prophet: ‘
Harm, No Harassment: Major Principles of Health Care Ethics in Islam.” Handbook
of Bioethics and Religion (
Search for Islamic Bioethics Principles.”
Principles of Healthcare Ethics, Second Edition, ed. by
“The Clash of Universalisms: Religious and Secular in Human Rights,” in The Hedgehog Review, Fall 2007, Vol. 9, Number 3, pp. 49-62.
“Islamic Perspectives on the Ethics of Stem Cell Research,” in Controversies in Science and Technology, 2008, Vol. 2, pp. 90-112.
“The Beginning of Life,” in Bi-Annual DeVos Medical Ethics Colloquy, pp. 44-63.
ENCYCLOPEDIA AND DICTIONARY ARTICLES:
Agha Khan, Ahl i‑Haqq, 'Ali b. Abi
Talib, Assassins, Ayatollah, Bohoras, Druzes,
Fatimids, Hasan, Husayn, Ibn Sina, Ikhwan
al‑Safa, Imam/Imamiyya or Ithna 'Ashariyya,
Qarmatians, Sab'iyya, Sayyid, Sharif, Shi'a,
Zaydiyya. Abingdon Dictionary of Living
Religions (Nashville, Tenn., 1980)
fitr, Id Qorban, 'Ashura,
of Asian History (The
ISLAM (general article); Eugenics in Islamic Law;
Encyclopedia of Bioethics (Macmillan)
`Ali ibn Abi Talib, Imamah, Islamic Law: Shi`a
Najaf, Ziyara. Encyclopedia of the Modern
Ziyarah. Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Ed. (E. J. Brill)
Bioethics, Dar al-Taqiyya, Ethics, Fasad, Hamdala, Hilli, Hubal, Hujjah,
Idtirar, I`jaz, Imam, Imami, Imamzadeh; Ja`fari, Khutba, Ma`na, Medical Ethics,
North American Shia Muslim Communities (NASIMCO), Pluralism, Rawafid, Taghut,
World Federation of Shia Communities (WFC), Zandaqa. The
Al-Khoie Benevolent Foundation,
of the Islamic World (
BOOK REVIEWS: (Only few listed)
Religion and Politics
Clergy‑State Relations in the Pahlavi Period.
By Sharhrough Akhavi (SUNY, 1980) in
Journal of Church and State, Winter 1981, p. 133‑135.
Traditional Islam in the Modern World.
By S. H. Nasr (London, KPI Ltd, 1987) in
Muslim World, 1988.
Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics.
By Ann Elizabeth Mayer (Westview, 1991) in
Journal of Church and State, Fall (1992)
Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties,
Human Rights and
International Law (
1990) in International Journal of Middle
Eastern Studies, Spring, 1993
The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions
(University Park: Penn State University Press, 1997)
in International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies,
Jihad: The Origin of
Holy War in Islam (
Press, 1999), in Journal of Religion, Winter 2001.
Knowing by Oneself, Knowing with the Other, in Journal of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, Fall, 2003
PROJECT IN PROGRESS:
Reason in Islamic Jurisprudence: A Comparative Study of Legal Methodology in Islamic Schools of Legal Thought
The project undertakes to examine ethical presuppositions of Islamic religious law and trace the development of legal-moral authority in Islamic society through the study of works of theoretical basis of Islamic jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh). Muslim jurists developed the theoretical and conceptual structures to enable them to inferentially deduce judicial decisions from the Islamic revelation, the Qur'an and the Sunna, affecting the everyday lives of Muslims living under different Muslim de facto powers. In view of the political demise of religiously acknowledged caliphal position in Sunni Islam, and the absence of the Imam through concealment in Shi`i Islam, did the development of the usuli methodology by some leading jurists have anything to do with the ultimate recognition of the juristic authority as the only legitimate religious authority established by the Islamic law? The comparison of the works on usul al-fiqh dealing with the role of reason (al-`aql) in this regard will include the five schools: four Sunni schools of law (Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi`i and Hanbali) and one Shi`ite ( the Imami Twelver).